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C H A P T E R I NARRATION What will you get in chapter I ? Listening Responding to expression of request Responding to expression of suggestion Responding to expression of complaint Responding to expression of possibility to do something Responding to expression of instruction Responding to a text in a narrative text Speaking Expressing an expression of request Expressing an expression of suggestion Expressing an expression of complaint Expressing an expression of possibilities and capabilities to do something Expressing expression of instruction Perform a narrative text Reading Reading the text in a narrative form aloud in a good intonation Change a narrative text into play Finding the meanings of new words Identifying main ideas, supporting ideas and details in narrative text Understanding the use of linking word Writing Writing paragraph in a narrative form with correct structure Arranging paragraph given into a good story Capitalizing and punctuating a paragraph given Completing the given story
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Listening Requesting In a request it's asking the listener to do something, It is as though you are reminding the person that he must do it. One would expect that listener would do it. Ann Wana Alex please? Leony Louis please? Lana Clark Kent John Jane : Could you put away all the books, please? : Sure! : Could I ask you to be quiet, : Of course! : Do you think you could lower the volume of the music, : Sure! : Do you mind sitting at the other table, please? : Of course! : Can you move a little, please? : I'm sorry, but I cant!
Suggesting Some students attend the meeting. They discuss the plan for a Study Tour" with the teacher. Dita : Id like to suggest that we hear the student first Dina : It sounds like a good suggestion Anty : May I suggest to go to the beach of Pontada? Anna Anna : I don't want to go to the Pontada because I always go there Ann Anto Niisa : I suggest that we go to Pontada beach : That's a good/nice/great/wonderful idea/suggestion : Why don't we go to Pontada beach ?
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Ita lIin Sukma
: I think you're right : I recommend that we go to Pontada beach : Thanks, but we have another plan
Complaint Expressions of complaint are the expressions of how to say that one is dissatisfied or unhappy. Andra Anton Andra Anton Rika Rina : I'm not at all satisfied with the service in this hotel : You're not alone : This villa is terrible : I feel the same way : I want to complaint about the service in this restaurant : I feel the same way
Possibilities and capabilities to do something Expressions of Possibilities and capabilities to do something are the expressions of how to say that one is able or disable to do something. Andra Anton : Do you think there is a possibility for Capricorn people to be successful in life based on their basic character? : That's one possibility
Rani : Do you think, we are capable of repairing our motorcycle? Ratite : I think we have that capacity Jack Jane : Is there a possibility for her being a computer freak? : That's one possibility Page - 3
Instruction Instructing is a bit stronger than requesting. The speaker expects someone to do it. John Jane Alex Ann Alan Anton Jack Jony : Do you mind taking your feet off the table, please? : Sorry! Not at all : Would you mind repeating that again? : Sure! I have no objection to repeat it : I must ask you to take me to Diamond, please. : Ok : Will you take me to air port, please? : Of course.
Task 1 Answer the questions orally. When asking someone to make a suggestion, what do you usually say? 2. How do you respond to her/his suggestion? What do you say to express it? 3. When someone requests something, what do you say to grant it? 4. What do you say if decline her/his request?1.
Task 2 Answer the questions by listening to the dialogue,1. 2. 3.
Where does the dialogue probably take place? Who involved in the dialogue? What they do talk about?
Task 3 You are going to listen to the dialogue again. Fill in the blanks with the expressions you hear, Compare your answers with your friend's. Student : Excuse me. My teacher gave me an assignment to write Page - 4
book report 1 .............What book I should read? 2 Librarian : ............Did your teacher require a specific book? Student : Yes. A contemporary novel, exactly. Librarian: Well 3. ................... you read Life of Pi The book is about Pi, a teenager whose ship capsizes in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, leaving him an orphan, alone on a lifeboat with a hyena, a zebra and an enormous Bengal tiger named Richard Parker. Student : That's great.4 ..... 5. borrow it? Librarian : 6You can borrow it for a week. Student : Thank you, but I think I need it for a longer period. Probably it will take two weeks finish the book.7 ....................... making copy of it? Librarian : Oh,8 no part of the book be copied. Student : OK.9......extend the due date until two weeks? Librarian : 1 0 ...........Here you are. Task 4 You are going to listen two short dialogues. Choose the appropriate responses to the expressions you hear. 1. a. That sounds great. b. Sure. You'd better review Jane Eyre. c, Sure. I will. Here you are. 2. a. Sorry to say that I can't. It's not mine. I borrowed it from Nisa. b. That's great. it sounds good. c. I'd like to suggest you read It Task 5 Works in Pairs. Listen to the story. Then, arrange the following pictures and events based on the story.
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a. One day, a Wolf was having dinner. b. He tried and tried to get it out. c. So, he instantly went and looked for the Crane, d. He was about to cry when he suddenly thought of the Crane, e. As usual, he was very greedy. f. He soon found her near a pond, and greeted her in a soft and melodious sound. g. Suddenly a bone got stuck in his throat. h. The crane wanted to fly away because she was very much afraid of the Wolf i. She helped him but he forgot his promise to give her reward if she was able to get a bone out from his 'throat. j. The Wolf tried as hard as he could to make the Crane help him, k. Finally, the crane got nothing, l. The bone gave him a lot of pain, Task 6 Listen to the text again and answer these questions in pairs. 1. What was the Wolf doing when a bone got stuck in his throat? 2. Could he get the bone out from his throat? 3. What did he do instantly? 4. Where did he find the Crane? 5. Why did the Wolf look for the Crane? 6. How did the Wolf try to persuade the Crane? 7. Did the Crane help him? 8. Did the wolf keep his promise? Why? Speaking Task 1 Work in pairs. Make a short dialogue based on one of the following situations. 1. You and your friend are waiting for a bus. You have been waiting nearly three quarters of an hour. You suggest taking a taxi. Page - 6
Your Mend has read a new story book. You ask your friend to retell the story to you. 3. You have bought a novel and it was not very good. The story was not interesting as its cover. 4. You have been out with your Mend to a party. You are returning with him to his house. He discovers he has lost his key and can't get in. You instruct to open the window, 5. On holiday, your car breaks down miles from the nearest town. Another car stops and the driver offers to help. He appears can help you.2.
Task 2 Read the following fable with a partner. Check out your pronunciation with your partner. The Tortoise and the Hare One bright, sunny morning a tortoise-we shall call him Mr. Tortoise-was taking a walk when suddenly he met a hare. Now he did not like this hare at all, for he was very sarcast i c, and always laughed at the tortoise. Nevertheless, the tortoise smiled and greeted him, "Good morning, Mr. Hare. How are you?". The hare did not answer, but as soon as he saw the tortoise, he began to laugh very loudly. "Oh, oh. I can't help laughing at you, Mr. Tortoise!". "Why What's so funny?". "You! You are so slow, Mr. Tortoise. 'Me? Slow? Who says I'm slow?' asked the tortoise. 'I do," answered the hare. "With those funny legs of yours you certainly cant run, you can only walk," "But there's nothing the matter with my legs." "Well, I don't know whether one can call them legs or not. They're so short and looking so funny, I don't understand how you can got about at all", The Tortoise got very angry, but he just smiled. He walked on saying, "Good bye, Mr. Hare. See you again'. "Wait a moment, Mr. Tortoise. Where do you think you're going?". "|'m just taking a walk." 'Oh? You certainly can't walk very far, though, can you?". Hearing this the tortoise became angrier still, but he pretended to be calm. "Look," he said, "why don't you stop teasing me and making fun of me? I'm sure I can run as fast as you can'. At this the hare laughed so loudly that he was unable to answer the tortoise immediately. Page - 7
"You? As fast as me? Poor, Mr. Tortoise, don't you know that I'm the fastest creature in the forest? "We shall see, "said the tortoise. 'I have a good plan. Do you see that tree over there on the top of the hill?" "Yes, I do". "Now, let's have a race and see which of us can reach that tree first. It's a very long way off, but it will prove which of us can run the faster". The hare stopped laughing and asked, "Are you serious, Mr. Tortoise?". "Of course I am," answered the tortoise. "Let's begin the race right away!". One, two, three! The tortoise and the hare were off. Of course the tortoise was quickly left far behind by the hare. When the hare had run for about half an hour he thought, "I think I will just lie down here to rest a while. I've made myself tired running so fast. Anyway, It will jump up and run away from him again. What a fool is Mr. Tortoise to have a race with me, the fastest creature on legs!". So the hare lay down to rest, and soon was fast asleep. He was fast asleep for hours and hours! And he did not hear the tortoise passing quietly. it was already late in the afternoon when the hare woke up. "Goodness!" he cried out. 'It's nearly dark! Where's Mr. Tortoise?". He looked up towards the hill and saw the tortoise, very far off and very small!. "Mr, Tortoise can be only a few meters from the tree by now ! I must hurry!'. And the hare started to run just as fast as he could go. He run and run with all his might to get to the tree first. Ten minutes more ! Three minutes more.. two minutes more .... one minute.... thirty seconds.ten seconds ..... three-two ... one' At that moment the tortoise reached the tree! And so he was the first to arrive at the tree ! The hare was late.only one second! Ashamed, tired and very exhausted because of running so very fast, the hare rolled over on the ground and died!. Task 3 Retell the story you have just read. Task 4 Answer the questions based on the text! Page - 8
What was Mr. Hare like? Why did Mr. Hare laugh at Mr. Tortoise? What made Mr. Tortoise get angry to Mr. Hare? What was Mr. Tortoise's plan for himself and Mr. Hare? 5. What did Mr. Hare do after he had run for about half an hour? 6. When did Mr. Hare wake up? 7. What did Mr. Hare do after he saw Mr. Tortoise almost win the race? 8. How could Mr. Tortoise win the race? 9. What happened to Mr. Hare after arriving at the tree? 10. What is the moral value you get form the story? Task 5 Study the following words and phonetic symbols. Pay attention to the syllable which is stressed1. 2. 3. 4.
