Maimonides- the man (1136-1204) Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon was one of the towering figures in the history of the Jewish people. Of him it was said, "From Moshe (Moses) to Moshe (the son of Maimon) there arose none like Moshe." Among the Jewish people, he is known as the Rambam, an acronym for Rabbi Moshe ben (son of) Maimon (RaMBaM); while universally - for his fame and influence reached far beyond the confines of his own people - he is usually known as Maimonides, the Greek form of "the son of Maimon."
Maimonides- in his time
Chronology born in 1135 in Crdoba, Spain Almohades conquered Crdoba in 1148-offered choice of conversion to Islam, death, or exile eventually settled in Fez in Morocco- acquired most of his secular knowledge, studying at the University of Fez briefly lived in the Holy Land, spending time in Jerusalem finally settled in Fostat, Egypt
Maimonides- his contribution Maimonides composed both works of Jewish scholarship, and medical texts. Most of Maimonides' works were written in Arabic. However, the Mishneh Torah was written in Hebrew. ArabicHebrew
Letter by Rambam
Maimonides- his contribution as a Jewish Thinker The Commentary on the Mishna, in Hebrew Pirush Hamishnayot, written in Arabic. This text was one of the first commentaries of its kind; its introductory sections are widely-quoted.; Sefer Hamitzvot ("The Book of Commandments").Sefer Hamitzvot The Mishneh Torah (also known as " Sefer Yad ha- Chazaka"), a comprehensive code of Jewish law;Mishneh Torah The Guide for the Perplexed, a philosophical work harmonizing and differentiating Aristotelian philosophy and Jewish theology;Guide for the PerplexedAristotelian Teshuvot, collected correspondence and responsa, including a number of public lettersresponsa
Sefer HaMitzvoth Tradition that the Torah contains 613 Mitzvot 248 positives 365 negatives gives an explanation of how he determined which commandments were the 613 commandments Maimonides sets out fourteen rules by which one comes to include and exclude particular commandments to form the 613 commandments.
Mishneh Torah 3 Sections the Book of Knowledge (Sefer HaMada)- covers issues of belief, study of Torah, repentenance thirteen books detail Jewish ritual and civil laws such as blessings, circumcision, holy days, relationships between males and females, dietary laws and ethics. notion of the Messiah- discusses the time when Messiah would come- apocolyptic vision versus Tikkun Olam
Responsa- Teshuvot Maimonides was a much respected authority on Jewish law and religion, even prior to his appointment as Chief Rabbi of the Egyptian Jewry. As a result many Jewish leaders and authorities directed queries towards and called upon for his scholarly opinion on matters ranging from religious law to the general civil issues which affected Jews in that time. He wrote various Teshuvot (Responsa) in answer to the numerous queries which were directed to him from Jews from all around the world. These Teshuvot deal with a broad spectrum of issues, ranging from religio- philosophical problems to matters dealing with Jewish law and to explanations of complex Torah passages.
Moreh Nevuchim Guide for the Perplexed Blended the sacred and secular- Sought to remove compartmentalised sacred from secular defend Judaism against philosophical challenges that the beliefs of Judaism could not be rationally sustained. deals with the question of anthropomorphisms (describing God in human terms)
13 principles of faith. The existence of God God's unity God's spirituality and incorporealityspiritualityincorporeality God's eternityeternity God alone should be the object of worshipworship Revelation through God's prophetsRevelationprophets The preeminence of Moses among the prophetsMoses God's law given on Mount SinaiMount Sinai The immutability of the Torah as God's LawTorah God's foreknowledge of human actions Reward of good and retribution of evilretribution The coming of the Jewish MessiahMessiah The resurrection of the deadresurrection
different levels of tzedakah (charity) Rambam organized a list from the least to the most honorable. 8. When donations are given grudgingly. 7. When one gives less than he should, but does so cheerfully. 6. When one gives directly to the poor upon being asked. 5. When one gives directly to the poor without being asked. 4. When the recipient is aware of the donor's identity, but the donor does not know the identity of the recipient. 3. When the donor is aware of the recipient's identity, but the recipient is unaware of the source. 2. When the donor and recipient are unknown to each other. 1. The highest form of charity is to help sustain a person before they become impoverished by offering a substantial gift in a dignified manner, or by extending a suitable loan, or by helping them find employment or establish themselves in business so as to make it unnecessary for them to become dependent on others.
How much to give Back from the time that Abraham welcomed the strangers into his tent (Genesis chapter 18), charity has been a foundation of Jewish life. The Torah commands us to give 10 percent of our earnings to people in need, based on Leviticus 25:35 and Deut. 15:7-8. This is called Ma'aser, literally "one tenth" (hence the English word "tithe"). This is colloquially called tzedakah (charity). Maimonides lists charity as one of the 613 mitzvot. Ten percent of a person's wages after taxes should be set aside for tzedakah. Business expenses and Jewish education costs may be deducted from the 10 percent. For those who want to do extra, the Torah allows you to give 20 percent. Above that amount is unrealistic. If you give too much, you'll come to neglect other aspects of your life.
Maimonides- his contribution to medicine Maimonides also wrote a number of medical texts; some of which are still in existence. The best known is his collection of medical aphorisms, titled Fusul Musa in Arabic ("Chapters of Moses", Pirkei Moshe in Hebrew).medicalaphorisms