Module p3 Biology

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MODULE BIOLOGY PAPER 3

CHAPTER 7: RESPIRATION

DISEDIAKAN OLEH: CG. NOR NAZILAH BINTI MOHAMAD ZULDIN (SM IMTIAZ KUALA BERANG)

ACTIVITY 7.1:

STUDYING THE PROCESS OF AEROBIC RESPIRATION

Respiration is a vital process carried out by all living organism. Organisms that respire aerobically involve the oxidation of glucose in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water and energy. Based on the information, design an experiment to demonstrate the process of aerobic respiration. Your experimental planning should include the following aspects: Problem Statement: What is the effect of difference number of cockroach (aerobic respiration) to the height of the coloured liquid? Objective of the study: to demonstrate the process of aerobic respiration in cockroach Hypothesis: The higher the number of cockroach, the higher the height of the coloured liquid. Variables. Manipulated Variable : the presence of aerobic respiration/ number of cockroach

Responding Variable : the height of the coloured liquid

Controlled Variable

: initial level of the coloured liquid

Materials and apparatus: Water, coloured liquid, living organism (cockroach), soda lime, Vaseline, boiling tubes, 500ml beaker, 250ml beaker, capillary tubes, screw clips, rubber tubings, ruler and wire gauze. Technique used: Measured and record the height of the coloured liquid in the capillary tubes using the ruler. Experimental procedure:

1. Four boiling tubes labelled A , B, C and D are prepared. 2. All the boiling tubes are filled with equal amounts of soda lime. 3. A wire gauze is placed in the middle of boiling tubes. 4. A cockroach is placed on the wire gauze in boiling tube A. 5. The screw clips of both boiling tubes are closed. Make sure the system is air tight by sealing the stoppers with Vaseline. 6. The initial heights of coloured liquid in both capillary tubes are observed and recorded. 7. After an hour, the height of coloured liquid in both capillary are measured and recorded using ruler. 8. Repeat the step 4 until 7 using difference number of cockroach: Boiling Tube A: 1 cockroach Boiling Tube B: 2 cockroach Boiling Tube C: 3 cockroach Boiling Tube D: 4 cockroach 9. The rate of aerobic respiration are calculated and recorded using formula= height/ time. 9. All the data are record in the table.

Presentation of data:Number of

initial heights

the final height

Rate of

cockroach

of coloured liquid (cm)

of coloured liquid (cm)

aerobic respiration (cmmin-1)

1 2 3 4

Conclusion: The higher the number of cockroach, the higher the height of the coloured liquid. Hypothesis is accepted.

ACTIVITY 7.2: IN YEAST.

STUDYING THE PROCESS OF ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION

Anaerobic respiration is the process of releasing energy from the breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen. Yeast can carry out anaerobic respiration in a glucose solution. Glucose ---> Ethanol + Carbon dioxide + Energy The rate of anaerobic respiration is affected by several factors such as temperature, pH values and nutrients. Based on the above information and equation, design a laboratory experiment to investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast.

Problem Statement: What is the effect of temperature on the rate of anaerobic respiration (in yeast)? Objective of the study: To investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast.

Hypothesis: The higher the temperature, the higher the rate of anaerobic respiration (in yeast).

Variables. Manipulated Variable : Temperature Responding Variable : Rate of anaerobic respiration//No of bubbles released//Time taken for lime water to turn chalky

Controlled Variable : Volume/conc. of yeast suspension/glucose/pH/Time taken Materials and apparatus: Boiling tube, Manometer/Capillary tube, Water bath//Beaker + thermometer,Stopwatch, Marker/thread, Rubber stopper, Ruler, Rubber tubing, Retort stand, measuring cylinder, Yeast suspension / Yeast, Glucose solution, Paraffin oil (Yeast & Glucose must have) Technique used: Using a ruler to record the change in height of the colored liquid/Record the number of bubbles released (after 10 minutes) using a stopwatch //Calculating the rate of anaerobic respiration (in yeast) by using the formula : Number of bubbles / Change in height Time taken //Take and record the time taken for the lime water to turn chalky using a stopwatch Experimental procedure:

