of 2 /2
515 instruction aims to banish a set symptomatic theory from I the mind of the student of medicine." The authors rightly insist that therapeutic measures should be directed against the cause of disease, and where a specific therapy is not available, that the recognition and treatment of those sym- ptoms which indicate danger or threaten life become the most important tasks. They have, therefore, studied sym- ptoms in disease from this standpoint, interpreting danger not only to mean the conditions that threaten life, but also to include symptoms indicating persistent damage. General symptoms are first discussed from this point of view, including conditions of cachexia, emaciation, obesity, metabolism, and anomalies of temperature, which are categorically considered together with their causation, mode <of origin, and significance. Symptoms associated with various individual systems or organs are then examined in a similar manner-e.g., disturbances of the heart’s action, pain in the chest, cough, vomiting, haemorrhage, dropsy, headache, sleeplessness, loss of consciousness, vertigo, and nystagmus. The examination of sputum., of the stomach contents, the fseces, and the urine, are also considered, and the light they throw upon the interpretation of symptoms is discussed. Chapters are devoted to severe general infections and auto-intoxications. Each subject dealt with is ex- amined at length, its particular pathology is considered in so far as this is necessary for its interpretation, and indi- cations for treatment are fully discussed, prescriptions being given in many instances. The value of other therapeutic measures is also described where they are available. The names of authorities are often appended to statements .quoted, but actual references are rarely given. The book is of more value as a work of reference in regard to the prognostic and diagnostic significance of symptoms, and the scientific application of treatment, than as a text-book, although practically the whole field of medicine is reviewed. Although it is diffuse in places, and although the arrange- ment of the subject matter is hardly systematic, yet it is a thoughtful and suggestive book, and one which should be useful practically for reference, as it has a good index. LIBRARY TABLE. The 31arch : Its l1Iecllanism, Effects, and Hygiene. By Lieutenant-Colonel P. HEHIR, M.D. Brux., 1.M.S. Calcutta : ’Thacker, Spink, and Co. 1912. Pp. 79. Price 3s. 6d. net. I -This brochure is an expansion of two lectures delivered to military officers in India, and will be of use to a wider circle than the original audience. The physiology of marching is ’dealt with, also the principles of training, in addition to the subjects mentioned in the title, so that the treatment of the subject is fairly comprehensive. There are one or two loose expressions which suggest lack of care in revision of the lectures-e.g., "carbon in combination with the invisible C02" in expired air. When Colonel Hehir states on p. 11 that nothing can be said against the khaki drill used by ,our troops in India," he is certainly not expressing the opinion of either combatant or medical officers in general. We are glad to learn that the new system of physical training for troops has been introduced into the Indian Army during the past year. It will, no doubt, prove as beneficial as in the case of troops at home. It is mentioned, however, that several adjutants do not consider it to be any ’’ improvement on the old method of training. The author considers boiling to be on the whole the most practicable way of sterilising a water-supply on the march ; but some instructions should have been given as to improvised methods of filtration, or at any rate clarification, of water in case heat sterilisation is impracticable. There are several mis- prints, such as " efficiency for inefficiency," on p. 54, which suggest hurry in preparation ; but there is much in the book that will be useful to all officers, combatant or medical, who wish to understand the physiology and hygiene of the march. Entomology for Medical Offleers. By A. ALCOCK, C.I.E., M.B. Aberd., F.R.S. London : Gurney and Jackson. Pp. 347. Price 9s. net.-This conveniently sized volume is a little more liberal in scope than its title implies. For the author, though throwing the chief part of his energy into a fairly detailed account of insects, gives some slighter notes upon the rest of the arthropoda, including scorpions, crustacea, and so forth. " This volume," observes the author in his preface, "is printed in response to repeated requests from members of my classes at the London School of Tropical Medicine," and obviously, therefore, must deal principally with those arthropods concerned in the carrying of disease. Dr. Alcock, who is an accomplished student of zoology, has far too clear a conception of his science to present the reader with the information required by him in a disconnected form. We find, accordingly, an annectant introduction, placing the student in a position to appreciate intelligently the actual facts of structure and life history which are important for him as a medical man to understand. The introductory part, however, occupies only 22 pages, and cannot be expected to put the reader in possession of more than the barest outline of the general aspects of zoology with which it is desirable that he should be acquainted. It is possibly rather too short, even for this condensed text-book. Zoogeography is perhaps more important in connexion with parasites than is admitted by some ; and zoogeography does not consist merely in a division of the earth into regions, as might be inferred by Dr. Alcock’s readers. Nor is he absolutely accurate in those facts which he mentions. The insectivora are not totally absent from the Austro-Columbian province, as the author would have us believe, for the West Indian solenodon may be at once quoted. A useful survey of what a parasite is and what it is not forms a considerable part of the introductory matter, and after this the author gets to work upon his main theme. The various groups of arthropoda are treated seriatim, commencing with the insecta. The Indian Medical Service. Being a Synopsis of the Rttles and Regulations regardiny Pay, Promotion, Pension, Leave, Examinations, &c., in the L.M.S., both Military and Civil. By Major B G. SETON, V.H.S., and Major J. GOULD, Indian Medical Service. London: W. Thacker and Co. ; Calcutta: Thacker, Spink, and Co. 1912. Pp. 165. Price 7s. 6d.-It was a happy idea of the authors to collect the various regulations respecting the Indian Medical Service, and express and explain them in such a way as to be in- telligible to everyone concerned. Major Seton is secretary to the Director-General, and Major Gould is staff officer for the Medical Mobilisation Stores of the Third Indian Division. These officers are therefore so situated as to be able to speak with authority in the interpretation of Red books. It is undoubtedly the case that difficulty is often experienced in obtaining information that exists, but is latent rather than patent in the volumes of Regulations. Moreover, their true inwardness sometimes needs unfolding. Major W. W. Webb performed a similar useful office in 1890, but lapse e of time has rendered his work in many respects out of date. The present manual should be in the hands of all medica officers of the Indian Service ; it is interleaved so that the alterations which occur from time to time may be in- corporated. MISCELLANTEOUS VOLUMES. To attempt the elucidation of such a department of human knowledge as psychology in 250 small pages is a courageous act on the part of Dr. WILLIAM McDOUGALL, but he has, we think, attained a fair measure of success in

