MICROSCOP applying six sigma

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    EDUCATIONUNDER TH

    y John T. Baun andMary Thom as Scott

    Applying Six Sigmato Workplace TrainingLearning professionals know to a lways keep an eye on thebottom line. Using Six Sigma methodology can bolster yourcase for training and eliminate excess expenses.

    In 2008, the U n i t e d States s p e n t an e s t i m a t e d $134 b i l l i o n on em-p l o y e e t r a i n i n g . E m p l o y e r s t r a i n e m p l o y e e s for i m p r o v i n g jo b s k i l l s ,career a d v a n c e m e n t , i n d u s t r y c e r t i fi c a t io n s , an d the q u a l i t y of l i f e oft h e i r e m p l o y e e s , a m o n g o t h e r r ea s o n s . E m p l o y e r s p r e s u m e a r e t u r n o nt h e i r i n v e s t m e n t in the f o r m of m o r e q u a l i f i e d e m p l o y e e s or e m p l o y e e sw i t h a m o r e p o s i t i v e a t t it u d e t o w a r d t h e i r job and o r g a n i z a t i o n . The l a s tt h i n g an e m p l o y e r w a n t s is to s p e n d m o n e y th a t d o e s no t r e s u l t in s o m eb e n e f i t fo r h i m .

    The bottom lineT h e A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y f o r T r a i n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t ( A S T D ) r e p o r t e d in2008 t h a t , on a v e r a g e , e m p l o y e r s s p e n t m o r e t h a n $1,000 per e m p l o y e ef o r t r a i n i n g n o t a c c o u n t i n g for t i m e l o s t in t r a i n i n g . E m p l o y e r s c e r t a i n l yh a v e e m b r a c e d the n e e d for e m p l o y e e t r a i n i n g w i t h s u c h an e x p e n d i t u r e .

    LISTEN TO THIS FEATUREa t w w w . a s t d . o r g / T D / T D p o d c a s t s . h t m

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    H o w e v e r , a c c o r d i n g t o a s t u d y o nretention in Th e Journal o f EconomicEduca t ion , t h e a n n u a l rate o f r e t e n t i o nl o s s o f m a t e r i a l l e a r n e d averages b e t w e e n 1 3 t o 2 3 p e r c e n t . I n o t h e r w o r d s ,A m e r i c a n e m p l o y e r s a r e t h r o w i n ga w a y b e t w e e n $ 17 a n d $ 3 0 b i l l i o n ay e a r o n u n u s e d o r l o s t t r a i n i n g . R e a sons a b o u n d f o r t h i s r e t e n t i o n l o ss ,r a n g i n g f r o m l a c k o f u s e o f t h e m a t e r i a l l e a r n e d t o i n t e r f e r e n c e effects f r o mo t h e r m a t e r i a l l e a r n e d , to i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u c t i o n fo r th e tasks ath a n d .

    I n t h i s a r t i c l e , w e e x a m i n e o n e w a yt o a ll e v i a t e s o m e o f t h i s r e t e n t i o n l o s sa n d , t h u s , s o m e o f t h e r e s u l t i n g econ o m i c l o s s b y a l i g n i n g t r a i n i n g w i t hn e e d . T h e f i r s t step o f t h e a n a l y s i s ist h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e k n o w l e d g e ,s k i l l s , a n d a b i l i t i e s ( K S A s ) u s e d a n dr e i n f o r c e d b y t h e t a r g e t e d j o b ( T J) a n d ,a s im p o r t a n t , t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h ee x p e c t e d K S A s u s e d b y o p e r a t o r s i nt h e s u b s e q u e n t j o b ( SJ) i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n f lo w . T h i s f o c u s concentratest r a i n i n g o n t h a t w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r y ,u s e d , a n d r e i n f o r c e d , t h e r e b y r e d u c i n go v e r - t r a i n in g o r u n u s e d o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e t r a i n i n g .

    A c h i e v i n g a n e f f i c i e n t a n d d i r e c t e dt r a i n i n g p r o g r a m r e q u ir e s a s y s t e m a t i cl o o k a t t r a i n i n g needs n o t o n l y f r o m t h ec o n f i n e s o f t h e j o b b u t a ls o r e l a t i v e t ot h e job's i n t e r a c t io n a n d i n t e r c o n n e c t i v -i t y t o t h e S Js . B y c o n c e n t r a t i n g o n t h ee d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s , o n e changes th ef o c u s f r o m t r a i n i n g f o r t h e jo b t o e d u c a t i n g f o r t h e j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s a c c o r d i n gt o c o r p o r a t e w o r k f o r c e n e e d s . T h i s s h if ta l lo w s th e t r a i n i n g d e p a r t m e n t t o t r a n s f o r m w o r k e r s f r o m m e r e j o b o p e r a t o r so r spectators (TJOs o r SJOs) t o w o r k e r si n v o l v e d w i t h t h e r e a l b u s i n e s s o f t h e i rjobs. T h i s n e w fo c u s a ls o t r a n s f o r m st r a i n i n g f r o m a r e a c t i v e - b a s e d a p p r o a c ht h a t e x a m i n e s i n d i v i d u a l j o b - r e l a t e do u t c o m e s i n t o ap r o a c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a la p p r o a c h b a s e d o n t h e w o r k e r ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f K S A s . I n a d d i t i o n , s u c h a shi f ti d e n t i f i e s those w o r k e r s w h o h a v e t h en e c e s s a r y o r as i g n if i ca n t n u m b e r o f K S A s f o r n e w o r e x p a n d e d jobs as thec o r p o r a t i o n r e q u i r e s.