Task 6 Pronounce the following words with correct pronunciation and look at the phonetic symbols.
Task 6 Match the words to the phonetic symbols.
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Reading Task 1 Answer the questions orally.1. 2.
Have you ever visited some tourist sites in West Java? Mention
them. One of the famous tourist sites in West Java is Tangkuban Perahu. Where is it located? 3. According the legend, how did Tangkuban Perahu come into existence? Task 2 Before you read the legend about Tangkuban Perahu entitled "Sangkuriang", here are some words to learn. Match them to their meaning or synonyms. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Curse Eternal Fate Feint Faithful FlingAung Fond of Mumble Roam Scar Words Meanings/synonyms a, word from god for b. like, love C. say something d. power that can not be e. become weak f. loyal and true g. mark as the result of injury h, without end i. walk or travel j. throw violently/thrown
Task 3 Read the following text aloud. Pay attention to the pronunciation, stress and pause. Sangkuriang A very long time ago in West Java, there lived a king, named Raden Sungging Pebangkara. He was a good ruler. He liked hunting in the forest very much. In the forest, there lived a she-pig, actually a cursed goddess. One day, she came out of her hiding place looking for water, There, she was a coconut shell filled with water. Expecting Page - 11
it to be coconut milk she drunk it, having no suspicious that it was the king's urine left there the day before when he went hunting. The consequence was very strange. She became pregnant. In a few months later she gave birth to a very pretty girl. When the king hunting again in the forest, he saw the girl and was attracted by her beauty, He took her to her palace, then he called her Dayang Sumbi and treated her as his own daughter. Time passed and Dayang Sumbi grew up into beautiful girl. She was fond of weaving. One morning as she was weaving, her weaving spool flew Out of the window to the field. Because she was very tired, she mumbled, "whoever is willing to help me pick up the spool, I will treat her as my sister if she is a girl. If he is a man, I will treat him as my husband". These words were heard by a dog, called Tumang, actually a cursed god too. He immediately picked up the spool and gave it to Dayang Sumbi. Seeing the dog had helped her, she fainted. The god had decided for her to undergo the fate. She became pregnant and a short time afterwards she gave birth to a healthy strong son whom she called Sangkuriang. Sangkuring became a handsome young man, as the time by. Like his grandfather, he was fond of hunting in, the forest and Tumang was his faithful friend when roaming the woods, He didn't realize that Tumang was actually his father. One day, when the dog didn't obey him to chase the pig, Sangkurinag was very angry and killed the dog and cut up his flesh into pieces and took it home to his mother. For a moment Dayang 'Sumbi was speechless and look ' a spool and flung i t at him. This left a scar on the spot, Then Dayang Sumbi sent him away Sangkuriang left and wandered through t he woods. He walked for years. Finally he returned to his native place, but did not recognize it any longer. At the end of vast rice field, he noticed a house and saw a young girl sitting at her weaving-loom. He approached her Page - 12
and was charmed by her beauty. He was unaware that she was his own mother. Dayang Sumbi had been given eternal beauty by the god who was why she looked young forever. She looked at him and noticing his good looks, she promised to many him. T hey made plans for their wedding party, but one day she discovered 'the scar on his forehead. She knew that he was her, own son who come back to his village. She made an effort to make him understand that marriage between them was impossible but Sangkuriang She had an idea and said to him "all right, you shall marry me if only you can dam up the Citarum River and build a big vessel only in one night". Sangkuriang agreed and started to work by using his magic powers and his prayer to the god for help. To prevent the marriage, before Sangkuriang finished his work, she stretched the red veil which covered her head over the eastern side the plain. Through her magic powers, the red light spread over the landscape, giving impression that the sun was ti me was over. Angrily, Sangkuriang kicked the vessel which was almost finished, upside down. Some times later the vessel became the mountain of Tangkuban Perahu on the northern side of Bandung.
Task 4 Answer the following question based on the text. 1. Why did the she-pig drink the King's urine? 2. What did Dayang Sumbi like most? 3. Was Dayang Sumbi happy when Tumang helped her? 4. Why did Dayang Sumbi have to marry Tumang? 5. Who was Tumang? 6. Why was Sangkuriang angry with Tumang? 7. Why did Dayang Sumbi send Sangkuriang away? 8. What did the god give Dayang Sumbi? Page - 13
9. Did Dayang Sumbi know that Sangkuriang was her son? 10. What did Dayang Sumbi ask Sangkuriang? 11. Why did Sangkuriang want to marry Dayang Sumbi? 12. What is your impression about the ending of the story? T ask 5 Find the paragraphs that tell you the following information. 1. Sangkuriang's father 2.Dayang sumbi's beauty 3. Tangkuban Perahu 4.The king's characters 5. Why the she-pig became pregnant 6.Why Dayang Sumbi was angry 7.The she-pig 8.What Sangkuriang did to fulfill Dayang Sumbi's wish? Task 6 Study the following diagram and answer the questions. 1. What would happen if Sangkuriang married Dayang Sumbi? 2. What was the relationship between Sangkuriang and Raden Sungging Pebangkara? 3. Make your own narration based on the diagram! 4. Change the text of Sangkuriang into dialogue! Raden Sungging Pebangkara+ Dayang Sumbi + Sangkuriang Grammar Flash Conjunction A she-pig Tumang
Using because: Because he was sleepy, he went to bed, He went to bed because he was sleepy. Page - 14
Using since : Since he is not interested in classical music, he decided not to go to the concert. Using as : As she had nothing to do, she called up a friend and went to the movie. Using because of ; Because of the cold weather, we stayed home. (because the weather was cold, we stayed home) Using due to : Due to the cold weather, we stayed home. Using although, though, even though : Although it rained a lot, we enjoyed our holiday. I didn't get the job though I had all the necessary qualifications. Even though I was really tired, I couldn't sleep, Using in spite of/despite : In spite of the rain, we enjoyed our holiday. Despite what I said last night, I still love you. In spite of the fact (that) I was tired, I couldn't sleep. Note : Because is used: v To express the reason for a statement, or to express the answer of a 'why' questions. To add a remark which gives your reason for stating a factor an opinion, after you've stated it. v Because is followed by subject and verb. Because of and due to are used: v To state the reason for something. it must be followed by noun phrase. Since is used: v To introduce a reason for something. Especially when this reason is something that is already known to the person you're talking to. Although, though, even though is used : v To begin a clause to contrast a situation in the other part of a sentence (main clause). v After although we use a subject + verb.
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v Although' and 'even though' are more emphatic than 'though'.
In spite of/despite : v After in spite of/despite we use a noun, a pronoun and a gerund. v You can also say in spite of/despite the fact (that) Present Tense Positive Form Andi has much money They have much money Anty does her home work I do my home work They cook in the kitchen now
Rule : S + Verb1 + O. C Negative Form
Andi does not have much money They do not have much money Anty does not do her home work I do not do my home work They dont cook in the kitchen now
Rule : S + Does/Do + Not + Verb1 + O. C Affirmative Form Does Andi have much money ? Do they much money ? Does Anty does do her home work ? Do you do your home work ? Do they cook in the kitchen now ? Rule : Does/Do + S + Verb1 + O. C Writing
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Task 1 Write a possible ending to the following story using your own words. Once there was a monkey who lived in a big fruit tree. The tree was quite close to the sea, and he could see all kind fishes swimming and playing around. He made friend with one of them, a big shark that came every day to sit under the tree. He liked the shark very much. So each time the big fish sat under the tree, the monkey told him stories and all that had been happening on land. He even brought the shark food now and then. One day the shark sa i d to the monkey, "Please come with me to my house. I would like you to see all my family. I always talk about you and they all wish to see you That's kind of you," answered the monkey, "but the trouble is I can't swim. How can I get to your house?". "Oh, that's all right. You just sit on my back and I will carry you all the way to my house!". "Splendid! As you wish!" replied the monkey, and he jumped down on to the back. Then the shark swam across the sea carrying the monkey. When they were a long way from the shore the Shark said, "I'm sorry, but actually I'm not taking you to see my family. I'm taking you to our king. He is ill and the doctor says he will only get better if he eats the heart of a monkey.".......... Task 2 Write your own story. Write your main ideas in the boxes to help you create the story. Draft your story first. Orientation example: Once there was a monkeywho lived in the big fruit tree.
example: One day the shark said to the monkey to come with himto his house.
example: Finally, the monkey knew Page - 17
what friendship meant.
