Motivation, Leadership, Team and Team and leadership.pdf Motivation, Leadership, Team and Team work

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  • 10/17/2011


    2LectureMotivation,Leadership,Team and Team work

    What is Motivation?


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    What is Motivation?


    Motivation is a human psychological characteristic that contributes to a persons degree of commitment.

    Motivation in management

    Motivating is a management process of influencing other peoples behavior based on the knowledge of what makes people tick


    Common assumptions about Motivation?

    Motivation is commonly assumed to be a good thing.

    Motivation is in short supply and it need of periodic replenishment

    Motivation is a tool with which managers can design job relations in an organization


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    Influenceable zone


    Early views of motivation?

    The Traditional model

    is associated with Fredrich Taylor. Here manager determine the most efficient way to perform a task and then motivate the worker with a system of wage incentives.

    The underlying assumption is that, managers understand the work better than the worker who are actually lazy and can be motivated only by money.


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    Early views of motivation

    The Human Relations Model

    They found that the boredom and repetition of a task actually reduce motivation. While social contacts help to create and sustain motivation.

    The underlying assumption is that, managers can motivate workers by acknowledging their social needs and by making them feel important and useful.


    Early views of motivation

    The Human Relations Model

    They found that the boredom and repetition of a task actually reduce motivation. While social contacts help to create and sustain motivation.

    The underlying assumption is that, managers can motivate workers by acknowledging their social needs and by making them feel important and useful.


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    Early views of motivation

    Human Resource Model

    Associated with Doglas McGregor.

    The underlying assumption is that, in modernindustrial life, to take advantage of the employeesinnate willingness and ability to work, managersshould provide a climate that gives employeescope for personal improvement.


    Maslows need theory

    Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sleep, etc.

    Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.

    Social needs - work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.

    Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.

    Self-Actualization needs - realising personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences


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    Maslows need theory


    ERG theory

    The letters ERG stand for three levels of needs: Existence, Relatedness, and Growth.

    Similarities to Maslow's Hierarchy Like Maslow's model, the ERG theory is hierarchical -

    existence needs have priority over relatedness needs, which have priority over growth.


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    ERG theory

    Differences from Maslow's Hierarchy Unlike Maslow's hierarchy, the ERG theory allows

    for different levels of needs to be pursued simultaneously.

    The ERG theory allows the order of the needs be different for different people.

    The ERG theory acknowledges that if a higher level need remains unfulfilled, the person may regress to lower level needs that appear easier to satisfy.


    The two factor theory

    Fredrich Herzberg and his associates conducted a study if thejob attitude of 200 engineers and accountants.

    The hygiene factors do little contribution toprovide job satisfaction. He called them"dissatisfiers' as their absence causedissatisfaction but their presence is not motivatingbut only prevent dissatisfaction.

    Motivating factors act as forces of job satisfaction.They create positive and a longer lasting effect onemployees performance and are related to workitself.


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    The two factor theory


    The two factor theory


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    Equity Theory

    People develop beliefs about what is a fair reward for one job contribution - an exchange

    People compare their exchanges with their employer to exchanges with others-insiders and outsiders called referents

    If an employee believes his treatment is inequitable, compared to others, he or she will be motivated to do something about it --that is, seek justice.


    Equity Theory


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    Reinforcement Theory(B. F. Skinner)

    Reinforcement theory is the process of shapingbehavior by controlling the consequences of thebehavior. In reinforcement theory a combination ofrewards and/or punishments is used to reinforcedesired behavior or extinguish unwanted behavior.

    Positive Reinforcement

    Negative Reinforcement




    Reinforcement Theory(B. F. Skinner)

    Positive Reinforcement

    results when the occurrence of a valued behavioral consequence has theeffect of strengthening the probability of the behavior being repeated.

    Negative reinforcement

    results when an undesirable behavioral consequence is withheld, with theeffect of strengthening the probability of the behavior being repeated.


    Punishment is the administration of an undesirable behavioralconsequence in order to reduce the occurrence of the unwanted behavior.


    The process of extinction begins when a valued behavioral consequence iswithheld in order to decrease the probability that a learned behavior willcontinue.


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    Expectancy theory of motivation

    When deciding among behavioral options, individuals select the option with the greatest motivation forces (MF).

    The motivational force for a behavior, action, or task is a function of three distinct perceptions: Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valance. The motivational force is the product of the three perceptions:

    MF = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence


    Expectancy theory of motivation

    Expectancy probability: based on the perceived effort-performance relationship.If I work harder than everyone else in the plant will I produce more?

    Instrumentality probability: based on the perceived performance-reward relationship.If I produce more than anyone else in the plant, will I get a bigger raise or a faster promotion?

    Valence: refers to the value the individual personally places on the rewards. Do I want a bigger raise? Is it worth the extra effort? Do I want a promotion?


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    Leadership is a process of directing and influencing task related activities of group members.

