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  • NGUYN VIT HNG H TH TRUYN

    MODULE THCS

    33

    GII quyt

    tnh hung s phm

    trong cng tc

    CH NHIM

  • 88 | MODULE THCS 33

    A. GII THIU TNG QUAN

    L module 33 trong chucthng trnh bi ducthng thucthng xuyn, khi kin

    thucthsacc GVCN THCS tucthnang ch)n. Tnh hung sucth ph-m lun thucthng xuyn x/y

    ra trong cc ho-t 23ng gio duthnangc, 25c bi6t l trong cc ho-t 23ng cuthhoia

    GVCN.

    H)c t8p module gip cho ngucthi h)c bit phn tch thng tin, ra quyt

    2=nh 2ng 2> ucthsacng xucthhoi c hi6u qu/ cc tnh hung sucth ph-m trong cng tc

    chuthhoi nhi6m lAp B tructhng THCS.

    B. MC TIU

    1. V KIN THC

    Ngucthi h)c hi>u 2ucthCc th no l tnh hung sucth ph-m, cc yu t 2> hnh

    thnh tnh hung, sucthnang cDn thit ph/i ucthsacng xucthhoi c hi6u qu/ gio duthnangc 2i vAi

    cc tnh hung sucth ph-m.

    2. V K NNG

    C kF nGng phn bi6t v phn lo-i cc tnh hung, thu th8p thng tin,

    tHng hCp v phn tch thng tin, kF nGng ra quyt 2=nh, kF nGng 2nh gi

    kt qu/ xucthhoi l tnh hung.

    3. V THI

    Nh8n thucthsacc 2ucthCc vi6c xucthhoi l tt cc tnh hung sucth ph-m c tc 23ng rIt tch

    cucthnangc trong gio duthnangc HS, v ngucthCc l-i, xucthhoi l khng tt tnh hung sucth ph-m

    sJ /nh hucthBng tiu cucthnangc tAi 2i tucthCng gio duthnangc.

  • GII QUYT TNH HUNG S PHM TRONG CNG TC CH NHIM | 89

    C. NI DUNG

    Ni dung 1

    TM HIU MT S TNH HUNG THNG GP TRONG CNG

    TC CH NHIM TRNG TRUNG HC C S

    THNG TIN C BN

    1. Tnh hung v tnh hung s phm

    1.1. Tnh hung l g?

    KL c8p 2n vIn 2L ny cDn lm sng tM nhucthngang ph-m tr khi ni6m c

    lin quan vAi tnh hung nhucth: tnh hnh, tnh tr-ng, tnh th... l

    cc khi ni6m c sucthnang ph hCp v khc bi6t giucthngaa ngucthnga nghFa. Do 2, n3i dung

    cuthhoia chng c nhucthngang nt chung v nhucthngang nt ring.

    Tnh hnh: L m3t ph-m tr khi ni6m rIt r3ng, trong 2 chucthsaca 2ucthnangng tHng

    hCp cc qu trnh v8n 23ng cuthhoia tucthnang nhin, x h3i, ho-t 23ng cuthhoia con ngucthi

    diVn ra trong kho/ng thi gian v bi c/nh nhIt 2=nh c tnh quy lu8t m

    ngucthi ta c th> ducthnang 2on tructhAc 2ucthCc, ho5c nWm bWt quy lu8t 2> 2iLu khi>n

    cc ho-t 23ng theo quy lu8t. Nhucthng trong diVn bin cuthhoia tnh hnh cuthngang c

    nhucthngang sucthnang ki6n, vuthnang vi6c xuIt hi6n 23t nhin, bIt ng ngoi ducthnang 2on, ho5c

    ngoi muthnangc 2ch hnh 23ng cuthhoia con ngucthi, lc 2 2ucthCc g)i l tnh hung.

    Sucthnang bin 2Hi cuthhoia tucthnang nhin ngy cng trB nn phucthsacc t-p, ho-t 23ng cuthhoia con

    ngucthi v sucthnang pht tri>n x h3i ngy cng pht tri>n phong ph, 2a d-ng th

    tnh hung xuIt hi6n ngy cng nhiLu, 2an xen trong diVn bin cuthhoia tnh

    hnh. Nhucth v8y, trong tnh hnh c hm chucthsaca tnh hung.

    Tnh trng: C th> hi>u m3t cch 2n gi/n l tr-ng thi pht tri>n cuthhoia tucthnang

    nhin, x h3i v cuthhoia con ngucthi B m3t thi 2i>m nhIt 2=nh c th> nh8n

    bit 2ucthCc hi6n tr-ng B nhucthngang mucthsacc 23 xc 2=nh khc nhau (bnh thucthng,

    tt, ho5c xIu, thu8n lCi, kh khGn, 23t bin hay tuDn tucthnang...) ho5c c th>

    chuctha bit, hay bit chuctha r rng. Nhucth v8y, trong tnh tr-ng c th> c

    nhucthngang tr-ng thi, thi 2i>m chucthsaca 2ucthnangng, xuIt hi6n tnh hung.

