Moral Subjectivity and the Aesthetics of Art

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  • 7/23/2019 Moral Subjectivity and the Aesthetics of Art

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    112860380

    Prof. Irvin

    PHIL 3023

    19 November 2015

    Moral Subjecivi! in "e #e$"eic$ of #r

    Morali! i$ "i%"l! $ubjecive. &"a i$ moral an' ("a i$ immoral con$anl! c"an%e$

    from re%ion o re%ion) %rou* o %rou*) an' *er$on o *er$on. #$ $uc") an ar(or+ ju'%e' immoral

    a "un're' !ear$ a%o) coul' be con$i'ere' morall! %oo' o'a!. ,ifferen reli%iou$ %rou*$

    con$i'er 'ifferen "in%$ moral an' immoral. I mi%" fin' $ome"in% morall! %oo' ("en a frien'

    fin'$ i morall! (ron%. # -uro*ean counr! mi%" fin' $ome"in% *erfecl! moral "a a Nor"

    #merican counr! fin'$ "i%"l! immoral. "ere i$ no (orl'(i'e con$en$u$ be(een coninen$)

    counrie$) e"nic %rou*$) or reli%ion$ on ("a i$ morall! %oo' an' ("a i$ morall! ba'.

    "erefore) one canno ju'%e "e value of an ar(or+ on morali! alone. "ere are $everal

    $iuaion$ in ("ic" an ar(or+ can *re$en /morall! (ron% value$) bu $ill be con$i'ere' a %oo'

    ar(or+. Ho(ever) morall! (ron% value$ u$e' (i"ou "ou%") (i"ou rea$on) or (i"ou %oo'

    form can mo$ 'efiniel! be con$i'ere' an ae$"eicall! valuele$$ film.

    # $urve! con'uce' b! "e Pe( e$earc" ener in 2011 a$+e' 36)000 *eo*le acro$$ 39

    counrie$ if a belief in o' or a "i%"er *o(er i$ nece$$ar! in or'er o live a moral life. 4f all "e

    -uro*ean counrie$ $urve!e') a lea$ 50 of re$*on'en$ in eac" counr! believe "a a fai" in

    o' or a "i%"er *o(er i$ no nece$$ar! o live a moral life. #frican counrie$ $urve!e' e*re$$e'

    "e o**o$ie vie( (i" an over("elmin% majori!7 599 of re$*on'en$ in "e$e counrie$

    believe "a a fai" in o' or a "i%"er *o(er i$ nece$$ar! o live a moral life. oninen$ an'

    counrie$ 'iffere' (i'el! in "eir re$*on$e$ o "e $urve!.

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    :rance "a' "e "i%"e$ *ercena%e of $ecular morali$$ a 85. In conra$) 99 of

    "anaian$ 'erivin% "eir $en$e of morali! from o' or a "i%"er *o(er. eli%iou$ an' $*iriual

    belief$ ofen influence ar *ro'uce' an' con$ume' b! "e in'ivi'ual in "a communi!. If 99

    of "anaian$ believe "a morali! i$ 'e*en'en on "eir fai" an' 85 of :renc" *eo*le

    believin% in moral $eculari$m) "e! are mo$ li+el! %oin% o 'ra( 'ifferen moral ju'%emen$

    abou an ar(or+. So if an ar(or+ i$ con$i'ere' morall! $u$*ec) bu ae$"eicall! ver! %oo' in

    :rance an' "a $ame ar(or+ i$ no con$i'ere' morall! %oo' an' "erefore no ae$"eicall!

    %oo' in "ana) can ei"er o*inion be con$i'ere' o be correc;

    "e reli%iou$) "e 'ifferenl! reli%iou$) an' "e nonreli%iou$ are %oin% o "ave 'ifferen

    vie($ of morali! an' ("a i$ a**ro*riae in an ar(or+. ,ifferen reli%ion$ con'emn or acce*

    var!in% level$ of violence) lan%ua%e) an' $euali!. :or eam*le) "e 201< filmHeaven is for

    Realavera%e' a rain% of four ou of four $ar$ amon% 1 "ri$ianaffiliae' film criic$

    accor'in% o "ri$iani!o'a!.com. &"en revie(e' b! non"ri$ian affiliae' criic$) "e film

    receive' relaivel! *oor revie($) receivin% an a%%re%ae $core of uali! of i$ (riin%. In a revie( of "e

    film from "ri$ianPo$.com) revie(er #le Mura$"+o $a!$ /"e $+e*ic in$i'e of u$ ma! +nee

    jer+ a(a! from %oin% o $ee ?Heaven I$ for eal.? Ho(ever) ma! I $u%%e$ fi%"in% "a im*ul$e

    an' in$ea') a+in% !our$elf o $ee an eremel! *o(erful movie "a) in "e en') i$ a movie abou

    our o(n >ue$ion$ re%ar'in% life an' "e lifeafer. o criic$ li+e Mura$"+o) "e moral conen

    of "e film (a$ enou%" o ju'%e "e (or+ a$ %oo'.