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Read The Explanation of narrative Text Bellow !Jenis Teks:Narrative (Naratif, dongeng) 1. Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata, khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis, yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). (b)Struktur Teks: Pengenalan tokoh, waktu, dan tempat: Pengembangan konflik; Penyelesaian konflik; Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita, misalnya, stepsisters, housework, dsb. adjectives yang membentuk noun phrase, misalnya, long black hair, two red apples, dsb. time connectives dan conjunctions untuk mengurutkan kejadian-kejadian, misalnya then, before that, soon, dsb. adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa, misalnya here, in the mountain, happily ever after,dsb. action verbs dalam past tense; stayed, climbed, dsb. saying verbs yang menandai ucapan seperti: said, told, promised, dan thinking verbs yang menandai pikiran, persepsi atau perasaan tokoh dalam cerita, misalnya thought, understood, felt, dsb.2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks: Pengenalan tokoh Pengembang an konflik 1 Snow White Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were dead. One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didnt
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have enough money to take Snow White. Penyelesaian konflik 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods.
Pengembang an konflik 2 Penyelesaian konflik 2 Pengembang an konflik 3
She was very tired and hungry.Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, what is your name? Snow White said, My name is Snow White. Doc, one of the dwarfs, said, If you wish, you may live here with us. Snow White said, Oh could I? Thank you. Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after.
Penyelesaian konflik 3
Task 3 Arrange the paragraph to from a story.
On the day of the feast Lebai dressed himself in his best, in made for his boat. But before he reached the boat, an idea came to his mind. The north village was delicious, but they slaughtered only one buffalo. Besides, the people there did not know him very well so that they wouldn't pay much respect to him. b. When he was about to reach the village, he passed people in boats rowing to the north. "Where are you rowing to?" theya.
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asked. "The feast there is over." When has was only halfway to the village he saw many people rowing their boats on the same direction, the north village, "Why should I go to the north village? They only slaughtered one buffalo," he thought. d. Many years ago on. a bank of a river in West Sumatra, there lived a poor man called Lebai. He made a living by teaching people to read the Koran. His house lied between two big villages. One village was to the north and other to the south of the river. e. On the contrary, the people in the south village knew him very well, and they slaughtered two buffaloes. But it was a little farther, For a moment he kept thinking, the north or the south, Finally, he decided to go to the nearer village first and then to 'the south village. Therefore he could get three buffalo heads, f. Lebai turned his boat and rowed to the other direction, to the south village where the family slaughtered two buffaloes. g. One day two rich families in the two villages were holding a big party at the same time. And both families had invited this poor man.c.
What will you get in chapter II ? Listening Responding to expression of admission Responding to expression of promise Responding to expression of desire Responding to expression of blame and accusation Responding to monologue in an explanation form Understanding the use of Passive Voice Speaking Expressing an expression of Expressing an expression of Expressing an expression of Expressing an expression of accusation admission promise desire blame and
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Reading Reading the text in an explanation form aloud in a good intonation Understanding the meaning of new words Identifying main ideas, supporting ideas and details in an explanation text Understanding the use of so, too, either and neither (Elliptical Construction) Writing Writing paragraph in an explanation form with correct structure Arranging information given to form in an explanation Using visual elements to support paragraphs
ListeningExpressions of admission You can admit to a fault before you're accused. A : I'm sorry. I'm the one who deleted the files. B : It's good, you admitted that. We'll find a way to restore it. At other times you may be given the opportunity to admit to something. A : Somebody spill, coffee on the table B : All right, I have to admit that I accidentally spilt it. I'll clean it up. Here, one is denying the truth of the statement. A : So. It's not true, is it, that you wrote you the answers in your palm? Page - 22
B : I am afraid that isn't true. Expressions of Promise Natalie : What shall we do on Saturday? Mrs. Lopes : Let me just say that we will go to Chicago. We can go to the Lincoln Park Zoo if you like. Theresa : Oh, no!! That's boring! How about going to a horror movie in stead? There is a special showing of the night of the living dead at the Rialto. Can we go, Mum? Mrs. Lopes : think, it's Pretty is scary, you know. Theresa : oh, please Mrs. Lopes : I suppose but you'd better keep your promise not scaring. Theresa : I promise, but there is one possibility, screaming (they laugh) Natalie : Great !. Theresa : Thanks! Oh Mum. Could you turn off the light on stairs? Mrs. Lopes : All right, Good night, you two ! sleep well Theresa : Night Mrs. Lopes : And don't have a nightmare about the 'Living Dead' Expressions of Desire Desire means something that we want passionately. Thus we express our desire for something that we really want. Mostly, the response is not helping to satisfy our desire since we yearn for something that is hard or almost impossible or that is high above our expectation. A : / long for meeting my cousin in the USA. I have never met him again since were ten years old. B : I hope you can meet him again someday. He must have changed a lot. A : Sir, we're dying to know which hotel II Divo personels stay while they're in Jakarta? B : I'm Sorry, but it's strictly prohibited to avoid their inconvenience. A : Oh Good, I crave for that doughnuts. They're so delicious You must try it. B : Youre so convincing that I want to try it. Why dont we go buying the doughnuts now ? Expressions of Blame and accusation Page - 23
Expression of blame are the expressions of how to consider somebody or something to be responsible for something bad, responsibility for something bad. A : Andi has broken your computer B : it's my fault Task 1 Answer the questions orally. 1. If you borrow something and your sister breaks it, should you pay for the repair? 2. Does it depend on what the thing is? 3. Should you apologies for it? 4. Will you get angry to your sister? Task 2 Listen the dialogue and answer the questions. 1. What's wrong with Adi? 2. What happened to his CD? 3. Does Rifki admit that it is his fault at first? 4. Will he pay for it? 5. Does Rifki say sorry for it? Task 3 You are going to listen to the same dialogue. Complete the text while you are listening. Compare your answer with your friends. Nadia Adi Nadia Adi : : : : What's 1, Adi? You don't look very happy. I'm not. It's not 2 Look at this. What's that? It's my favorite CD. I 3 it to Rifki and this is what happened to it. What' What did he do to it? he didn't do anything. His sister's dog 4 it. It's completely destroyed. So? Whats the 5 ? Rifki can buy you a new CD. That's what I think, but he says it's not his 6 He says he won't pay for it. What' He has to pay for it, Well, hw won't pay for it. It's not fair. Come on, let's go and talk to him.
Nadia : Adi : Nadia : Adi : Nadia : Adi : Nadia :
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Nadia and Adi come to Rifki. Nadia : Hi, Rifki. Adi has just told me about his CD. Rifki : Oh yes, It's 7isn't it/ It's my sister's fault. Adi : it was your 8. ., Rifki. Rifki : You have to talk to my sister about it. Adi : I lent it to you, Rif, not to your sister. Nadia : That's right, Rif. You should buy Adi a new CD. Rifki : Look, 9 . of it. Nadia. It's none of your business. Nadia : Yes, it is, Rifki, Adi's my friend. Rifli : OK. It's my fault, isn't it? I must 10 . Adi : It's good you 11. that. Apology 12 . Task 4 Discuss the answer to the questions 1. What phrases does Rifki use to deny Nadia and Adi's accusation? 2. What phrases does Rifki use to admit his fault? 3. What phrases does Adi use to respond Rifki's regret? 4. What phrases does Rifki use to say sorry? Task 5 You are going to listen to some short dialogues. Choose the best responses to the expressions you hear. 1. a. I do apologies, Sir. b. Really? 2. a. I don't think so. b. I promise. c. You'd better keep your promise. 3. a. I have to admit it. b. It's good for you admitted that. c. Apology accepted. Task 6 You are going to listen to a text. Discuss the answers to these questions. 1. What causes the evaporation of water from the world's oceans, lakes, and rivers? 2. What happens to the moistures-laden air as it rises? 3. What forms as the amount of water vapor grows in the air? 4. How is the water returned to Earth? 5. What are the forms of precipitation? 6. Where does the water flow back to?
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Task 7 Decide whether each of the statement is true or false, 1, The moon causes the evaporation of water 2. Evaporated water gathers in the atmosphere. 3. Clouds are formed as the water vapor becomes a liquid as it becomes cooler. 4. Rain clouds form as the amount of water vapor decreases. 5. The water is returned to Earth as rain, hail or snow. Task 8 Match these picture to the explanation you hear.