    Tnh th: L sucthnang pht tri>n cuthhoia tnh hnh 2 d\n tAi m3t 2]nh 2i>m, thi

    2i>m no 2 t-o ra m3t mi tucthng quan, m3t v= th nhIt 2=nh, th m-nh

  • 90 | MODULE THCS 33

    hay yu, th thWng hay b-i, th chuthhoi 23ng hay b= 23ng, th thuthhoi hay th

    cng ho5c c khi l-i lm vo th tin thoi lucthng nan... bu3c ph/i c cch

    gi/i quyt k=p thi, 23c 2o 2> vucthCt ra khMi mi tucthng quan vL th 2

    theo hucthAng tch cucthnangc v c lCi nhIt cho mnh. ^ 2y c 2i>m g5p nhau

    giucthngaa tnh th v tnh hung B kha c-nh pht tri>n cuthhoia mu thu\n d\n

    2n tnh tr-ng cDn ph/i gi/i quyt k=p thi nhucthng c sucthnang khc bi6t vL

    ph-m vi giAi h-n v tnh chIt cuthhoia cc mu thu\n cuthhoia chng.

    Tnh hung: L nhucthngang sucthnang ki6n, vuthnang vi6c, hon c/nh c vIn 2L bucthsacc xc n/y

    sinh trong ho-t 23ng v quan h6 giucthngaa con ngucthi vAi tucthnang nhin, x h3i v

    giucthngaa con ngucthi vAi con ngucthi bu3c ngucthi ta ph/i gi/i quyt, ucthsacng ph, xucthhoi

    l k=p thi nh_m 2uctha cc ho-t 23ng v quan h6 c chucthsaca 2ucthnangng tr-ng thi

    c vIn 2L bucthsacc xc 2 trB l-i Hn 2=nh v tip tuthnangc pht tri>n.

    Tnh hung sucth phm l nhucthngang tnh hung n/y sinh trong qu trnh 2iLu

    khi>n ho-t 23ng v quan h6 sucth ph-m bu3c nh sucth ph-m ph/i gi/i quyt

    2> 2uctha cc ho-t 23ng v cc quan h6 2 trB vL tr-ng thi Hn 2=nh, pht

    tri>n khAp nh=p nh_m hucthAng tAi muthnangc 2ch, yu cDu, k ho-ch 2 2ucthCc

    xc 2=nh cuthhoia m3t tH chucthsacc.

    1.2. Mt s c im ca tnh hung s phm

    Tnh cuthnang th, thucthnangc t, chucthsaca 2ucthnangng nhucthngang mu thu\n, bucthsacc xc xuIt hi6n

    trong m3t ph-m vi thi gian v khng gian kh bit tructhAc 2i hMi ph/i

    ucthsacng ph, xucthhoi l k=p thi.

    Nhucthngang sucthnang ki6n, vuthnang vi6c diVn bin bnh thucthng theo chucthng trnh, k

    ho-ch khng c nhucthngang mu thu\n, bucthsacc xc. Nhucthngang xung 23t t-o ra sucthnang

    bIt Hn 2=nh trong qu trnh sucth ph-m th khng ph/i tnh hung m ch] l

    vi6c gi/i quyt nhucthngang vIn 2L bnh thucthng trong sucthnang v8n hnh cuthhoia ho-t

    23ng sucth ph-m.

    Sucthnang xut hin tnh hung thucthng chucthsaca 2ucthnangng yu t ng\u nhin, b3t pht,

    nhucthng cuthngang c tnh quy lu8t pht tri>n cuthhoia tucthnang nhin, x h3i ni chung,

    cuthhoia sucthnang pht tri>n m3t tH chucthsacc trong ho-t 23ng sucth ph-m ni ring.

    M3t tH chucthsacc c k] cucthng, nL np, 2on kt thng nhIt, trn thu8n ducthAi

    ho diVn ra trong m3t mi tructhng tucthnang nhin, x h3i t bin 23ng th tnh

    hung sJ xuIt hi6n t hn m3t t8p th> c tH chucthsacc k] lu8t km, n3i b3

  • GII QUYT TNH HUNG S PHM TRONG CNG TC CH NHIM | 91

    hiLm khch, 2 k= nhau, mi tructhng tucthnang nhin, x h3i xung quanh c nhiLu

    bin 23ng phucthsacc t-p. V th, vi6c xy ducthnangng m3t tH chucthsacc vucthngang m-nh, c k]

    cucthng nL np, 2on kt thng nhIt, mi tructhng c3ng 2ng x h3i tch

    cucthnangc, lnh m-nh sJ l nLn t/ng tIt yu 2> h-n ch 2ucthCc nhucthngang xung 23t,

    mu thu\n, nhucthngang tnh hung gay cIn phucthsacc t-p xuIt hi6n trong cng tc

    chuthhoi nhi6m. Nhucth v8y, sucthnang xuIt hi6n v pht tri>n cuthhoia tnh hung diVn ra

    theo quy lu8t ngh=ch bin vAi sucthnang pht tri>n cuthhoia m3t t8p th>, m3t tH chucthsacc.