    Leadership involves people like employees and followers by their willingness to accept the direction. They help to define the status of the leader and make the leadership process possible.

    There is an unequal distribution of power between leaders and group members.

    Leaders have the ability to use different form of power to shape the followers behavior in a number of ways. Ex : commander influence the soldiers to kill.

    Leadership is about values. Followers need to be given enough choices when it comes to respond to leaders proposal. Leader who ignored moral component of leadership may well go down to history.


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    Leader vs. Manager

    Subject Leader Manager

    Focus Leading people Managing work

    Have Follower Subordinates

    Horizon Long-term Short-term

    Seeks Vision Objectives

    Power Personal charisma Formal authority

    Appeal to Heart Head

    Dynamic Proactive Reactive

    Direction New roads Existing roads

    Credit Gives Takes

    Blame Takes Blames

    Conflict Uses Avoids

    Risk Takes Minimizes


    Trait Approach of leadership

    Leaders usually are selfconfident, extrovert, brighterand well, may be taller. Butthese are not certain. There areexceptions. Abraham Linconwas introvert and moody.Nepolean was rather short.Some traits identified may bethe result of leadershipexperience rather thanleadership ability.


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    Behavioral Approach of Leadership

    Behaviors can be learned. So individuals trained in more appropriate leadership behavior would be able to lead more effectively.

    Leadership functions. To operate effectively group need someone to perform two major functions.

    Task-oriented or problem solving function.

    Group maintenance or social function.

    Leadership style. Task oriented style- Closely supervise employee to be sure that the task is performed satisfactory. Employee oriented style


    Managerial Grid


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    Contingency approach of leadership

    Hesrey and blanchard's situational leadership model

    They believed that the relationship between managers and follower moves through four phases. As the employee develop, manager need to vary their leadership style accordingly.



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    Fiedler Model

    Fiedler measured the leadership style on a scale that indicated "The degree to which a man described favorably or unfavorably his least preferred co-worker (LPC).

    Fiedler identifies three Leadership situations" or variables that help determine which leadership style will be effective.

    Leader-member relations: It can be good or poor

    Task Structure: It can be structured or unstructured.

    Position power: It can be strong or weak.



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    Fiedler Model

    So from the theory the effectiveness of leadership can be summarized as follows:

    Low LPC Leaders who are task oriented or authoritarian were most successful or effective in extreme situation. Here leader either have great power and influence or very little power or influence.

    High LPC leaders who are employee oriented were most effective in situation where leaders have moderate power and influence.



    Team and teamwork


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    Team and Team work

    A team is defined as two or more people who interact and influence each other toward a common goal or purpose.

    Formal team or group are created deliberately by managers and charged with carrying out a specific task to help the organization to achieve the goal.

    Informal Team emerge whenever people come together and interact regularly. Members of informal team tend to fulfill some of their individual needs together as a whole.


    Types of Formal team

    Command Team: it includes manager and all employee tat report to that manager.

    Committee: It generally lasts a long time and deals with recurrent problems and decisions

    Project team/ Task Force: This team is created to deal with a specific problem and is usually disbanded when the task is completed or problem is solved. BD govt. creates project team to investigate corruption in different govt. office.


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    Types of Formal team

    Super team or high performance team: It is a group of 3 to 30 workers drawn from different areas of


    They ignore the traditional, strict up and down arrangement ofhierarchy

    They have some power to take decision. They can be created to workon a specific projects or problems and can become a permanent partof the organization. At Johnsonville a super team of blue collar workerhelped CEO to proceed for a plant expansion.

    Required when a complex problem to solve; layers of progress-delaying management to cut through(cross-functionalism); notsuitable for all organization culture


    Functions of informal team

    They maintain and strengthen norms (expected behavior) and values that they hold in common.

    It gives members the feeling of social satisfaction, status and security. It enables the members to share jokes, eat together and socialize after work.

    Informal group help their member to communicate.

    Informal group help solve problem. They might help a sick worker or exchange work to deal with boredom.


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    Stages of Team development

    Forming: During this initial stage group forms and learns what sort of behavior is acceptable to the group.

    Storming: As group member become more comfortable with one another they may oppose the formation of the group structure by asserting personality.

    Norming: At this stage conflicts are hopefully solved. Group unity emerges as members establish common goals, norms and ground rules.

    Performing: Now the group begins to operate as a unit.

    Adjourning: For temporary groups such as task force, this is the stage of wrap up activities.


    Team Cohesiveness

    Four ways to improve cohesiveness

    Introduce competition: conflict with outside individuals or other teams increases group cohesiveness

    Increase interpersonal attraction: people tends to join teams whose members they identify with or admire

    Increase interaction: regular party, picnic and games

    Create common goals: group effectiveness is function of 3 variables

    Task interdependence

    Sense of potency

    Outcome interdependence


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    Thats all about today

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