Grammar Flash Passive Voice1. Simple Present Tense
S + tobe Present (is, am, are) + Verb 3 (Past Perticiple) Examples The newspapers are read by her every morning The book is bought by her the book shop Page - 26
The letter is written by him for his parents
2. Past Tense
S + tobe Past (were, was) + Verb 3 (Past Perticiple) examples The newspapers were read by her yesterday The book was bought by her at the book shop The letter was written by him for his parents3. Present Continuous Tense
S + tobe Present (is, am, are) + Being + Verb 3 (Past Perticiple) Examples
The newspapers are being read by her. The book is being bought by her at the book shop The letter is being written by him for his parents
4. Past Continuous Tense
S + tobe Past (were, was) + Being + Verb (Past Perticiple) Examples
The newspapers were being read by her yesterday. The book was being bought by her at the book shop The letter was being written by him for his parents
5. Past Perfect Tense
S + had + been + Verb 3 (Past Perticiple) Examples
The newspapers had been read by my father. The book had been bought by her at the book shop The letter had been written by him for his parents
6. Simple Future Tense
S + will / shall + be + Verb 3 (Past Perticiple)
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The homework will be finished by her tomorrow. The parents shall be invited by the headmaster tomorrow. The letter will be sent by her.
SpeakingTask 1 1. Your teacher gave an assignment to write an essay on a particular topic. You were too busy to write the essay. Then, you copied an article from a magazine. Your teacher knew you did not write the essay. What might he say? 2. How did you respond to your teacher's accusation? Would you admit that you copied the article? 3. Would you apologies to your teacher? Would you regret it? How did you express it? Task 2 Read the following dialogue and answer the questions. Mrs. Rita : Dadi . did you write the essay? Dadi : Yes, mom. Mrs. Rita : You did not write it, did you? I think you copied it from a journal or somewhere else. Dadi : I'm afraid that wasn't true. Mrs. Rita : Really? I've read this article. It's Mr. Kamaruddin's essay, isn't it? Dadi : That's right. mom. 1 have to admit 1 downloaded it from the Internet. I regret it. Mrs. Rita : Its good that you admitted it. Dadi : I do apologize, mom. Mrs. Rita : Apology accepted but you have to be punished. You have to write two essays on different social phenomena. Dadi : Yes, mom. I honestly regret doing this shameful thing. I Page - 28
promise I won't do so next time. Mrs. Rita : You'd better keep your promise, or else you'll fail on my subject.1. Did Dadi write the essay by himself? 2. How does Mrs. Rita know that the essay Dadi submitted is
someone elses writing? 3. Does Dadi admit that the essay is not his at first? 4. How does Dadi tell his teacher that he is sorry because of doing something wrong? 5. What does Dadi have to do as a punishment for cheating? Task 3 Look back at the dialogue in task 2 . Then, answer the questions. phrases does Mrs. Rita use to accuse Dadi? phrases does Dadi use to deny and admit it? phrases does Dadi use to express his regret? phrases does Dadi use to apology? phrases does Dadi use to promise that he won't do the shameful deed again? Task 4 Write a suitable response to admitting and denying statements. 1. A B. 2. A B. 3. A B. 4. A B. 5. A B. : Im sorry. Im the one who look your book. : : So, you saw the person who took the bicycle : : You are the one who broke the glass : : This isnt the recipe I asked for : : Im afraid. Im the one who forgot to lock the door. :1. What 2.What 3. What 4.What 5. What
Task 5 Answer the questions?1. 2. 3. 4.
Do you know how plants get their food? What do plants need 'to get their food? Is light part of the process? Can you explain the process of how plants get their food? Page - 29
What do you call the process?
Task 6 On your own, write five questions based on the text. Then interview your partner using the questions. What is Photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is a foodmaking process that occurs in green plants. it is the chief function of 'leaves. The word photosynthesis means pitting together with light. Green plants use energy from light to combine carbon dioxide and water to make sugar and other chemical compound& How is the light used in photosynthesis? The light used in photosynthesis is absorbed by green pigment called chlorophyll. Each food-making cell in a plant leaf contains chlorophyll in small bodies called chloroplast. In chloroplasts, light energy causes water drawn from the soil to split into hydrogen and oxygen. What are the steps of photosynthesis process? Let me tell you the process photosynthesis, in a series of complicated steps, the hydrogen combines with carbon dioxide from the air, forming a simple sugar. Oxygen from the water molecules is given off in the process. From sugar-together with nitrogen, Sulphur, and phosphorus from the soil-green plants can make starch, fat, protein, vitamins, and other complex compounds essential for life, Photosynthesis provides the chemical energy that is needed to produce these compounds. Task 7 Find Indonesian meaning for these words taken from the text in task 6. Then pronounce these words. Study their transcription.
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Task 8 Look at the picture. Then, describe the process of photosynthesis using your own words.
ReadingTask 1 Read the following text and Answer the Questions
Acid RainAcid rain is rain that is highly acidic because of oxides, nitrogen oxides, and other air pollutants dissolved in it. Normal rain is General Statement
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slightly acidic, with a pH of 6. Acid rain may have a pH values as low as 2.8. Acid rain can severely damage both plant and animal life. Certain lakes, for example, have lost all fish and plant life because of acid rain. Acid rain comes from Sulphur in coal and oil. When they bum, they make Sulphur dioxide (SO2). Most Sulphur leaves factory chimneys as the gaseous Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and almost nitrogen is also emitted as one of the nitrogen oxides (NO or NO2), both of which gases. The gases may be dry deposited-absorbed directly by the land, by lakes or by the surface vegetation. If they are in the atmosphere for any time, the gases will oxide (gain an oxygen atom) and go into solution as acids. Sulphur acid (H2S02) and the nitrogen oxides will become nitric acid (HN02) The acids usually dissolve in cloud droplets and may travel great distances before being precipitated as acid rain. Catalysts such as hydrogen peroxide, ozone and ammonium help promote the formation of acid in clouds. More ammonium (NH4) can be formed when some of the acid are partially neutralized by airborne ammonia (NH3). Acidification increases with the number of active hydrogen (H+) ions dissolved in acid. Hydrocarbons emitted by for example, car exhausts will react in sunlight with nitrogen oxides to produce ozone. Although it is invaluable in the atmosphere, low level ozone causes respiratory problems and also hastens the formation of acid rain. When acid rain fails on the ground it dissolves and liberates heavy metals and aluminium (Al). When it is washed into lakes, aluminium irritates the outer &j-faces of many fish. As acid rain falls or drains, into the lake pH oh the lake falls. Forest suffers the effect of acid rain through damage to leaves through the loss of vital nutrients, and through the increased amounts of toxic metals Page - 32
liberated by acid, which damage roots and soil micro organism.1. What is acid rain? 2. What is the pH of normal rain? 3. How is Sulphur dioxide formed? 4. What will happen to Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide if they are in the atmosphere for any time? 5. What substances react to form nitric acid? 6. What help promote the formation of acids in clouds? 7. What influences the increase in acidification? 8. How is ozone produced? 9. Does low level ozone harm respiratory organs? 10.How does acid rain affect forest? Task 2 Read the passage on "Down Syndrome" and answer the questions.
Down SyndromeGeneral Statement If you have Down's syndrome, you have an extra chromosome in each of your cells, Chromosomes carry all the information was inherit from our parents, which affect how we look, grow and feel. Humans usually have 23 pairs of chromosomes, but people with Down's Syndrome have an extra copy of one chromosome. It doesn't sound like much of a difference. But that extra chromosome affects how the body and mind develop. That's why people like Stacey, Richie, Maria and Jack may take longer than other children to learn to walk, speak, read and write. At birth, babies with Down's syndrome tend to be small and their muscles may be weak. Propel with Down's syndrome are also more likely to have heart defects, and many babe problems with their eyesight or hearing, They also tend to have skin problems and may have a lot of coughs and colds, so they need to take extra care of themselves. One in every 1,000 babies is born with Page - 33
Down's syndrome. It happens all over the world. Women of all ages can have babies with Down's syndrome, but it is more likely if a woman has a baby when she is in her late thirties or forties. Stacey has Down's Syndrome, Every morning, her older sister, Jo and Stacey walk to their school. It's just down the road from where they live. Stacey needs extra help with her reading and writing, but not with her favorite lesson, art. She often draws pictures of the family pets, especially of the dog. Richie is five years old and he has Down's syndrome too. He loves playing with his bigsister, Megan. When Mum and Dad first brought Richie home from the hospital, they were very worried about him, but Megan thought the new baby was great. Now none of them can imagine life without Richie. Maria is 22 years old and she shares flat with three other young women, Sandy, Tina and Rachel. They all have learning difficulties, Sandy is deaf, Maria has Down's Syndrome. The four flat mates do their own shopping and look after themselves, with a little help from Liz and Jim who live next door. Maria has job at the local library. Jack catches a bus each morning to take him to a special school for children with learning difficulties. The school is in another town, and the journey takes about an hour. Jack likes the other children at the school, but they don't live near him so he can only see them at school. He wishes he cold go to the same school as his brother, Ben, so that he could make friends with those who live nearer his home.