    Tnh a dng, phucthsacc tp

    Ky l m3t trong nhucthngang 25c 2i>m nHi b8t cuthhoia tnh hung ni chung, tnh

    hung sucth ph-m ni ring. KiLu ny th> hi6n B nhiLu kha c-nh khc nhau.

    Ph/n nh nhiLu lo-i mu thu\n gay cIn, phucthsacc t-p trong ho-t 23ng v

    quan h6 cuthhoia tH chucthsacc v ngoi tH chucthsacc.

    Chucthsaca 2ucthnangng nhiLu nguyn nhn, nhiLu duyn cA v k> c/ nhucthngang dn s

    tiLm tng dIu kn m ngucthi GVCN ph/i ht sucthsacc minh m\n, t]nh to, nh-y

    c/m v tinh t mAi pht hi6n 2ucthCc. M)i ho-t 23ng v quan h6 GVCN v

    HS xt 2n cng 2Lu diVn ra trong cch 2i nhn xucthhoi th, giucthngaa con ngucthi

    vAi nhau, thng qua quan h6 giucthngaa ngucthi vAi ngucthi 2> thucthnangc hi6n m)i cng

    vi6c. Trong quan h6 2 c nhiLu vIn 2L m php lu8t, k] cucthng, nL np,

    hay chucthng trnh k ho-ch chuthhoi nhi6m... 2Lu khng th> phH qut ht 2ucthCc.

    C % bt 'nh cao

    M3t cng vi6c bnh thucthng c diVn bin theo chucthng trnh, k ho-ch hay

    tin 23 tucthng 2i Hn 2=nh. Nhucthng m3t tnh hung x h3i hay chuthhoi nhi6m

    th diVn bin tue thu3c vo cch xucthhoi l cuthhoia ngucthi chuthhoi nhi6m v 25c 2i>m

    cuthhoia 2i tucthCng. Chnh do sucthnang tucthng tc cuthnang th> 2 m diVn bin cuthhoia tnh

    hung c th> pht tri>n, bin 2Hi theo nhucthngang 2ucthng hucthAng, tin 23 rIt

    khc nhau.

    Tnh pha tr%n cuthhoia cc tnh hung, 25c bi6t l tnh hung sucth ph-m thucthng

    th> hi6n B chf: Cc sucthnang ki6n, vuthnang vi6c, hon c/nh c vIn 2L trong tnh hung

    thucthng c sucthnang l\n l3n, pha t-p giucthngaa ci c l v ci phi l, giucthngaa ci thi6n v ci

    c, giucthngaa ci tt v ci xIu, giucthngaa ci chung v ci ring, giucthngaa ci c bi6t v ci

    phH bin; giucthngaa ci tch cucthnangc v ci tiu cucthnangc... 25t nh sucth ph-m tructhAc m3t

    tnh th: trWng 2en l\n l3n, ph/i tri chuctha tucthng minh, 2ng sai chuctha tM

    tucthng. NhiLu khi, nhucthngang chn gi tr=, nhucthngang nhn t tch cucthnangc... thucthng b=

  • 92 | MODULE THCS 33

    che khuIt, chm su v b= bao phuthhoi bBi ci vM bn ngoi khng ph/n nh

    2ng b/n chIt cuthhoia sucthnang v8t. V th, nh sucth ph-m ph/i c nhucthngang thuthhoi php tc

    23ng 25c bi6t 2> g-n 2uthnangc khi trong nh_m pht huy sucthsacc m-nh tiLm dn tch

    cucthnangc cuthhoia chuthhoi th>, khWc phuthnangc, h-n ch tiu cucthnangc, 2> gi/i quyt m)i vi6c cho

    tucthng minh. Kng thi GV ph/i kch thch, khi d8y kh/ nGng tucthnang gi/i to/

    mu thu\n, xung 23t cuthhoia cc nhn t t-o ra tnh hung.

    Tnh lan to,

    M3t tnh hung pht sinh trong 2i sng hay trong cng tc chuthhoi nhi6m,

    nh-y c/m trong nhucthngang tructhng hCp ducthng nhucth ring lh, c bi6t v\n c

    /nh hucthBng tructhnangc tip 2n ho-t 23ng v quan h6 trong c3ng 2ng t8p th>,

    ho5c lan truyLn qua con 2ucthng ducth lu8n x h3i lm cho cc ngun thng

    tin thu th8p 2ucthCc vL cc sucthnang ki6n, vuthnang vi6c, nguyn cA t-o ra tnh hung b=

    ph/n nh thin l6ch, mo m theo ki>u tam sao thIt b/n.

    KiLu 2 n

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