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    Ho(ever) non"ri$ian affiliae' revie(er$ focu$e' muc" more on "e film=$ ari$ic

    form. Some of "e$e criic$ foun' "e film finel! (rien) "e $cene$ o be (ell$"o an'

    *erformance of "e acor$ c"armin%. lau'ia Pui% of @S# o'a! calle' "e film /# (ellace')

    famil!frien'l! an' imel! movie for -a$er au'ience$. Ho(ever) Pui% refrain$ from ma+in% a

    ju'%emen call on "e film=$ moral value. 4"er revie($ criiciAe' "e film=$ $or!line) bu $ill

    refraine' from commenin% on i$ moral value. #'am Mar+oviA of -nerainmen &ee+l! %ave

    "e movie a / rain%. He $ai' of "e film /"ereB$ no ana%oni$) no re$oluion) an' no real

    clima) ju$ a $erie$ of mil'l! c"armin% $cene$ in ("ic" olon $"are$ "eavenl! +no(le'%e

    ("ile "i$ famil! reac$ (i" a(e$ruc+ ear$. Non"ri$ian affiliae' revie(er$ (ere %enerall!

    in'ifferen o "e moral conen of "e film an' 'i$cu$$e' i lile) if a all.

    Moral ju'%emen$ an' "eir im*orance in an ar(or+ 'iffer from %rou* o %rou* an'

    e$*eciall! reli%ion o reli%ion. "e reli%iou$) "e 'ifferenl! reli%iou$) an' "e nonreli%iou$ 'on=

    al(a!$ a%ree on ("a i$ morall! %oo' or ba'. So) ("en ju'%in% an ar(or+) *er$onal reli%iou$

    belief$) or lac+ "ereof) are no 'oub %oin% o affec an' inform "e in'ivi'ual=$ ju'%emen of "e

    (or+ a$ %oo' or ba'. "e moral ju'%emen$ in film) *ainin%) mu$ic) an' lieraure ma! maer o

    one criic) bu no ano"er an' "ere i$ never a com*lee con$en$u$ on ("e"er an ar(or+ i$ %oo'

    or no becau$e of "e$e 'ifference$ in i'eolo%ie$ an' o*inion$. Moral value i$ far oo $ubjecive

    an' o*inion$ oo varie' o $a! "a "e ar(or+=$ ae$"eic value i$ 'efiniel! 'e*en'en on "e

    morali! of "e (or+=$ $ubjec maer.

    4*inion$ on ("a i$ an' i$ no moral can al$o var! from re%ion o re%ion. Profani! i$

    muc" more *revalen on Crii$" elevi$ion "an #merican elevi$ion. Dou can be fine' in #merica

    for $(earin% on live E) ("erea$ i$ common*lace on Crii$" elevi$ion. /"e ra"am Noron

    S"o( i$ a Crii$" al+ $"o( on ("ic" #merican celebriie$ are fre>uenl! %ue$$ on. "e

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    #merican$ are al(a!$ $ur*ri$e' "a "e! can $(ear (i"ou con$e>uence ("ile "e! can= on

    #merican al+ $"o($. Nu'i! in movie$ an' elevi$ion al$o 'iffer be(een re%ion$. Nu'i! i$

    *ro"ibie' on #merican elevi$ion an' $eualiAe' nu'i! in #merican movie$ (ill earn "e film

    an rain%. In conra$) nu'i! in Crii$" elevi$ion i$ common) an' $eual nu'i! in film$ (ill

    no nece$$aril! earn "a film "e e>uivalen rain%.

