Montana; Planting a Successful Home Vegetable Garden

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  • 8/3/2019 Montana; Planting a Successful Home Vegetable Garden

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    MoG

    For More Online MontGuides, Visit www.montana.edu/publications

    MT 199502 AG revised 6/07

    This guide covers basic garden planning and growing transplants, plus includes

    a table with days to maturity, planting depth and spacing, projected yields andgermination temperatures for 40 common vegetables.

    by Cheryl Moore-Gough, Extension Horticulture Specialist and R.E. Gough,

    Proessor o Horticulture

    C-6

    a combination o warm and cool white uorescent bulbs toprovide supplemental light or grow lights, which provide theull spectrum o light waves. Space light bulbs about 2 inchesapart, center to center, and no higher than 18 inches above theplants. Leave them on rom 12 to 16 hours each day ater the

    seedlings have emerged.Grow peppers, eggplants, and tomatoes in ats and

    transplant them to the garden bare-root. Plant cell packs mayalso be used. Cucumber, squash, muskmelon and watermelondo not transplant well bare-root, so grow them in peat pots or

    jiy pellets and transplant them to the garden with an intactsoil ball. Grow cabbage, cauliower, Brussels sprouts, broccoli,lettuce, and onion transplants either in ats or in containers.

    I you use peat pots or transplanting, be sure the entirepot is buriedto prevent water loss rom soil around the plantthrough the wick action o the peat pot rim being exposedto the air. You can use Styrooam cups as growing containers

    iyou punch drainage holes in their bottoms. Remove thesecontainers at planting.

    Purchase a good soilless grow mix in which to raise yourtransplants or make one yoursel by mixing equal parts groundsphagnum moss and horticultural vermiculite or perlite. I theoliage o your seedlings turns yellow-green, water your plants

    with a solution o 2 tablespoons o a ertilizer such as 202020 in a gallon o water.

    Sow seeds o warm season vegetables 1/4 inch deep in rowsat the rate o 1 seed per inch o row i in ats, or 1-2 seeds percontainer. Wet the planting medium and allow excess water todrain beore planting. Dont over-water your seedlings.

    Seeds o warm season crops such as eggplant and peppersgerminate astest at 8090F while those o other vegetablesgerminate better at 6080F. Ater emergence, reduce thegrowing temperature to 60F at night and 7075F duringthe day or most warm season crops. Cool season crops andtomatoes do well with 68 F day temperatures and 45 to 50 Fnight temperatures.

    Pg SssHom Vg G

    HaVinG a SucceSSful VeGetable Garden

    depends not only upon how you garden but upon plantingenough o the right vegetables at the right time to supply youramilys needs.

    Plant at the right time. Tis will vary with air temperature,

    soil temperature and the needs o individual crops. Hardycrops like cabbage tolerate rosts and can be planted in earlyspring; tender crops like peppers dont tolerate rosts and needmore heat to mature properly, so plant them when the soil has

    warmed to 60 F.

    How you organize crops in the garden is also important.Plant tall vegetables like corn on the north or northeast side othe garden to reduce shading. Orient all rows in a north-southdirection to take advantage o the best sunlight distribution.Plant vegetables that need heavy watering in the all away romthose like onions, potatoes, and other root crops, which need tobe dry to be stored properly. Proper spacing between plants is

    also important.Te table on pages 2 and 3 contains inormation about

    average days to maturity, plant spacing, planting depth, averageyields, and planting dates or common vegetables.

    Cultivars

    Note the number o days to maturity on the seed packet tobe sure the cultivar will have time to mature beore the end othe season. o determine your rost-ree period, contact yourcounty Extension agent or use MontGuide 199308 AG, CanI Grow Tat Here?or EB165 - "A Montana Garder's Book ofDays". Te dates given or your locality represent average length

    o growing seasons and the real season length can vary by plusor minus two weeks rom the length given.

    Growing Transplants

    Many tender vegetables cant mature in our short seasons; startplants indoors or buy transplants rom a local nursery or gardencenter.

    I you grow your own transplants, give them adequate light.Te windowsill may appear bright enough but it isnt. Use

  • 8/3/2019 Montana; Planting a Successful Home Vegetable Garden

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    2

    Table1.

    Gardenvegetable

    plantingguide

    Crop

    Days

    toma

    turi

    ty

    (rage

    )

    See

    ds

    /p

    a

    ts

    per

    100ft

    .row

    Patig

    dept

    h

    (ic

    he

    s)

    Spac

    ig

    irow

    (ic

    hes

    )

    Spac

    igbe

    twee

    rows

    (iches

    )

    Averagey

    iedper

    10ft

    .row

    *

    Germ

    ia

    tio

    tempera

    ture

    Miimum

    F.