    E d u c a t i o n a l a n a l y s i sO f t e n w h e n a s k e d to r e - e v a l u a t e t h eeffectiveness o f a c o r p o r a t i o n ' s t r a i n -

    Through targetedtraining, operators

    will build an inventoryof established, applied,

    and retained knowledge.A prudent Six Sigma

    analysis by a corporatetraining program that isbased on an educationalsystem review process

    will prevent unnecessaryor redundant trainingfor the trainee and thelearning department.

    i n g p r o g r a m , th e i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n i s :" W e h i r e g o o d t r a i n e r s w h o a l r e a d y e x a m i n e o u r tr a i n i n g p r o g r a m s to m a k es u r e t h a t t h e needs a r e a l l i n c l u s i v ea n d c u t t i n g e d g e . W h y d o w e n e e d t og o t h r o u g h a f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s ? "

    T h e a n s w e r ? Because m o n e y m a t t e r s! A f a i l u r e t o m a t c h e f f e c t iv e t r a i n i n gw i t h a s t r u c t u r e d e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s sl e a d s to u n d e r - o r o v e r - u t i l i z a t i o no f h u m a n a n d f i n a n c i a l c a p it a l , a ls ok n o w n a s w a s t e . U n l e s s t h e t r a i n i n g isi n t e n d e d to s u p p l e m e n t t h e e m p l o y e e s ' q u a l i t y o f l i f e , c o r p o r a t e t r a i n i n g i sa n i n v e s t m e n t a n d s h o u l d b e m e a s u r e df o r i t s o n - t h e - j o b R O I . T h i s t y p e of

    t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e s a s c r u t i n y o f t h e p o r a t i o n ' s e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s .

    T h e f o l l o w i n g o u t l in e s t h e m e t hf o r u n d e r t a k i n g a n d a n a l y z i n g a c op o r a t e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s b y e x ai n g t r a i n i n g needs r e l a t i v e t o t h e j osequence r a t h e r t h a n i n d i v i d u a l j ot r a i n i n g p r o c e s s .U s i n g S i x S i g m af o r t r a i n i n g p r o c e s s e v a l u a t i oO n e m e t h o d o f c o n d u c t i n g a p r o c ee v a l u a t i o n i s a n a n a l y s i s u s i n g S i x Sm a p r i n c i p l e s . S ix S i g m a f u n d a m e nt a l l y targets w a s t e m e a s u r e m e n t a nr e d u c t i o n . Itc a n b e a p p l i e d asr e a dto areas o f t r a in i n g a n d e d u c a t i o n aa n y i n d u s t r i a l q u a l i t y c o n t r o l e n d eo r . T o d e s i g n a n a p p r o p r i a t e c o r p orate e d u c a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s a n d p r o ct h e d e s i g n a p p l i c a t i o n D e s i g n F o r S i g m a (DFSS) u s i n g t h e D e f i n e - M es u r e - A n a l y z e - D e s i g n - V e r i f y ( D M Am e t h o d o l o g y is m o r e a p p r o p r i a t et h a n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l D e f i n e - M e a s uA n a l y z e - I m p r o v e - C o n t r o l ( D M A I Cm o d e l . B e l o w w e u n p a c k e a c h stept h e D M A D V m e t h o d .

    D e f i n eT h e f i r s t step f o r a s s e s s i n g a c o r p orate e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m b e g i n s w i t ha n a l y s i s b y aS i x S i g m a B l a c k B e lt (w h o f a c i l i t a t e s t h e assessment o f to r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n d o p e r a t i o n a l neeb y a s s e m b l i n g a n d t r a i n i n g a t e a mi n c o r p o r a t e t h i s b r o a d e r o u t l o o k . Fe x a m p l e , a t r a i n i n g d e p a r t m e n t m is a y : " W e a r e i n s t i t u t i n g an e w e m a ip r o g r a m o n o u r i n t r a n e t a n d n e e dg e t e v e r y o n e t r a i n i n g o n t h e n e w pg r a m . " A B B t e a m w o u l d s a y : " W e al o o k i n g a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l processn e e d e d w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o p o r t t h e c o r p o r a t io n ' s c o m m u n i c a tp l a t f o r m , a n d w e a r e i d e n t i f y i n g the l e m e n t s t h a t a re c r i t i c a l t o q u a l i t y( C T Q s ) t o a s s u r e s u c c e s s f u l p e r f o r m a n c e . " A t t h i s stage, t h e a n a l y s i s c u r s t h r o u g h r e v e r s e e n g i n e e r i n g .

    T o i d e n t i f y t h e C T Q s o f a T J , t h ea n a l y s i s b e g i n s b y r e g a r d i n g t h e t r ai n g p r o g r a m ( o r ap r o c e s s l i n e ) w i tt h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a s a n e d u c a t i o n a lt e m . A c c o r d i n g t o S ix S i g m a p r i n c i pt h e C T Q s o f a f u n c t i o n a r e d e f i n e df r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e needso

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    s c u s