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Page 1: MISCELLANEOUS VOLUMES

515

instruction aims to banish a set symptomatic theory from Ithe mind of the student of medicine." The authors rightlyinsist that therapeutic measures should be directed againstthe cause of disease, and where a specific therapy is notavailable, that the recognition and treatment of those sym-ptoms which indicate danger or threaten life become the

most important tasks. They have, therefore, studied sym-

ptoms in disease from this standpoint, interpreting dangernot only to mean the conditions that threaten life, but alsoto include symptoms indicating persistent damage.

General symptoms are first discussed from this point ofview, including conditions of cachexia, emaciation, obesity,metabolism, and anomalies of temperature, which are

categorically considered together with their causation, mode<of origin, and significance. Symptoms associated withvarious individual systems or organs are then examined in asimilar manner-e.g., disturbances of the heart’s action,pain in the chest, cough, vomiting, haemorrhage, dropsy,headache, sleeplessness, loss of consciousness, vertigo, andnystagmus. The examination of sputum., of the stomachcontents, the fseces, and the urine, are also considered, andthe light they throw upon the interpretation of symptoms isdiscussed. Chapters are devoted to severe general infectionsand auto-intoxications. Each subject dealt with is ex-

amined at length, its particular pathology is considered in

so far as this is necessary for its interpretation, and indi-cations for treatment are fully discussed, prescriptions beinggiven in many instances. The value of other therapeuticmeasures is also described where they are available. The

names of authorities are often appended to statements

.quoted, but actual references are rarely given.The book is of more value as a work of reference in regard

to the prognostic and diagnostic significance of symptoms, andthe scientific application of treatment, than as a text-book,although practically the whole field of medicine is reviewed.Although it is diffuse in places, and although the arrange-ment of the subject matter is hardly systematic, yet it is a

thoughtful and suggestive book, and one which should beuseful practically for reference, as it has a good index.