1. Which of these statements below best explains the condition of people with Down's syndrome? a. They could not walk, speak and write. Page - 34
b. They always have problems with their eyesight and skin. c. They are unproductive people. d. They need longer times and extra help to learn things. 2. What do these words refer to? a. You paragraph 1 line 1 b. Their paragraph 3 line 2 c. She paragraph 4 line 4 d. They paragraph 5 line 3 3. Decide whether the statements below are true (T) or false (F). a. Liz and Jim do the shopping for Mara. Sandy, Tina and Rachel. b. Jack hates his present school. c. Any woman can have babies with Dawn's syndrome. d. Jo often draws pictures of the family pets, especially the dog. 4. Pick out two sentences which mention 'chromosomes". a. b.
5. Find out the new words in the text !
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Grammar Flash Elliptical Construction Observe the following sentences. 1. Eva does not have any big pets, and neither does Santy. 2. Eva will come to the festival at night and so will her cousin. 3. Eva prefers to do the Biology assignment first and Santy does too. 4. Santy does not understand the theory of relativity and Eva does not either. The sentences above can also be rewritten as follows. 1. Eva does not have any big pets, and Santy does not have any big pets. 2. Eva will come to the festival at night and her cousin will come to the festival. 3. Eva prefers to do the Biology assignment first and Santy prefers to do Biology assignment first. 4. Santy does not understand the theory of r6iativity and Eva does not understand the theory of relativity. The clauses in italics are called elliptic, elliptical construction or reduced clauses. Elliptical Construction Negative sentences, and + subject + aux. verb + not + either Negative sentences, and + neither+ aux. verb + subject Positive sentences, and + subject + aux. verb + too Positive sentences, and + so + aux. verb + subject We often use auxiliary verbs when we do not want to repeat Auxiliary Verbs something. do, does, did have, has, has to be (is, am, are, was, were) modal (will, shall, Page may, can, - 36 must).
Task 9 Complete the following sentences with elliptical construction use your own words. 1. She's never been to the Netherlands, and .. 2. Ill go home at four o'clock, and .. 3. My little brother event to bed very late last night, and .. 4. Ryan and Elma study English three days a week, and .. 5. We didn't watch TV on last Saturday night, and 6. Her son used to visit her once a month, and .. 7. I'm waiting for him, and .. 8. Hendry has never stayed at a hotel, and....... 9. Syahrul and Ryan are very good in astronomy, and 10. Nirina can speak French well, and .. 11. The secretary did not come on time, and .. 12. Mr. Wawan will be angry because you broke the glasses, and 13. The man is a familiar to me, and.
WritingTask 1 Look at the picture and answer the question.
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1. What is the picture of? 2. What is the function of this organ? 3. Can you explain how it works? Task 2 Put the sentences into right order to explain how your heart works. 1. After this, the blood containing fresh oxygen flows into the left part of your heart to be pumped round your body once again. 2. The left part pumps blood through arteries into your body. 3. This blood contains fresh oxygen from your lungs. 4. This blood contains carbon dioxide, which is the waste gas that your cells give out after they have used up the oxygen. 5. The right part of your heart takes in blood from your body through the veins. 6. Your heart has two main parts that have different pumping jobs to do. 7. The blood is then pumped into your lungs, where the carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen,
Task 3 Work in pairs. Match each of the explanations with their suitable corresponding pictures
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How a fuse works a. Connect a thin strand of steel wool to the two free ends of wire. This is now your fuse. Place the bare ends of the fourth piece of wire on the two screws of the bulb holder. You have now made a short circuit. The bulb will go out. The steel wool quickly heats up and melts. This breaks the circuit and the current stops following b. Connect the second piece of wire to the other side of the bulb holder. Connect the third piece of wire to the other terminal of the battery. c. Test your apparatus by taking the free end of each wire either hand. Touch the bare ends together and It he bulb should light up. Separate the two ends and the bulb should go out d. You will need 6aur pieces of plastic-coated wire, 20 cm long, with bate ends, some fine steel wool, a 4.5 volt battery, a 4.5 volt bulb in a bulb holder and a screwdriver. e. Connect one piece of wire to one terminal of the battery. Connect the other end of the wire to one side of the bulb holder. Task 4 How to make a rainbow a. Rest the mirror in the water at an angle, using modelling clay to make it stand up. Move the tray until sunlight falls directly on the mirror. b. Move the card around between the tray and the window until you see a rainbow appears on it. You may have to move the mirror to get this just right.
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c. Fill the tray with the water to a depth of about two centimetres. Place the tray by a window, Draw the curtains so that only a narrow shaft of sunlight enters the room. d. You will need water, modelling clay, a piece of white card or thick paper, a shallow tray, a small mirror. Jenis Teks : Explanation (Penjelasan) 1. Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menerangkan Proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan at-au kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam, dunia ilmiah, sosial-budaya, atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. (b) Struktur Teks: Penjelasan umum; Penjelasan proses; Penutup. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan general dan abstract nouns, misalnya, word chopping, earthquakes; action verbs; simple present tense; passive voice Conjunctions of time dan cause. noun phrase, misalnya the large cloud: abstract nouns, misalnya the temperature; adverbial phrases; complex sentences; bahasa teks; kalimat pasif
Penjelasan 2. Umum Contoh dan Struktur Teks Making Paper from Woodchips Wood chipping process used to obtain pulp and paper Penjelasan product from forest trees. Proses
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The wood chipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them 'Into small pieces called woodchips. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper, Task 5 Write paragraph based on the following picture. Write your draft in the boxes that you copy in your workbook.
General The moon gives off no light of its own explanation The moon shines by reflecting sunlight Next, __________________________ Then, __________________________ Finally, ________________________ Process explanation Closing
Task 6 Complete the text with words using the diagram.
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CHAPTER III DISCUSSION What will you get in chapter III ? Listening Responding to expression of saying curiosity, hope and wish Responding to monologue in discussion form Respond to the use of modality Speaking Expressing an expression of saying curiosity, hope and wish. Identifying a text in a discussion form. Perform a monologue of discussion texts. Reading Reading the text in a discussion form aloud in a good intonation Understanding the meaning of new words Identifying main ideas, supporting ideas and details in a discussion text. Understanding the use of preferences Writing Writing paragraph in a discussion form with correct structure. Arranging information given to form in discussion Using visual elements to support paragraphs
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ListeningTask 1 Answer the following questions. 1. Do you watch TV every day? 2. What programme do you usually watch? 3. What are advantages and disadvantages of watching TV every day? Task 2 Look at the pictures. Then listen and answer the following questions.
Task 3 Listen to the statements. Then, decide whether each of the statements you heard is true (T) or (false) Task 4 Listen to the activities and opinions. Rewrite them in the following column based on the text you heard. Do it in your workbook. Activities Opinions
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Task 5 Listen to the dialogue and complete the following.
Man : Woman: Man : Woman: Man : Woman: Man : Woman: Man :
Woman: Man : Woman:
I wonder what you think about watching television. Hmm .... frankly, I love it. You do? Why do you say that? I'll tell you this. By watching 1 well l know up to date 2 Broad 3 and not to mention it's fun. How about shopping on the 4.. ? It can save our time. All we have to do is simple, just make a 5 .. ..call. Well, I think the product makes you spend a lot of money. What makes you think like that? I never thought of it that way. It's not true, What I'm saying is true. You will buy things that you don't need. I don't think so. I never buy things I don't need. I just tell you not to readily believe the commercial advertisements. OK. Thanks I'll remember that.
Task 6 Listen to the dialogue and then answer the questions. 1. what do Nadia and Adi talk about? 2. What does Nadia want to know? 3. What is Adi's opinion about the issue? Page - 46
4. What phrase does he use to express it? 5. What does Adi hope for the government?
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Task 7 You are going to listen to the dialogue again. Complete it while you are listening. Compare your answer with you friend's. Nadia : 1 what your opinion on abortion is. Adi : 2 I oppose it, for any reasons. Nadia : So, is it why you voted for the president candidate who campaigns pro-life? Adi : Yeah. 3 .. The government won't pass a law legalizing abortion. Nadia : But I heard the House the house is discussing a bill to legalize abortion for medical reasons. Adi : Really? 4 the law won't be misused by some irresponsible people. Study the following expressions! Saying you are curious I wonder....? I'd be very interested to know..... I wish I know..... I'd like to know.... What I'd really like to find out is.... I'd love to know.... What's on your mind? I've been meaning to ask you.