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in diagram. 2. Place the boiling tube with 15 cm3 of glucose solution in a beaker at 20oC for 5 minutes. 3. Add 15 cm3 of yeast suspension into the boiling tube. 4. Mark the initial height of coloured liquid in manometer. 5. Start the stopwatch and mark the level of coloured liquid in the manometer after 10 minutes. 6. Record all data in a table. 7. Repeat step l, 3, 4, 5 and 6 by placing the boiling tubes in a water bath at temperatures of 30oC, 40oC and 50oC. 8. Make sure all the joints of the apparatus are air tight //Repeat the experiment for each temperature to get average readings. 9. Plot a graph of rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast against temperature. Precaution : 1. Ensure the temperature is stablised at the fixed temperature before taking the reading if the height of the coloured liquid//counting the number of bubbles released. 2. Make sure all the joints of the apparatus are air tight //Repeat the experiment for each temperature to get average readings.

Presentation of data: Temperature (oC) 20 30 40 50 No of bubbles released (unit) Time taken for lime water to turn chalky (min) Rate of anaerobic respiration (min -1)

Conclusion: Hypothesis is accepted. The higher the temperature, the higher the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast.

ACTIVITY 7.6: INVESTIGATING THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INHALED AND EXHALED AIR IN TERMS OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE CONTENTS.

Inhaled air is the atmospheric air around us which we breath in while exhaled air is the air we breath out.

Based on the information, design an experiment to investigate the differences between inhaled air and exhaled air in terms of their oxygen and carbon dioxide contents. Your experimental planning should include the following aspects: Problem Statement: Does inhaled air contain the same amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide as exhaled air? Objective of the study: To investigate the differences between inhaled air and exhaled air in terms of their oxygen and carbon dioxide contents. Hypothesis: Inhaled air has a higher percentage of oxygen as compared to exhaled air. // Exhaled air has a higher percentage of carbon dioxide as compared to inhaled air. Variables. Manipulated Variable : Inhaled air and exhaled air

Responding Variable : percentage of oxygen and carbon dioxide

Controlled Variable

: initial length of air column

Materials and apparatus: Potassium hydroxide solution, potassium pyrogallate solution, J-tube, screw, boiling tubes, rubber tubings, ruler, water basin and stopwatch. Technique used: Measured and recorded the length of air columns occupied by the gases using J-tube and metre ruler Experimental procedure: 1. The screw of the J-tube is turned in a clockwise direction to the end.

2.

The open end of the J-tube is lowered into the a water basin filled with water. The screw is turned slowly in an anticlockwise direction to draw a length of 5 cm of water into capillary tube. The tube is removed from the water and the screw is turned in an anticlockwise direction to draw a length of about 10 cm of air into the Jtube. The open end of the tube is placed in the water to seal the air column in the tube between the two length of water. The screw is adjusted so that the air column is positioned in the middle of tube. The tube is immersed in a basin of water for about two minutes. This must be done before the length of air column is measured. After two minutes, the length of the air column is measured and measurement is recorded as x cm. The air column is measured while it is still immersed in the water. The screw is turned clockwise again to expel some of the water. The air column is brought to within 2 to 3 mm from the end of the tube. The open end of the tube is dipped into the potassium hydroxide solution and the screw is turned anticlockwise to draw 2 to 3 cm of potassium hydroxide into the capillary tube. The tube is removed from solution, and by using the screw, the air column is moved to and fro several times. The length of air columns is measured, by repeating step 6 and 7. The measurement is recorded as y cm. The screw is turned clockwise again to expel some of potassium hydroxide. 2 to 3 mm of potassium hydroxide into the capillary tube. Repeat the step method stated step 9 and 10 by replaced with the potassium pyrogallate solution. The measurement it is recorded as z cm. Repeat the step 1 until 13 to investigate exhaled air by changed inhaled air in step 4 by the air is exhaled through a rubber tubing and the end of the rubber tubing is pinched firmly and inserted the end of the rubber tubing into a boiling tube filled with water.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Presentation of data: Inhaled air Initial length of air column (x cm) Exhaled air

Length of air column upon adding potassium hydroxide solution (y cm) Length of air column upon adding potassium pyrogallate solution (z cm) Change in length of air column due to the removal of carbon dioxide (x-y) cm Change in length of air column due to the removal of oxygen (y-z) cm Percentage of carbon dioxide (%) Percentage of oxygen (%)

Conclusion: Hypothesis is accepted. Inhaled air has a higher percentage of oxygen as compared to exhaled air. // Exhaled air has a high