LIBRARY TABLE.The 31arch : Its l1Iecllanism, Effects, and Hygiene. By

Lieutenant-Colonel P. HEHIR, M.D. Brux., 1.M.S. Calcutta :

’Thacker, Spink, and Co. 1912. Pp. 79. Price 3s. 6d. net. I-This brochure is an expansion of two lectures delivered tomilitary officers in India, and will be of use to a wider circlethan the original audience. The physiology of marching is’dealt with, also the principles of training, in addition to thesubjects mentioned in the title, so that the treatment of thesubject is fairly comprehensive. There are one or two loose

expressions which suggest lack of care in revision of the

lectures-e.g., "carbon in combination with the invisible

C02" in expired air. When Colonel Hehir states on p. 11that nothing can be said against the khaki drill used by,our troops in India," he is certainly not expressing theopinion of either combatant or medical officers in general.We are glad to learn that the new system of physicaltraining for troops has been introduced into the Indian

Army during the past year. It will, no doubt, prove asbeneficial as in the case of troops at home. It is mentioned,however, that several adjutants do not consider it to be any

’’

improvement on the old method of training. The author

considers boiling to be on the whole the most practicableway of sterilising a water-supply on the march ; but someinstructions should have been given as to improvised methodsof filtration, or at any rate clarification, of water in caseheat sterilisation is impracticable. There are several mis-

prints, such as " efficiency for inefficiency," on p. 54,which suggest hurry in preparation ; but there is much inthe book that will be useful to all officers, combatant or

medical, who wish to understand the physiology and hygieneof the march.

Entomology for Medical Offleers. By A. ALCOCK, C.I.E.,M.B. Aberd., F.R.S. London : Gurney and Jackson.

Pp. 347. Price 9s. net.-This conveniently sized volume isa little more liberal in scope than its title implies. For the

author, though throwing the chief part of his energy into afairly detailed account of insects, gives some slighter notesupon the rest of the arthropoda, including scorpions,crustacea, and so forth. " This volume," observes the

author in his preface, "is printed in response to repeatedrequests from members of my classes at the London Schoolof Tropical Medicine," and obviously, therefore, must dealprincipally with those arthropods concerned in the carryingof disease. Dr. Alcock, who is an accomplished student ofzoology, has far too clear a conception of his science to

present the reader with the information required byhim in a disconnected form. We find, accordingly,an annectant introduction, placing the student in a

position to appreciate intelligently the actual facts of

structure and life history which are important for him

as a medical man to understand. The introductorypart, however, occupies only 22 pages, and cannot be

expected to put the reader in possession of more than

the barest outline of the general aspects of zoology withwhich it is desirable that he should be acquainted. It is

possibly rather too short, even for this condensed text-book.Zoogeography is perhaps more important in connexion withparasites than is admitted by some ; and zoogeography doesnot consist merely in a division of the earth into regions,as might be inferred by Dr. Alcock’s readers. Nor is he

absolutely accurate in those facts which he mentions. The

insectivora are not totally absent from the Austro-Columbianprovince, as the author would have us believe, for the WestIndian solenodon may be at once quoted. A useful surveyof what a parasite is and what it is not forms a considerablepart of the introductory matter, and after this the authorgets to work upon his main theme. The various groups of

arthropoda are treated seriatim, commencing with the

insecta.The Indian Medical Service. Being a Synopsis of the Rttles

and Regulations regardiny Pay, Promotion, Pension, Leave,Examinations, &c., in the L.M.S., both Military and Civil.