Saying What You Hope Will Happen I hope.... I wish..... I'd like..... I'm hoping I'm hoping for..... Hopefully.... .., I hope. I do hope. I do hope for.... Expressing wishes
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I I I I
wish wish wish wish
to speak to the president that I could fly an airplane I were a pilot I were a Superman Grammar Flash Modals
Modal auxiliary verbs Can Can is used for saying ability, possibility and permission. Examples I can sing a song ability The dog can bite you if you disturb it. possibility Can I help you? permission May May is used for asking permission and possibility in the present. Examples May I come to your home? permission She may be at library possibility Shall Shall is used for saying suggestions and offering. Examples Shall we do the homework? Suggestion Shall I buy you some flower? Offering Will Will means "akan" (future). Examples He will come tomorrow future He will be angry if you leave him future Must Must is used for saying necessity and certainty (present form). Must does not have past form, past form from must we can use "had to" and the present form is 'have to". Examples She must go now necessity You must tidy your house before your mother comes certainty Ought to Ought to is used for saying necessity but it is different with must because we are able not to do. Examples Page - 49
Y He ought to do the homework necessity She ought to go hoe early necessity Could Could is for saying ability (past form and present form) and request (present) Examples He could buy every thing when he was rich ability Could I borrow your pen, please? request Might Might is for saying permission, possibility (present) wish and hope. Examples She said that he might go to the dentist permission Might I find you next day! wish You might help me do my homework hope Risna might be unhappy with your attitude possibility Should Should is used for saying obligation and advice. Examples We should study hard for examination obligation The better, we should obey our parents advices advice Would Would is used for predicting, request, and preference. Examples It would be better for you to take a nap for a while predicting Would you open the window, please! Request I'd rather go to the mountain than to the beach preference Used to Used to/Get used + Verb ing is used for saying habitual at the present. Used to + V 1 is used for saying habitual that is done in the past and it is not done again. Examples He used to play piano when he was young. habitual in the past Sonny is use to getting fat every time habitual at the present. Need Need/needn't is used for saying that something needs to do but it can be done if we want it. Page - 50
Examples She need irons her clothes. They need a new ball.
SpeakingTask 1 Read the dialogue and find out what expression is used. 1. A : B: 2. A : B: 3. A : B: 4. A : B: 5. A : B: 6. A : B: What's on your mind? I want to buy diamond. I hope they work well. I hope so. I do not hope they get some problems. I hope not. I hope that economic crises stop earlier. I am still hoping, too. I really wish I knew him. Okay, let me just tell you that he is a bank manager. Where is he now? I wish he were here. Okay, let's wait him few minutes.
Task 2 Read the following dialogue and practice it with your friend! Bill John Bill John Bill Good morning, John. Morning, Bill. How are you today? I'm fine, but I have a little problem. So, tell me, Bill. What's the problem? Well, I'm hoping to get a new job in a big automobile company; I want to try to earn living better. John : That sounds great. : : : : :
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: I wish you could help me to contact the personal manager of the company because I know he is your best friend. John : I see, Bill. But, I want you to see him yourself. Bill : Okay, I will do myself. I hope I could see him tomorrow. John : I hope that everything works out well for you. Bill : Yeah, I hope so, too. Thanks, John. See you. John : You're welcome. See you, Bill. Task 3 Write your own expressions based on the information below. Your wish is having a lot of money deposited in a bank. Suppose that someone needs your help. He/she does not have anything to eat. Answer the following questions honestly. What do you want him/her to do? Do you really want to lend or to give him/her some money? What do you hope if you lend him/her some money?
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Task 4 Arrange the following sentences into a dialogue!
The volcano erupted again yesterday, didn't it? Yes, that's right. We are in trouble. That's very dangerous. I can't go to the rice field. Lava flows rapidly in the river. I hope that it will not move to our village. I can't go to work because the ashes forced out into the air and made the air pollution. Im still hoping, too. I hope that the volcano explosion stops. Yes, I hope so. Let's pray to God. We wish this natural disaster did not collapse all the things in our surrounding. A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________
Task 5 Answer the following questions. 1. Do you like watching TV? 2. What kind of television programmes do you like? 3. Do you think television is important? Why? Page - 53
4. Can you live without television? Why? Task 6 Read the text aloud. Many people who are alive today know what it's like to live in a world without television. Television as we know is only about forty years old. Yet seems as if had it always existed. Some people think that the years before television were a better time. They claim that families talked more and did more things together. More books were read. People used their imaginations more fully. People get more outdoor exercise. But others disagree. They claim that television is a powerful educational tool. It informs us of what goes on in the world, from a famine in Africa to a local politics to fashion. It helps us understand how people live, work, and struggle. In 1961, Newton Minnow, a government official, called primetime schedules "a vast wastelands". Even though Minnow that over thirty years ago, many feel that it is still true today. Television is credited with being a great teacher. It is also blamed for the poor reading and writing skills of our population. Television gets praised for helping us understand the people of the world. But it has been accused of helping to destroy family life. Television keeps us informed about the political issues of the day. But it an also make us lazy by giving us only "news briefs" that are too short to tell the whole story. Experts will probably continue to argue about television's value. But everyone agrees that it is one of the most significant inventions of the twentieth century. Even people who love television love to criticise it, as one writer puts it. Television influences everyone and it pleases no one fully. Task 7 Read the following text Characters : 1. Rita : a housewife with two children Anderson : a primary school teacher 2. Alice Woods : a senior police officer 3. Joe : a manager of a major broadcasting Simmonds company 4. Philip Regent : a senator 5. Nancy Mead : a senator Page - 54
6. Simon Roach
I can't play with my children all the time. I have to go shopping do cleaning and so on. When the kids are watching TV, they are quiet. They enjoy it and they learn a lot
The TV companies say if you don't like it, switch it off. Well, by the time you realise you don't like it, it's too late to switch it off. Anyway, most people are passive viewers-they don't care what they watch. They worst problem is the effect on children. They are easily influenced by TV because they enjoy it, but they can't judge what's true or false and so they tend to believe everything they see. In fact, television programmes are full of lies. If children believe that the violence and debauchery they see on TV is typical of the world, they will become indifferent to it, or worse, they will copy it. If teachers and parents taught their children that violence and crime were exciting, we'd call them irresponsible. But that's exactly what the TV companies are doing all the time. The government report just shows the tip of the iceberg. The moral level of society is failing. Of course, I blame parents as well as TV. They use television as a cheap babysitters while they are out drinking. Parent don't bother to teach kids what is right and what is wrong these days.
We don't society, we only report it, Our job is to show live as it really is. If we broadcast fairy stories and church sermons every night, how many people would watch? We have to give people what they want. If their taste is bad, that not our fault. Our function is to entertain, not to educate. Page - 55
I propose to establish a Television Censorship Board with powers to revoke broadcasting licensees. This board would investigate all complaints received from the public and would judge programmes based on a fixed standard. In each case where a programme was judged to be violence on pornographic, a $10.000 fine would be imposed. If any company commits such offences five times in any one year, their license will be cancelled
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Any kind of Government control over the mass media is a step towards a police state. Who has the right to tell people what to watch and what not to watch?. Certainly not a few prudes in a non elected Censorship Board.
Task 8 Study the text again and complete the following sentences. 1. Rita thinks TV can help her when she is busy because _____________________ 2. Alice says that most people are passive viewers because ___________________ 3. The worst problem of watching TV according to Alice is ____________________ 4. Bad effects of TV that will probably influence children are _____ and __________ 5. Lies presented on TV is said to be bad for children, ___ and ____ or __________ 6. Joe would call teacher and parents irresponsible __________________________ 7. Joe blames parents as well as TV because he thinks that ___________________ 8. "They use TV as a cheap babysitter" means _____________________________ 9. Philip says that their main jobs are ______, ________, and ____ but not ______ 10. The powers of Television Censorship Board are _______, _____, and _________ Task 9
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Work in groups of four. Each group chooses one of these five statements. One pair of students prepare arguments for the statements; the other three prepare arguments against it. Issue 1. Television is hurting our young people. 2. The violence on TV and in movies causes violence in real life. 3. Arguments for, be government censorship (control) of TV There should programmes and movies. point 1 4. Watching TV is too passive. Children should be doing more creative and active things. 5. Public television has better programmes than the other networks. Elaboration
Task 1 Read the text and answer the following question Arguments against, point 2 Living in a city has both advantages and disadvantages On the plus side, it is often easier to Elaboration find work, and there is usually a choice of public transport, so you don't need to own car. Also, there are a lot of interesting things to do and places to see. For example, you can eat in good restaurants, visit museums, and go to the theatre and to concerts. What is more, when Conclusion you want to relax, you can usually find a park where you can feed the ducks or just sit on a park bench and read a book. All in all, city life is full of bustle and variety and you need never feel bored. However, for every plus there is a minutes. For one thing, you might have a job, but unless it is very well paid, you will not be able to afford many of the things that there are to do, because living in a city is often very expensive. It is particularly difficult to find good, cheap accommodation. What is more, public Page - 58
transport is sometimes crowded and dirty, particularly in the rush hour, and even the parks can become very crowded, especially on Sundays when it seems that every city dweller is looking for some open space and green grass last of all, despite all the crowds, it is still possible to feel very lonely in a city. In conclusion, I think that city life can be particularly appealing to young people, who like the excitement of the city and don't mind the noise and pollution. However, many people, when they get older, and particularly when they have young children, often prefer the peace and fresh air of the countryside.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Who prefer to live in cities? Who find it difficult to live in the city? Why do people like getting out into the park? Name two interesting things to do in the city. Who can afford living in the city? Why?
