Middle Eastern Culture
Middle Eastern Culture
Islam & MuslimsIslam is as diverse as Christianity It is experienced differently depending on the culture
What is Islam?Islam means seeking peace by submitting to the divine willIslam is an Arabic word derived from the word peace, which also means submitting to a higher will
Who Are Muslims?Individuals to completely and peacefully submits to the will of God, believe in the Articles of Faith and practice the Five Pillars of Islam
Muslims make up 1/5 of the Worlds Population, about 1.4 billion people
Who is God & His Prophet?Islamic God is AllahThe Prophet is MuhammadBorn in MeccaReceived his 1st revelation from Allah at the age of 40, through the Archangel Gabriel (Holy Spirit)Revelations continued for 23 years, and are recorded in the Qur`an What is the Qur`an?The primary source of Islamic guidanceThe Qur`an is the record of the words of God revealed to the prophet Muhammad through the Archangel Gabriel
The Five PillarsDeclaration of Faith (Shahadah)Prayer (Salah)Obligatory Charity (Zakah)Fasting (Siyam)Pilgrimage (Hajj)The CrusadesThis was a series of 4 crusades between 1096 and 1270 urged by the Pope to reclaim Jerusalem from the TurksJerusalem is the Holy city for 3 major religions (Christianity, Islam, & Judaism) Muslim Turks defeated the Byzantine Empire and cut off Christian access to Jerusalem
SocietyMost tension comes from modernity and traditionIslam is viewed by many not only as a religion but as a cultural identity and heritageSocietyMany Middle Eastern qualities are sharedHonor (self respect & self pride) and the expectation of equal treatmentFierce sense of independence and resentment of imposed rules or decisions not sanctioned by social norms & customsLoyalty to extended family and friendsHospitality to guests and visitorsFamily RoleFamily loyalty and obligation is paramountFamily is seen as a persons ultimate refuge and support systemChildren are taught profound respect for adultsMen & WomenP.D.A. is considered offensiveThe maintenance of family honor is one of the highest valuesPromiscuous behavior can be extremely damaging to family honorMost Middle Easterners prefer arranged marriages, family plays a huge role in the decision to wedIslam & ModernityThe shock of ModernityColonialism and the loss of independenceWesternization that the loss of traditionFragmentation and the loss of UnityIslamic Reassertion Rejection: Radical IslamReconciliation: Reform IslamDualism: Traditional IslamMiddle Eastern WomenWomens status is society depends on the countryTurkey, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt: Women are educated and are active in levels of societyIn Persian Gulf States Women do not work, unless in an all female settingTraditional Women wear a Hijab
Traditional Men and Women do not see the customs as restriction, but as protection
Middle Eastern WomenWomen in many Muslim countries are not considered equal to men. Beyond that, they are often subjected to unimaginable injustices.
Fathers have killed their own daughters for marrying outside of the Muslim faith. Such murders, or "honor killings" have even been recorded in growing numbers in the United States.
Women are expected to be covered in excessively modest clothing from nearly head to toe. In many countries operating under Islamic Sharia lawsuch as Iran and Saudi Arabiawomen are subject to the ruling of undercover dress code police. Officers can arrest women who are deemed to be dressed too liberally.
Women and the HijabSyrias government placed a ban the Hijab in the 1980sTurkey and Tunisia persecute women who wear the Hijab since the 1990sIran & Saudi Arabia enforce the HijabFrance outlawed the Hijab in 2003
Sharia LawThis is Radical Islam
Under Muslim Sharia law, the clothes you wear, the music you listen to, and the television you watch would all be censored. Behavior in public is legally restricted and controlled.
Radical Muslim societies ruled by Sharia law provide men with a clear advantage. According to Radical Islam, women are considered subservient, second-class citizens expected to conform to specific moral codes.
Sharia Lawintolerant system that threatens the Western ideals of liberty and justice for all.
views non-Muslims as second class citizens, sanctions inequality between men and women, prescribes cruel and unusual punishments for crimes, and promotes a restrictive business environment that strangles the freedoms of capitalism.