By Major B G. SETON, V.H.S., and Major J. GOULD,Indian Medical Service. London: W. Thacker and Co. ;Calcutta: Thacker, Spink, and Co. 1912. Pp. 165. Price

7s. 6d.-It was a happy idea of the authors to collect thevarious regulations respecting the Indian Medical Service,and express and explain them in such a way as to be in-telligible to everyone concerned. Major Seton is secretaryto the Director-General, and Major Gould is staff officer forthe Medical Mobilisation Stores of the Third Indian Division.These officers are therefore so situated as to be able to speakwith authority in the interpretation of Red books. It is

undoubtedly the case that difficulty is often experienced inobtaining information that exists, but is latent rather than

patent in the volumes of Regulations. Moreover, their trueinwardness sometimes needs unfolding. Major W. W.Webb performed a similar useful office in 1890, but lapse eof time has rendered his work in many respects out of date.The present manual should be in the hands of all medicaofficers of the Indian Service ; it is interleaved so that the

alterations which occur from time to time may be in-

corporated.

MISCELLANTEOUS VOLUMES.

To attempt the elucidation of such a department of

human knowledge as psychology in 250 small pages is a

courageous act on the part of Dr. WILLIAM McDOUGALL,but he has, we think, attained a fair measure of success in

Page 2: MISCELLANEOUS VOLUMES

516

his contribution to the Home University Library. (Psye7to-logy : the Study of Behaviour. London : Williams and

Notgate. 1912. Price 1s. net.) It is not very easy

reading, but that is in the nature of the case. The author

prefers to define psychology as the science of the behaviourof living things rather than as the science of mind or thescience of consciousness. He considers that in the studyof animal behaviour "lies our best, perhaps our only,hope of answering the question-Are acquired characters

transmitted 7 " The book is well worth reading and well

adapted to its purpose. -Professor J. G. MCKENDRICK,in his volume in the same series (The Principlesof Physiology. 1912. Price Is. net), states that it

is in no sense a text-book, but rather an attemptto state the leading principles and facts in such a i

way as will be understood by an intelligent reader without special scientific training. The author’s name is sufficient

guarantee for the soundness of the teaching. The mass of

facts presented is, however, so large, and the technical termsso numerous, that the little volume is almost too concentrated

for a beginner. The plan of the series does not apparentlyinclude any pictorial illustration, which would seem to beindispensable for the understanding of some portions of thissubject. The volume is very interesting and suggestive.For those for whom it is intended&mdash;viz., hospital proba-tioners-a little book entitled Physiology and Anatomy madeEasy (London: The Scientific Press, Limited. 1912.

Pp. 104. Price 1s. 6d. net.), by Lucy BROOKS, late Sisterat the Victoria Hospital, Netley, should prove useful. Itshould also be serviceable to those entering on a course

of first-aid study, and might fulfil an admirable purpose asa text-book in girls’ schools. It is exceptionally clearly andsimply written, and is couched in such terms and illustratedby such analogies that it should be understandable by everyintelligent person. We have not noted any serious in-

accuracies, though in some places the mode of expressionmight be changed with advantage to avoid ambiguity. For

instance, on p. 22 it is stated that the auricles and

ventricles on each side of the heart communicate with

each other." There are only one auricle and one ventricleon each side of the heart. Again, on p. 14, the

ovaries are omitted in enumerating the contents of the

abdomen (pelvic portion) though the uterus is mentioned.

It is surely hardly correct to say, as on p. 84, that theovaries " are placed in front of the rectum on either side ofthe uterus." The uterus is said to be "a hollow muscular

organ which receives the ovum and expels it when developed;before birth it is called the f&oelig;tus. " Meaning is clear, butgrammatically the statement is untrue. In spite, however, ofminor blemishes, the book is distinctly meritorious.

Nurses, house surgeons, and others to whose lot it falls tomake the necessary arrangements for an operating surgeon,as well as those practitioners whose opportunities for sur-gery are occasional, will find very serviceable a little book byHAROLD BURROWS, M.B., B.S. Lond., F.R.C.S.Eng. (81lrgiealInstr2croe-ots and A_ppliances Used in Operations. An Illns-

trated and Classified List with Explanatory Notes. London :Scientific Press, Limited. 1912. Pp. 103. Price 1s. 6d.

net.), now in its fourth, revised and enlarged, edition. The

operations are grouped as in regional surgery, and a list ofthe instruments, dressings, &c., required is given, while avery large number of the instruments are fignred. The

anaesthetist’s table, out-patient departments and con-

sulting rooms, operations in private houses, the care

and sterilisation of instruments, and the preparationof surgical materials, all receive consideration.-Allsocial workers realise the harm that results among the

poor from the use of badly selected food and faulty methodsof cooking, so that any advance towards remedying the evilis a step in the right direction. Food for the Invalid and

the Convalescent, by WINIFRED STUART GIBBS, Dietitian forthe New York Association for Improving the Condition ofthe Poor (New York: The Macmillan Company. 1912.

