Models of Teaching
Models of TeachingImam SujadiMath Departement of Sebelas Maret University11ObjectivesPracticum: Practical application of two models with emphasis on audience self directionRelate to HIP and 21st Century skills and toolsDemonstrate across grades and subjectsDemonstrate power and usefulness of Internet for research22Relevant Definitionsimprovisation -the practice of acting and reacting, of creating, in the moment and in response to the stimulus of one's environment.
divergent thinking -thinking that moves away in diverging directions involving various aspects leading to novel ideas and solutions.
convergent thinking -thinking that brings together information focused on solving a problem (especially solving problems that have a single correct solution).
inductive reasoning -reasoning from detailed facts to general principles.
deductive reasoning -reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect).
abstract thinking -thinking characterized by the ability to use concepts and to make and understand generalizations, such as of the properties or pattern shared by a variety of specific items or events.33Models PerspectivesWhen we work together we generate a collective energy that we call synergy. The social models are constructed to take advantage of this phenomenon by building learning communities. Essentially, classroom management is a matter of developing cooperative relationships in classrooms.
Models of teaching are really models of learning. As we help students acquire information, ideas, skills, values, ways of thinking, and means of expressing themselves, we are also teaching them how to learn. In fact, the most important long-term outcome of instruction may be the students increased capabilities to learn more easily and effectively in the future, both because of the knowledge and skills they have acquired and because they have mastered learning processes.44Models & Pedagogy of ConfidenceEducators recognize the importance of using strategies as skills-in-use so that the students learn to internalize the skills applied to real-world situations and learn in a meaningful context.
Educators understand how to differentiate instruction so that instructional levels are appropriately mediated within heterogeneous and collaborative groupings.
Educators understand, use, and adaptinstructionaligned withthe culture, language, and cognitive experiences students bring to school communitiesculturally responsive teaching.
55Models & Pedagogy of Confidence (continued)Problem-focused learning
Collaborative and applied work on issues of deep concern to the students and the community
Engagement in substantive dialogue, discussion, and debate about the substance of content among students
Peer and adult coaches and mentors
STUDENT VOICE66Models BackgroundBruce Joyce and Marsha Weil, while at TC in 1972, assemble the Models from an examination of the research of various social scientists and educators.
Each Model has two defining characteristics: it instructs and it nurtures.
In the mid 1970s Joyce and Weil move to Stanford and eventually Booksend Laboratories and ETR Associates, respectively.
In 2004 the Seventh Edition was published.77Renzulli Enrichment Triad ModelType III Investigations
88Group InvestigationTorture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Group Investigation 'Enhanced Interrogation Techniques' = TORTURE
SYNTAXPhase One:Encounter puzzling situation (planned or unplanned)
Phase Two:Explore reactions to the situation
Phase Three:Formulate study task and organize for study (problem definition, role, assignments, research sources, etc.)
Phase Four:Independent and group study
Phase Five:Analyze progress and process (interim reports and feedback)
Phase Six:Recycle activity (presentations including multimedia; initiate new investigations and competitions)1010Group Investigation Guidelines Author: Al-Qaida Has Nuclear Weapons Inside U.S.SOCIAL SYSTEMThe system is based on the democratic process and group decision, with low external structure. Puzzlement must be genuineit cannot be imposed. Authentic exchanges are essential. Atmosphere is one of reason and negotiation.
PRINCIPLES OF REACTIONTeacher plays a facilitative role directed at group process (helps learners formulate plan, act, manage group) and requirements of inquiry (consciousness of method). He or she functions as an academic counselor.
SUPPORT SYSTEMThe environment must be able to respond to a variety of learner demands. Teacher and student must be able to assemble what they need when they need it.
Source: Joyce, B. and Weil, M. (1986). Models of Teaching, 3rd Edition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
1111DEBATING/PUBLIC SPEAKINGThe Great Debaters - Trailer - SPIKE Powered by IFILMInstructs Disciplined Inquiry
Instructs Group Process
Instructs Presentation Modeling
Instructs Discursive Analysis, Rebuttal and Summation
Nurtures General Creative Capacity
JP Morgan Chase Lincoln Douglass Debates1212DEBATING/PUBLIC SPEAKINGYouTube - MALCOLM X: Debate with James FarmerNurtures good citizenship
Instructs awareness and knowledge of topics of importance to a democracy
Nurtures a competitive environment for the development of debate skills
Instructs re: the importance of excellent speaking and reasoning skills in today's business world
JP Morgan Chase Lincoln Douglass Debates
1313DEBATES SYNTAX Poll finds broad approval of terrorist torture - Americas- msnbc.comThe speeches are:
First Affirmative Constructive - 4 minutesCross Examination by the Negative - 2 minutesFirst Negative Constructive - 4 minutesCross Examination by the Affirmative - 2 minutesSecond Affirmative Constructive - 4 minutesCross Examination by the Negative - 2 minutesSecond Negative Constructive - 4 minutesCross Examination by the Affirmative - 2 minutesNegative Rebuttal - 3 minutesAffirmative Rebuttal - 3 minutes1414How do the judges evaluate the debates?The judges are instructed to consider the following criteria when judging debates:
Format - using appropriate Lincoln Douglas case structure.
Analysis - students' insight into the definitions and issues associated with the resolution; their ability to separate these issues from the whole idea and to classify them; their understanding of areas of agreement and disagreement between opposing teams.
Evidence - use of appropriate supporting information.1515How do the judges evaluate the debates? (continued)Organization - ability to develop reasonable arguments, consider alternatives, and refute opposing viewpoints in a concise and logical manner.
Refutation - ability to recognize the importance of opposing arguments, to challenge these arguments in the context of their own case structure, and to convince the judges of the superiority of their own contentions.
Delivery - ability to speak clearly and persuasively with poise and confidence, using appropriate eye contact, gesture, facial expressions, and a moderate speaking rate.
Bill Barthelme1616Models FrameMastery of learning strategiesMastery of contentClosing the achievement gapStudents as learning communitiesStudents self direction and sense of efficacyHIP+PStudent voiceCreativityRelevanceIndependent programs of study171721st Century ApplicationsStudent directed book clubsVideo documentariesStudent directed debating clubsCross class and cross school applications and competitionsModerated blogsGroup and individual portfoliosJournals and literary publicationsRadio and other broadcastsClass and external presentations1818