    Op

    timum

    F

    VERYHARDYTOHARDY

    Asparagus

    Perennial

    65plants

    plants,

    10

    18

    404

    8

    6plants

    2yearoldcrowns

    Beet

    60

    65

    1oz.

    1

    2

    3

    18

    4lb.greens

    10lb.roots

    40

    50

    85

    Cabbage

    60

    70

    50plants

    20

    24

    30

    8lb.

    Transplants

    Carrot

    65

    70

    1/2

    oz.

    1/2

    2

    3

    18

    10lb.

    40

    45

    85

    Chard,

    Swiss

    50

    1/2

    oz.

    1

    12

    243

    0

    10plants

    40

    50

    85

    Chives

    Perennial

    12

    18

    81

    0

    10plants

    Plantdivision

    Endive

    65

    1/2

    oz.

    1/2

    8

    18

    8heads

    35

    40

    80

    Horseradish

    Perennial

    18

    18

    varies

    Plantdivision

    JerusalemA

    rtichoke

    Perennial

    Plants,

    65

    23

    18

    24

    varies

    Planttubers

    Kale

    50

    55

    1/4

    oz.

    1/2

    18

    24

    7lbs.

    40

    45

    85

    Lettuce,

    Lea

    40

    45

    1/4

    oz.

    1/2

    3

    6

    121

    8

    5lbs.

    35

    40

    80

    Lettuce,

    Head

    70

    80

    1/4

    oz.

    1/2

    12

    18

    10heads

    45

    40

    80

    Onion,

    bulb

    100

    300

    transplants

    4

    18

    10lbs.

    Setsorplants

    Onion,

    Bunching

    60

    80

    1/2

    oz.

    1

    12

    10lbs.

    Plants

    Parsnip

    85

    120

    1/2

    oz.

    1/2

    3

    4

    18

    7lbs.

    35

    50

    70

    Peas(resh)

    50

    65

    1/2

    oz.

    11/2

    2

    183

    0

    2lbs.

    40

    40

    75

    Rhubarb

    Perennial

    30plants

    30

    404

    8

    4plants

    Crowndivision

    Rutabaga

    90

    1/4

    oz.

    1/2

    6

    18

    15lbs.

    40

    55

    80

    Turnip

    50

    60

    1/2

    oz.

    1/2

    3

    18

    5lb.roots

    40

    60

    105

    HAlFHARDY

    Broccoli

    70

    50plants

    18

    30

    7lbs.

    Transplants

    BrusselsSprouts

    90

    100

    50plants

    18

    24

    243

    0

    5lbs.

    Transplants

    Caulifower

    50

    55

    50plants

    18

    30

    8lbs.

    Transplants

    Celery

    85-1

    00

    200plants

    4-8

    30-3

    6

    10plants

    Transplants

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    3

    Crop

    Days

    to

    ma

    turi

    ty

    (rage)

    See

    ds

    /p

    a

    ts

    per

    100ft

    .row

    Pa

    tig

    dep

    th

    (ic

    hes

    )

    Spac

    ig

    irow

    (ic

    hes

    )

    Spacig

    be

    tweerows

    (ic

    hes

    )

    Averagey

    iedper

    10ft

    .row

    *

    Germ

    ia

    tio

    tempera

    ture

    Miimu

    m

    F.

    Op

    timum

    F.

    ChineseCabbage

    70

    1/4

    oz.

    3/4

    10

    12

    24

    36

    6heads

    Transplants

    Kohlrabi

    55

    1/2

    oz.

    1

    4

    6

    18

    5lbs.

    40

    45

    85

    Parsley

    70

    1/2

    oz.

    3/4

    6

    18

    varies

    40

    50

    84

    Potato

    80

    120

    12lbs.

    4

    10

    20

    36

    40

    varies

    Seed

    piecesromt

    ubers

    Radish

    20

    30

    1oz.

    1/2

    1

    12

    18

    10bunches

    40

    45

    90

    WARM

    SEASOn

    Beans,

    Bush

    45

    50

    1/2

    lb.

    2

    4

    18

    24

    8lbs.

    60

    60

    85

    Beans,

    Pole

    60

    65

    1/2

    lb

    2

    4

    18

    24

    15lbs.

    60

    60

    85

    Corn,

    Sweet

    65

    80

    1/4

    lb.

    2

    12

    36

    36

    10ears

    50

    50

    95

    Cucumber

    50

    60

    1/2

    oz.

    3/4

    36

    48

    40

    48

    12lbs.

    60

    60

    95

    Eggplant

    60

    80

    65plants

    1/2

    18

    25

    7lbs.

    Transplants

    Muskmelonor

    Cantaloupe

    85

    120

    1/2

    oz.

    1

    2

    3

    6

    48

    84

    10ruits

    60

    75

    95

    Okra

    55

    65

    1/4

    oz

    1/2

    12

    15

    36

    varies