Task 2 Answer the questions based on your knowledge. 1. 2. 3. 4. Do you think all programmes on TV are good ? Why? Can TV influence us, especially teenagers? Do you agree if children watch all programmes on TV? Do you think TV has advantages and disadvantages? Explain.
Task 3 Look at the picture, then read the following text!
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The government has just published a report which suggests that TV is partly responsible for the serious increase in crime over the last ten tears. The report stressed in particular the harmful effects of television on children, who are being exposed to increasing violence or pornography on television.
Task 4 Now, list the pros and the cons of television with you friend Pros Cons
Task 5 Work in pairs. Discuss the following text and report your conclusion to your teacher. Television Ads Need of 'Quality Control'. Commercial breaks during television shows generally generate one of two reactions: viewer will reach for the remote and switch channels, or they will sit through the ads. That reaction depends largely on the quality and entertainment value of the ads. "TV ads can be amusing sometimes, especially those with cute children," said Yesi, a 28 year-old English tutor who spends about six hours a day watching TV. " But some ads can be considered insulting to our intelligence." Page - 60
Yesi said most of the time she automatically switched the channel during commercial breaks. In a recent survey by Marketing Research Indonesia (MRI), some 47 percent of respondents said they switched channel during commercial breaks, while 37 percent said they sat through the ads. The advertising industry needs to look at the quality of its output because "consumer tends to avoid TV ads," said MRI managing director Harry Puspito. In the survey of 711 people in Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, Medan, and Makassar, 83 percent of respondents suggested that the government strictly regulate the content of TV ads. "Actually, some of the TV ads have improved, "Yesi said" but there are still a lot of advertisers who cut the duration and repeat their jargon more than three tomes in one spot" "OK, we got the message already the first time, she said". Those kinds of ads don't stimulate us to buy the products". There has been a tendency for advertiser to maximize their money while cutting production costs by repeating the same commercials three times. This strategy seems to have failed since the survey found that 67 percent of respondents agreed on the limitations of repeating TV commercials. Despite all the criticism, most respondents agreed on the importance of TV ads to supports broadcast programs. Some 80 percent saw the necessity of ads for the survival of TV stations. "We already have a code of ethics for advertising, "Association Chairman RTS Mash said, "but the stakeholders in the advertising business are not only the professionals". "Beside the advertiser and the advertising industry, "he said, "television stations should also take part in filtering quality ads to show audiences". He added that media, especially television stations, should take a stand in rejecting advertisements considered to be of low quality. Despite an increase in expenditures on TV ads, as reported in a survey by Nielsen Media research, Masli said the quality of advertisements in Indonesia still trailed other countries in the Asia Pacific. "In Thailand, for example, the advertising industry always considers the consumers", Masli said. "Meanwhile, our importance of this kind of cultural communication. Task 6 Page - 61
Read the text ad decide if each of the following sentences is true (T) or false (F) Today, there is a TV set in nearly every home. People watch TV every day, and some people watch it from morning until night. Americans watch TV about 35 hours a week. But is TV good or bad for you? People have different opinions. Average TV is viewing time in a week for adults. Age 18-34 35-54 55+ Men 24 hours 28 hours 39 hours Women 29 hours 32 hours 44 hours
1. TV is a powerful educational too! 2. Families will talk more and do more things together, if there is no TV. 3. More books weren't read because there was a TV. 4. TV helps us understand how people live, work, and struggle. 5. We are entertained by TV, 6. People got more exercise from TV. 7. TV informs us about what is going on in the world. 8. People use their imaginations more fully. 9. Programs on the radio are better than that on TV. 10. There's a lot of crime and violence on TV today. The programmers are terrible. Task 7 Judge Complete the following sentences using the words. Tend Bother Fairy Fine Impose commitsblame indifferent offence sermon fault prude 1. I cant __________________ wheatear he was right or wrong. 2. Princes are _________________ to upwards this year. 3. How can you be so _____________ to the sufferings of these children? Page - 62
4. Bad workman often _____________ them tools 5. Im sorry to __________ you, but could you tell way to the station? 6. We has to listen to along __________ about not wasting money. 7. Whose __________ is it? Mine, Im afraid. 8. Offenders may be liable to a heavy __________ 9. ___________ a fine is one of TV Censorships Boards job. 10. Because it was his first __________ the punishment was not too severe. Task 8 Study the following words with their meanings Judge = give a decision; decide. Blame = fix on somebody responsibility for something done or not done Tend = be inclined to move. Fairy = small imaginary being with magical powers. Sermons = talk on moral or religious subjects. Fault = mistake or offence; an error, especially in calculation. Imposed = lay down something compulsory, such as a tax or a punishment or a sentence. Commits = do something wrong or illegal Grammar Flash Preference Prefer (verb) and preference (noun) is used to state choices. 1. Like ..better than a. Bentuk preference Examples She likes ice cream better than juice They like coffee better than tea. b. Bentuk preference yang memiliki objek kata kerja S + like + verb ing + better than + verb ing Examples She likes swimming better than cycling They like singing better than dancing
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2. Prefer to a. Bentuk preference prefer .to dengan object. Examples She prefers study to play outside. They prefer vegetable to fruit b. Bentuk preference yang memiliki objek kata kerja S + prefer + verb ing + to + verbing
Examples She prefers playing badminton to playing chess They prefer taking a taxi to riding motorcycle S + prefer + to infinite + rather than + bare infinite Examples She prefers to play chess rather than watch TV They prefer to study English rather than study biology S + would prefer + to infinite + rather than + bare infinite Examples She would prefer to play chess rather than watch TV Shed prefer to eat chicken rather than cook the soup 3. Would rather .than S + would rather + verb 1 ....... than + verb1
Examples She would rather tidy her house than do nothing They would rather go picnic than work hard
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WritingTask 1 Analyze the schematic structure of the following text! There was a lot of discussion about whether boxing should be banned. The people who agree with this idea, such as Sarah, claim that if they do carry on boxing they also argue that people who do boxing could have brain damage and get seriously hurt. A further point they make is that most of the people that have died did have families. However, there are also strong arguments against this point of view. Another group of people believe that boxing should not be banned. They say that why they invent it if it is a dangerous sport. They say that boxing it will ruin people's careers. After looking at the different points of view and the evidence for them I think boxing should be banned because five hundred people have died in boxing since 1884.
Issue Argumen t againts
Argumen t for
Concluci on Task 2
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Find out the meaning of the following words based on the text! 1, to As with television, the argue Internet has an effects on our 1. argument = lives, bad effects and good 2. to ban = effects. The advantages of 3. to discuss = Internet are people can send 4. discussion = personal messages through the Internet, as if, they were talking Task 3 to one another. Messages Identify the sentences with modals in the text above! words or long maybe a few 1. Boxing should be banned. letters or reports. These 2. .. messages are called electronic The .. on mail or 3. Internet has information e-mail. People use an just .. You Internet address to send and about every subject. 4. can .. search through many receive mail. Other uses of 5. sources. Some information Internet include getting the maybe in collections of data latest news and playing games. Task 4 called the following questions a database. Other One part of the internet is Answer information is shared Internet? 1. What is the on small known as the World Wide Web, electronic What are advantages and disadvantages of the Internet? "bulletin boards" provides, 2. pictures, and where people exchange sometimes even sound to make 3. Do you know what an e-mail is? 4. Have you ever written an e-mail? 5. Do you think it is nice to keep in touch by e-mail?
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Task 6 Computers Read the following paragraph about computers. It contains some mistakes. Then, correct the mistakes. I loves a computers. They make my life so many b easier than it was when I had to used c a typewriter every time d I wanted to type something. Back then I had to start all over again whenever I make e a mistake. I really don't understand computers very well. Whenever I have a problems f, I have to get someone else to helping g me. I'm always afraid to try to fix it myself I guess I'm computer phobic. My mind just went blank. Just like my computer screen do h when I have a problem. And I have so much i problems with my computer. There are always technical problems with computers. The whole world worry j about technical problems. They are so unpredictable and unreliable. What else can I said k about computers? I only use them for word process l and e-mail. I enjoy communicate m with my friends by e-mailing n. Thats all. I know there is o lots of other uses but Ill never got p involved in them. I don't understand computers. Task 7 Taken Work in pairs. What is your opinion From Ready to Write More, 2004 the about the Internet? Choose following ideas that you agree with and give your reasons why. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Using the Internet is very relaxing. Using the Internet all day long is boring. Playing the Internet is nonsensical. Letting children play games on the Internet is good. Shopping on the Internet is exciting. Agree Disagree Reason
Jenis Teks : Discussion (Pembahasan) 1. Ciri Umum: Page - 67
(a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang, sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. (b) Struktur Teks: Isu; Pendapat yang mendukung: Gagasan Pokok 1, Elaborasi (uraian), Gagasan Pokok 2, Elaborasi (uraian).
