Motivation, Leadership, Team and Team and  · Motivation, Leadership, Team and Team work

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  • 10/17/2011

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    2LectureMotivation,Leadership,Team and Team work

    What is Motivation?

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    What is Motivation?

    Motivation

    Motivation is a human psychological characteristic that contributes to a persons degree of commitment.

    Motivation in management

    Motivating is a management process of influencing other peoples behavior based on the knowledge of what makes people tick

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    Common assumptions about Motivation?

    Motivation is commonly assumed to be a good thing.

    Motivation is in short supply and it need of periodic replenishment

    Motivation is a tool with which managers can design job relations in an organization

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    Reflex

    Influenceable zone

    Habits

    Early views of motivation?

    The Traditional model

    is associated with Fredrich Taylor. Here manager determine the most efficient way to perform a task and then motivate the worker with a system of wage incentives.

    The underlying assumption is that, managers understand the work better than the worker who are actually lazy and can be motivated only by money.

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    Early views of motivation

    The Human Relations Model

    They found that the boredom and repetition of a task actually reduce motivation. While social contacts help to create and sustain motivation.

    The underlying assumption is that, managers can motivate workers by acknowledging their social needs and by making them feel important and useful.

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    Early views of motivation

    The Human Relations Model

    They found that the boredom and repetition of a task actually reduce motivation. While social contacts help to create and sustain motivation.

    The underlying assumption is that, managers can motivate workers by acknowledging their social needs and by making them feel important and useful.

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    Early views of motivation

    Human Resource Model

    Associated with Doglas McGregor.

    The underlying assumption is that, in modernindustrial life, to take advantage of the employeesinnate willingness and ability to work, managersshould provide a climate that gives employeescope for personal improvement.

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    Maslows need theory

    Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sleep, etc.

    Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.

    Social needs - work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.

    Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.

    Self-Actualization needs - realising personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences

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    Maslows need theory

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    ERG theory

    The letters ERG stand for three levels of needs: Existence, Relatedness, and Growth.

    Similarities to Maslow's Hierarchy Like Maslow's model, the ERG theory is hierarchical -

    existence needs have priority over relatedness needs, which have priority over growth.

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    ERG theory

    Differences from Maslow's Hierarchy Unlike Maslow's hierarchy, the ERG theory allows

    for different levels of needs to be pursued simultaneously.

    The ERG theory allows the order of the needs be different for different people.

    The ERG theory acknowledges that if a higher level need remains unfulfilled, the person may regress to lower level needs that appear easier to satisfy.

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    The two factor theory

    Fredrich Herzberg and his associates conducted a study if thejob attitude of 200 engineers and accountants.

    The hygiene factors do little contribution toprovide job satisfaction. He called them"dissatisfiers' as their absence causedissatisfaction but their presence is not motivatingbut only prevent dissatisfaction.

    Motivating factors act as forces of job satisfaction.They create positive and a longer lasting effect onemployees performance and are related to workitself.

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    The two factor theory

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    The two factor theory

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    Equity Theory

    People develop beliefs about what is a fair reward for one job contribution - an exchange

    People compare their exchanges with their employer to exchanges with others-insiders and outsiders called referents

    If an employee believes his treatment is inequitable, compared to others, he or she will be motivated to do something about it --that is, seek justice.

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    Equity Theory

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    Reinforcement Theory(B. F. Skinner)

    Reinforcement theory is the process of shapingbehavior by controlling the consequences of thebehavior. In reinforcement theory a combination ofrewards and/or punishments is used to reinforcedesired behavior or extinguish unwanted behavior.

    Positive Reinforcement

    Negative Reinforcement

    Punishment

    Extinction

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    Reinforcement Theory(B. F. Skinner)

    Positive Reinforcement

    results when the occurrence of a valued behavioral consequence has theeffect of strengthening the probability of the behavior being repeated.

    Negative reinforcement

    results when an undesirable behavioral consequence is withheld, with theeffect of strengthening the probability of the behavior being repeated.

    Punishment

    Punishment is the administration of an undesirable behavioralconsequence in order to reduce the occurrence of the unwanted behavior.

    Extinction

    The process of extinction begins when a valued behavioral consequence iswithheld in order to decrease the probability that a learned behavior willcontinue.

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    Expectancy theory of motivation

    When deciding among behavioral options, individuals select the option with the greatest motivation forces (MF).

    The motivational force for a behavior, action, or task is a function of three distinct perceptions: Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valance. The motivational force is the product of the three perceptions:

    MF = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence

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    Expectancy theory of motivation

    Expectancy probability: based on the perceived effort-performance relationship.If I work harder than everyone else in the plant will I produce more?

    Instrumentality probability: based on the perceived performance-reward relationship.If I produce more than anyone else in the plant, will I get a bigger raise or a faster promotion?

    Valence: refers to the value the individual personally places on the rewards. Do I want a bigger raise? Is it worth the extra effort? Do I want a promotion?

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    Leadership

    Module-2

    Leadership

    Leadership is a process of directing and influencing task related activities of group members.

    Leadership involves people like employees and followers by their willingness to accept the direction. They help to define the status of the leader and make the leadership process possible.

    There is an unequal distribution of power between leaders and group members.

    Leaders have the ability to use different form of power to shape the followers behavior in a number of ways. Ex : commander influence the soldiers to kill.

    Leadership is about values. Followers need to be given enough choices when it comes to respond to leaders proposal. Leader who ignored moral component of leadership may well go down to history.

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    Leader vs. Manager

    Subject Leader Manager

    Focus Leading people Managing work

    Have Follower Subordinates

    Horizon Long-term Short-term

    Seeks Vision Objectives

    Power Personal charisma Formal authority

    Appeal to Heart Head

    Dynamic Proactive Reactive

    Direction New roads Existing roads

    Credit Gives Takes

    Blame Takes Blames

    Conflict Uses Avoids

    Risk Takes Minimizes

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    Trait Approach of leadership

    Leaders usually are selfconfident, extrovert, brighterand well, may be taller. Butthese are not certain. There areexceptions. Abraham Linconwas introvert and moody.Nepolean was rather short.Some traits identified may bethe result of leadershipexperience rather thanleadership ability.

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    Behavioral Approach of Leadership

    Behaviors can be learned. So individuals trained in more appropriate leadership behavior would be able to lead more effectively.

    Leadership functions. To operate effectively group need someone to perform two major functions.

    Task-oriented or problem solving function.

    Group maintenance or social function.

    Leadership style. Task oriented style- Closely supervise employee to be sure that the task is performed satisfactory. Employee oriented style

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    Managerial Grid

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    Contingency approach of leadership

    Hesrey and blanchard's situational leadership model

    They believed that the relationship between managers and follower moves through four phases. As the employee develop, manager need to vary their leadership style accordingly.

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    Fiedler Model

    Fiedler measured the leadership style on a scale that indicated "The degree to which a man described favorably or unfavorably his least preferred co-worker (LPC).

    Fiedler identifies thre