    "e 201< Crii$" filmBirdmanreceive' a cerificaion of 15 from "e Crii$" Coar' of

    :ilm erificaion FCC:G) meanin% "e! 'eeme' "e conen a**ro*riae for an au'ience a%e'

    15 an' u*. &"en relea$e' in "e @nie' Sae$) "e Moion Picure #$$ociaion of #merica

    FMP##G %ave "e film an rain%) meanin% "e MP## con$i'ere' i$ conen a**ro*riae onl! o

    "o$e 1 !ear$ of a%e or ol'er. "e rea$on$ for "e rain% (ere /lan%ua%e "rou%"ou) $ome

    $eual conen an' brief violence. #n e>uivalen rain% (a$ a(ar'e' o "e film in "e counrie$

    of Sou" orea an' Sin%a*ore. In ever! o"er counr! in ("ic" "e film (a$ relea$e') rain%$

    (ere muc" lo(er. In #u$ria) "e movie receive' a rain% of 10) meanin% "e conen (a$ 'eeme'

    a**ro*riae for a%e$ 10 an' u*. "e Ne"erlan'$) erman!) an' S(iAerlan' rae' "e movie

    a**ro*riae for a%e$ 12 an' u*. In CraAil) #r%enina) an' Ne( ealan') "e movie (a$ rae'

    a**ro*riae for a%e$ 16 an' u*.Birdman receive' ver! *o$iive revie($ in ever! counr! i$ (a$

    relea$e' in an' %arnere' a oal of 163 film a(ar'$ "rou%"ou "o$e counrie$. "i$ inclu'e' a

    oal of nine #ca'em! a(ar' nominaion$ an' four #ca'em! a(ar' (in$) inclu'in% Ce$ Moion

    Picure of "e Dear in "e @nie' Sae$ Fim'b.comG.

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    I ma! no be $ur*ri$in% "a film criic$ comin% from 'ifferen reli%iou$ an' i'eolo%ical

    bac+%roun'$ (oul' 'i$a%ree on "e ae$"eic value of a film ar%ee' a an au'ience of one

    $*ecific reli%ion or i'eolo%!. "e .3 billion *eo*le currenl! livin% on -ar" ri%" no( are mo$

    li+el! never %oin% o com*leel! a%ree (i" eac" o"er. "a=$ o+a!. Ho(ever) "ere are cerain

    aboo$ "a are con$i'ere' morall! (ron% acro$$ re%ional an' reli%iou$ boun'arie$. ,e*icion$ of

    ra*e) ereme violence an' %ore) ima%e$ of orure an' mur'er) $evere raci$m an' $ei$m) are

    con$i'ere' "i%"l! immoral an' objecionable b! man! counrie$) reli%ion$) an' *eo*le. Ho(ever)

    "e$e +in'$ of un$elin% an' 'i$urbin% ima%e$ a**ear in me'ium$ from lieraure an' mu$ic) o

    elevi$ion an' film) o *ainin%$ an' $cul*ure an' ever! ari$ic me'ium in be(een.

    @iliAin% "e$e value$ ("ile *re$enin% "em in "e eac ri%" (a! can lea' o

    com*ellin% an' invaluable (or+$ of ar. Pre$enin% 'ifficul ima%e$ an' *uin% "o$e value$ in a

    *er$on=$ "ea' can in$ill em*a"! an' un'er$an'in%) elici con$rucive 'i$%u$) or rai$e

    im*oran moral >ue$ion$ "a mi%" o"er(i$e %o unnoice'. Ho(ever) "e$e value$ can

    ab$oluel! be u$e' incorrecl!. #ri$$ can= ju$ $ar 'ro**in% racial e*ia*"$ an' 'e*icin% ra*e

    for no rea$on. "e effecive an' con$rucive u$e of "e$e 'ifficul o*ic$ re>uire$ a uni>ue

    $i%nifican form all of "eir o(n. If u$e' correcl!) "e! (ill never be comforable for "e

    au'ience o $ee or rea'. Lac+ of moral value i$ $omeime$ u$e' (ell in or'er o ma+e "e

    au'ience un'er$an' "e *ain an' lo$$ of "e vicim. If u$e' effecivel! an' $ucce$$full! b! "e

    ari$ o illu$rae *ain or illici em*a"! an' un'er$an'in%) "e (or+ $ill mi%" be ju'%e' a$ an

    ae$"eicall! valuele$$ ar(or+. "ere i$ a 'ifference be(een %rauiou$) 'i$%u$in% $ubjec

    maer ("ic" $erve$ no *ur*o$e o"er "an o $"oc+ an' "orrif! "e au'ience) an' "e effecive

    u$e of 'ifficul $ubjec maer in or'er o illu$rae a moral le$$on) o encoura%e 'ifficul) bu

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    never"ele$$ im*oran conver$aion$) an' o encoura%e un'er$an'in% an' %reaer em*a"! for

    vicim$ of abu$e or ra%e'!.

    I con$i'er #lice &al+er=$ The Color Purpleo be one of "e mo$ im*oran novel$ of "e

    20"cenur!. "e novel effecivel! uiliAe