Pendapat yang menentang:Gagasan Pokok, Elaborasi (uraian),
(c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori, misalnya uniforms, alcohol, dsb, relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan, misalnya smoking is harmful, dsb. thinking verbs untuk mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis, misalnya feel, believe. hope, dsb. additives, contrastive dan causal connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen, misalnya similarly, on the hand, however, dsb. detailed noun groups untuk memberikan informasi
secara padu, misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens, dsb. modalities, seperti perhaps, must, should, should have been, could be. dsb. adverbials of manner, misalnya deliberately. hopefully, dsb. 2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks: Homework Isu I have been wondering if homework is necessary.
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Pendapat yang mendukung
I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. Homework helps people who aren't very smart to remember what they have learned. Homework is really good because it helps with our education.
Pendapat yang menentang
But, many times, doing homework is not a great idea. I think we shouldn't have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family.
Task 8 Write a discussion text entitled "Positive and Negative Effects of Smoking on Our Health". Use the following clues below!
Generic human participants Many people, parents, teachers, buyers, sellers, smokers, non-smokers, passenger, government Non human participants Cigarettes, smog, public transportation, public place, school, hospital, cancer, disturb, sit, buy, sell, Action verbs Smoke, instruct, warm Page - 69
Linking verbs Mental verbs Transitions
Are, is Feel, argue, don't like, think, don't think, disagree furthermore, in Moreover, addition, in fact, as a matter of fact, however, on the contrary, on the other hand, conversely, so But, yet, and
Use the following steps of writing discussion text! Step 1 An opening paragraph that introduces the topic being discussed. It can contain a question about the topic. It can state the view of the author of the text. Step 2 Argument or point of view for with supporting evidence or elaboration (more details) Another arguments for with supporting evidence or elaboration (more details) Argument or point of view against with supporting evidence. Step 3 A conclusion that sums up the discussion and gives a recommendation or opinion.
CHAPTER IV ADDITION
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1. Conditional Sentence (Bentuk Pengandaian) a. Type I Type I adalah bentuk pengandaian dimana induk kalimatnya dalam bentuk simple future tense dan anak kalimat dalam bentuk simple present tense. Bentuk ini digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan atau kejadian yang akan dilakukan atau terjadi bilamana suatu syarat dipenuhi. Sentence pattern: If + Subject + Verb I + Object; Subject + will + verb 1 + Object Examples: If the rain stops today, I will go to the meeting If he has much money, he will buy me a motorcycle. If study hard, you will pass the exam. b. Type II Type II ialah bentuk pengandaian yang digunakan jika kita menghayalkan/ mengandaikan suatu keadaan yang bertentangan dengan keadaan yang ada. Dalam bentuk ini induk kalimat dalam bentuk past future sedangkan anak kalimat dalam bentuk past tense. Sentence pattern: If + Subject + Verb 11 + Object; Subject + Would + Verb I + Object Examples : If I were a doctor, 1 would take care them. If she studied hard, she could pass the exam. If he gave the money, I would buy some books.
Kata kerja yang digunakan dalam of clause adalah kata kerja bentuk past (V-ll) kemudian kita dapat mempergunakan would atau could + V-1. Di dalam if clause tidak pernah digunakan would atau could + V-1. c. Type III Bentuk pengandaian ini digunakan apabila kita membayangkan suatu kemungkinan yang lain dari suatu peristiwa yang sudah lewat atau sudah terjadi (past) dan tidak mungkin terjadi lagi. Dibentuk dengan Cara : Page - 71
Induk kalimat dalam bentuk : past future perfect Anak kalimat dalam bentuk : past perfect tense
Sentence pattern: If + Subject + had + Verb III + Object; I + would have + Verb III + Object Examples : If he had been there, I would have explained the matter. If they had told me the problem, I would have helped them. If my mother had asked me to do the home work, I would have done it. Penggunaan kata kerja has + V-III dalam if clause untuk menyatakan hal-hal yang sudah terjadi dan penggunaan would/could + have + V-III + O dalam main clause dapat diletakkan di depan atau di belakang untuk semua type balk type I, II atau III. Jika if clause diletakkan di depan maka setelah if clause diletakkan tanda koma. 2. Causative Verbs a. Causative Have Causative have ini dapat digunakan dalam dua bentuk, yaitu pasif dan aktif Struktur kalimat : S + has/have/had + object + Verb 1 + Verb 3 Verb 1 = Jika objeknya manusia Verb 3 = Jika objeknya bukan manusia Examples : The teachers have Linda do her homework S + have + O + Verb 1 His father has his car washed S + has + O + Verb 3 Untuk soal yang bersifat analisis, maka suatu pengertian sangat diperlukan, contohnya adalah sebagai berikut : Page - 72
1) S + has/havelhad + pronoun object manusia + Verb 1 Artinya/means : S + ask/asked + pronoun object manusia + to Verb 1 Example : They have their student bring the books. Means : They ask their student to bring the books.
2) S + has/have/had + object bukan manusia + Verb 3 Artinya/means : S + ask/asked + some/body + to - Verb 1 + object Example : Tuti has her brother's book returned Means : Tuti asks some/body to return her brother's book b. Causative Get Causative get pada dasarnya mempunyai struktur kalimat yang sama dengan causative have, tetapi ada penambahan to sebelum Verb 1 dalam causative get. Struktur kalimat : 1) S + get/got + pronoun object manusia + to - Verb 1 Artinya/means: S + ask/asked + pronoun object manusia + to - Verb 1 Example : Mother gets her daughter to study diligently. Means : Mother asks her daughter to study diligently
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2) S + get/got + pronoun object bukan manusia + Verb 3 Artinya/means: S + ask/asked + someone/somebody + to - Verb 1 + O Example: Sister got S + got + her wall painted O + Verb 3
Means : Sister asked somebody/body to paint her wall S + asked + somebody/body + to -Verb 1 + O
Jenis Teks: Description (Deskripsi) 1. Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang, tertentu.
(b) Struktur Teks: Pengenalan subjek; Ciri-ciri subjek, misalnya tampilan fisik, kualitas, perilaku umum, sifat-sifat. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: nouns tertentu, misalnya teacher, house,my cat, dsb. simple present tense.
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detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, misalnya It was a large open rowboat, a sweet young lady, dsb. berbagai macam adjectives, yang bersifat describing, numbering, classifying, misalnya, two strong legs, sharp white fangs, dsb. relating verbs untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, misalnya, My mum is realy cool, It has very thick fur, dsb. thinking verbs dan feeling verbs untuk mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis tentang subjek, misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed, I think it is a clever animal, dsb. action verbs, misalnya Our new puppy bites our shoes, dsb. abverbials untuk memberikan informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut, misalnya fast, at the tree house, dsb. bahasa figurative, seperti simile, metafor, misalnya John is white as chalk, sat tight,dsb
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3. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:
Macquarie University Subyek Deskripsi The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt, Sydney, where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. In 1964, Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe, but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe, Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the universitys most attractive natural features. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor, a grass amphitheatre, and artificial lake surrounded by rocks and pebbles, native plants and eucalypts. Today, a railway station is under construction. In three years1 time, Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway, yet retaining its beautiful site. Macquarie University is one of the largest universities in Australia. This year, in 2004, it celebrates its 40th anniversary.
Jenis Teks: Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis)
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Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. (b) Struktur Teks: Pernyataan pendapat; Argumen, terdiri atas point yang dikemukakan dan elaborasi; Penguatan pernyataan. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: General nouns, misalnya car, pollution, leaded petrol car, dsb. Abstract nouns, misalnya policy, government, dsb. Technical verbs, misalnya species of animals, dsb. Relating verbs, misalnya It is important, dsb. Action verbs, misalnya She must save, dsb. Thinking verbs, misalnya Many people believe, dsb Modal verbs, misalnya we must preserve, dsb. Modal adverbs, misalnya certainly, we, dsb. Connectives, misalnya firstly, secondly,dsb. Bahasa evaluatif, misalnya important, valuable, trustworthy, dsb. * Kalimat pasif Contoh dan Struktur Teks:
Cars should be banned in the city Pernyataan pendapat Argumentas i Cars should be banned in the city. As we all know, cars create pollution, and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Firstly, cars, as we all know, contribute to most of the pollution in the world. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis, lung cancer, and triggers off asthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad that Page - 77
people can die from them. Secondly, the city is very busy. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city, which causes them to die. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in the city, you may find it hard to sleep at night, or concentrate on your homework, and especially talk to someone. In conclusion, cars should be banned from the city for the reasons listed.
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Jenis Teks: Hortatory Exposition (Eksposisi hortatory) 1.
Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa sesuatu seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian. (b) Struktur Teks: Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan; Argumen: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan, dan mengarah ke rekomendasi Rekomendasi: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya. (d) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus ke pembica