Mlinda Sundarbans Study - Final Report - 29 Apr 2013

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  • Mlinda Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

    i

    www.synergyz.in

    Preface

    Mlinda Foundation, an International NGO based in

    Paris, France, is focused on ecological conservation

    and restoration worldwide. Mlinda has its India

    Office based in Kolkata and one of the critical

    regions nominated for its interventions is the Indian

    Sundarbans where in the worlds largest mangrove

    forest is being degraded at a very rapid rate.

    NABARD is an apex development bank in India with a

    mandate for facilitating credit flow for promotion

    and development of rural economy and all other

    allied economic activities in rural areas promote

    integrated and sustainable rural development and

    secure prosperity of rural areas.

    This study commissioned by Mlinda and NABARD is

    focused on assessment of fossil fuel consumption, its

    impact and the scope for promoting renewable

    energy options for limiting ecological degradation

    within four blocks of the Indian Sundarbans viz.

    Basanti, Gosaba, Kultali and Patharpratima.

    The study has been undertaken by Synergyz

    Resource Advisory Consultants, a professional team

    of development specialists, to collate the levels of

    fossil fuel consumption in the target blocks and

    study the feasibility of promoting solar systems as

    an alternative source of clean and affordable energy

    option.

    Prepared by:

    Synergyz Resource Advisory Consultants Pvt Ltd

    23-A, Eashwaripuri Colony, Sainikpuri

    Secunderabad 500 094, India

    Email: contact@synergyz.in

    Website: www.synergyz.in

    Date: April 2013

  • ii Mlinda Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

    www.synergyz.in

    Table of Contents

    Acronyms & Abbreviations ........................................................................ v

    Part I - General

    Overview.............................................................................................. 2

    Section 1: Introduction ............................................................................ 5

    1.1 Impact of Climate Change on Sundarbans .......................................................................... 6

    1.2 Economic Importance ........................................................................................................... 7

    1.3 Need for Energy ..................................................................................................................... 7

    Section 2: Scope and Methodology ........................................................... 10

    2.0 Background .......................................................................................................................... 10

    2.1 Objectives of the Study ...................................................................................................... 11

    2.2 Expected Outcomes / Deliverables ................................................................................... 11

    2.3 Terms of Reference............................................................................................................. 11

    2.4 Survey Methodology ............................................................................................................ 13

    2.5 Sampling Size and Proposed Activities .............................................................................. 14

    2.5.1 Sampling Method ............................................................................................................... 14

    2.5.2 Size ..................................................................................................................................... 15

    2.5.3 Questionnaire .................................................................................................................... 15

    2.6 Activity List .......................................................................................................................... 15

    2.7 Field Surveys ........................................................................................................................ 17

    2.8 Limitations ........................................................................................................................... 17

    Section 3: Description of the Study Area .................................................... 19

    3.0 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 19

    3.1 Salient Socio-Economic Data of the Study Area ............................................................... 21

    3.1.1 Occupation and Livelihood: ............................................................................................. 22

    3.1.2 Spatial Distribution of Population ................................................................................... 22

    3.2 Status of Electricity ............................................................................................................ 24

    Part II - Analysis

    Section 4: Analysis - (Basanti, Gosaba & Kultali Blocks) ................................. 28

    4.0 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 28

    4.1 Present Status of Accessibility to Energy Sources ........................................................... 28

    4.1.1 Grid Power ......................................................................................................................... 28

    4.1.2 Solar Power ........................................................................................................................ 32

    4.2 Households and Clusters ..................................................................................................... 37

  • Mlinda Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

    iii

    www.synergyz.in

    4.2.1 Demography of HHs Surveyed .......................................................................................... 37

    4.2.2 Consumption of Kerosene at HH Level ........................................................................... 40

    4.2.3 Perception about Various Energy Sources ...................................................................... 43

    4.2.4 HH Clusters in the Blocks ................................................................................................. 44

    4.2.5 Demographic Profile of Clusters ...................................................................................... 45

    4.2.6 Consumption of Fuel in Identified Clusters .................................................................... 45

    4.3 Schools and Hospitals .......................................................................................................... 49

    4.3.1 Energy Usage in School Hostels ....................................................................................... 49

    4.3.2 Demography of Schools Surveyed .................................................................................... 50

    4.3.3 Consumption of Fuel in Schools ....................................................................................... 50

    4.3.4 Perceptions regarding Various Energy Sources .............................................................. 52

    4.3.5 Demography of Hospitals Surveyed ................................................................................. 53

    4.3.6 Level of Energy Consumption in the Hospitals .............................................................. 54

    4.3.7 Perceptions regarding Energy Sources ............................................................................ 54

    4.4 Commercial Establishments ............................................................................................... 56

    4.4.1 Demography of Markets Surveyed ................................................................................... 56

    4.4.2 Consumption of Diesel in Markets ................................................................................... 57

    4.4.3 Energy Usage in the Commercial Sector ........................................................................ 59

    4.4.4 Demography of Commercial Sector Surveyed ................................................................ 59

    4.4.5 Consumption levels of Diesel by the Agro-commercial Sector..................................... 60

    4.4.6 Perceptions regarding Various Energy Sources .............................................................. 60

    4.5 Water Transport .................................................................................................................. 62

    4.5.1 Demography and Fuel Consumption levels of Ferry Services ....................................... 62

    4.5.2 Fuel Consumption by Fishing Trawlers ........................................................................... 63

    4.5.3 Perceptions regarding Various Energy Sources by Boat Owners .................................. 64

    Section 5: Analysis (Patharpratima Block) .................................................. 65

    5.0 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 65

    5.1 Present Status of Accessibility to Energy Sources (as per government projects) ........ 66

    5.1.1 Grid Power ......................................................................................................................... 66

    5.1.2 Solar Power .................................