Pp. 81. Price 3s. 6d.), has been compiled especially to helpthe physicians of the Vanderbilt Clinic in carrying on intel-ligent dietetic treatment, but it also aims to help otherphysicians and social workers in their efforts to combat

disease. Miss Gibbs has had the assistance of several

medical men in America in the compilation of her book, thekeynote of which is contained in the opening sentence : "Itis not necessary to buy the most expensive food in order toget the best ; the important thing is to get the right food, sothat the money spent will give as much strength as possible.

"

After general directions as to the storing and cooking offoods, Miss Gibbs shows how best to prepare a variety ofdishes for the invalid and convalescent, and afterwards

deals with special menus and diets for the healthy. The

book is a useful one.

JOURNALS AND MAGAZINES.The Quarterly Journal of Medicine, Edited by WILLIAM

OSLER, J. ROSE BRADFORD, A. E. GARROD, R. HUTCHISON,H. D. ROLLESTON, and W. HALE WHITE. Vol. V., No. 20.July, 1912. Oxford : At the Clarendon Press. Price 25s. perannum ; single numbers, 8s. 6d. net each.-The contents ofthis number are : 1. Congenital Atresia of the Bile Passagespby Lindsay S. Milne. A case is recorded and the conditions.found on necropsy are described, the histological appearances.being illustrated by plates. The pathology of the condi-tion is discussed and a bibliography is appended. 2. TheAcidosis Index : a Clinical Measure of the Quantity ofAcetone Bodies Excreted in the Urine, by T. Stuart Hart.A method of obtaining a measure of the degree of acidosissufficiently accurate for clinical purposes, and dependingupon the ordinary colour reaction tests for acetone and

diacetic acid, is described. 3. An Epidemic of Gangrenous.Dermatitis, by F. C. Purser. An outbreak of this condi-

tion occurring in the wards of the Hardwicke Hospital,Dublin, is carefully described, and the appearances pre-sented by one of the cases are shown in a good colouredplate. In some of the more severe cases, but not in others,bacilli belonging to the typhoid-coli group were found.Dr. Purser was not able to draw any definite conclusion

as to the microbic origin of the lesions from his observations.4. The Origin of Chronic Ulcer of the Stomach in the Acute-

Variety of the Disease, by Charles Bolton. From a careful

study of the clinical and pathological characters of ulcers ofthe stomach Dr. Bolton concludes that it is by the extensionof an acute ulcer and the secondary inflammatory thickeningaffecting it which results from the unhealed condition ofthe ulcer that a chronic ulcer arises. The funnel shapeof an ulcer is not the result of vascular occlusion, butis the consequence of its mode of spread. The paperis illustrated by numerous plates. 5. A Research uponCombined Mitral and Aortic Disease of Rheumatic Origin a Contribution to the Study of Rheumatic Malignant Endo-carditis, by F. J. Poynton and Alexander Paine. The-authors’ general contentions are summarised in the followingsentence : That from a study of severe heart disease ofrheumatic origin involving lesions to two important valve&we find all gradations between simple and malignant endo-carditis, and additional and striking proof of the exist-

ence of a malignant rheumatic endocarditis." This paperis illustrated by a coloured plate and numerous photo-graphic reproductions. 6. A Case of Thomsen’s Disease,by Leonard Findlay. The etiology and pathology of this.condition are discussed and a brief list of references is.

appended. 7. A Further Note on Ochronosis associatedwith Carboluria, by A. P. Beddard and C. M. Plumptre. Thepatient was a man who for at least 40 years had dressed