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Metodologi Penelitian Pertemuan #2 Program studi Sistem Informasi FIK Universitas Dian Nuswantoro

Metodologi Penelitian #2 - dinus.ac.iddinus.ac.id/repository/docs/ajar/Metodologi_Penelitian_#2.pdf · Metodologi Penelitian Pertemuan #2 Program studi Sistem Informasi –FIK Universitas

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  • MetodologiPenelitianPertemuan#2

    P r o g r a m s t u d i S i s t e m I n f o r m a s i F I K

    U n i v e r s i t a s D i a n N u s w a n t o r o

  • ProsesPenelitian HighQualityResearch AModelofScientificResearch WhatMethodResearchtoUse?

  • HighQualityResearch

  • AttributesofHighQualityResearch isbasedontheworkofothers, canbereplicated, isgeneralizabletoothersettings, isbasedonsomelogicalrationaleandtiedtotheory, isdoable, generatesnewquestionsoriscyclicalinnature, isincremental,and isanapoliticalactivitythatshouldbeundertakenforthebettermentofsociety

  • AttributesofHighQualityResearch Basedontheworkofothers

    Itdoesnotmeanthatyoucopyoftheworkofothers Researchhastoconsidertotheworkthathasalreadybeendone Itisintendedtoprovideabasisforthesubjectoftheresearchandhowresearchersmightconducttheirownwork.

    Canbereplicated Ifsomeoneconductedaresearchandcameupwiththeresult,thenthenthemethodsandprocedures(andresults)oftheexperimentshouldbereplicablewithothergroups.

    Iftheresultscanbereplicated,theycanserveasabasisforfurtherresearchinthesamearea.

  • AttributesofHighQualityResearch Generalizeabletoothersettings

    Beberapapenelitianmemilikitingkatgeneralisasiterbatas(karenasulituntukmenirukondisiyangtepatdimanapenelitiansebelumnyadilakukan),namunhasilpenelitiansetidaknyadapatmemberikansesuatuuntukpengaturanpadapenelitianberikutnya.

    Basedonlogicalrationaleandtiedtotheory Takseorangpunmampumemahamisuatufenomenahanyamelaluisatugrandresearchproject,semuaarearisetperludipecahmenjadielemenyanglebihkecil.

    Semuaelemeniniperludiikatdengansuatutemayangsama,yangseringdianggapsebagaiteoremasecaraumum.

  • AttributesofHighQualityResearch Researchisdoable

    Goodresearchposesaquestionthatcanbeanswered,andthenanswersitinatimelyfashion.

    Researchgeneratesnewquestions Theanswerstotodaysresearchquestionsprovidethefoundationforresearchquestionsthatwillbeaskedtomorrow.

    Researchisincremental Noonescientiststandsalone;scientistsstandontheshouldersofothers.

    Contributionsthataremadeusuallytakeplaceinsmall,easilydefinablechunks.

    allthestudiesinaparticularareacometogethertoproduceabodyofknowledgethatissharedbydifferentresearchersandprovidesthebasisforfurtherresearch.

  • AttributesofHighQualityResearch Researchisanapoliticalactivityintendedforthebettermentofsociety

    Researchshouldbeundertakenindependentlyofonespersonalorpoliticalviews.

    Applyacodeofethics Whatdoyouthinkabouttheseideas?

    Researchersorpractitionerswithholdfoodfrompregnantwomentostudytheeffectsofmalnutritiononchildren.

    Researchersforceadultstoeatparticulardietsthatmightbeunhealthy,Toexaminethestressnutritionlink

    Ifallthoseattributesmakeforgoodresearch,whatisbadresearch?

  • AModelofScientificResearch

  • AModelofScientificResearch ApabilatertulisdalamsebuahartikeldijurnalbahwaMetodeAlebihefektifdariMetodeBuntukmeningkatkandayaingat

    BagaimanaAndaakanmeyakinibahwakesimpulanituadalahbenar?

    ApakahAndaakanmenggunakankesimpulanituuntukrisetlanjutanAnda?

    Tujuandarimodel iniadalahuntukmendapatkankebenaran(apapunartinya)melaluimetodeilmiahyangmenghasilkanjawabanyanglogis/reasonableuntukmenjawabpertanyaanpertanyaanpentinguntukpemahamanmanusialebihlanjut.

  • AModelofScientificResearch

  • AskingtheQuestion Questionsariseastheresultofcuriousity,andwhichitbecomesnecessarytofindtheanswer.

    HowtheuseofTwitteraffectsrelationshipsbetweenchildrenandtheirpeers?

    Whatkindofsocialmediamosteffectivelyforeducatingadultsaboutthedangersofusingdrugs?

    Wheredosuchquestionscomefrom? Theyrarelycomefromtheconfinesofaclassroomoralaboratory.

    Mostlyquestionscomefromourimaginationandourownexperiences,enrichedbytheworldsofscience,art,music,andliterature.

  • IdentifyingtheImportantFactors Berikutiniadalahsejumlahfaktoryangditelitiselama10tahunyanglaludalamrisetyangterkaitdengandampakmediasosial:

    Bagaimanasepatutnyamemilihfaktoresensialdalamriset

    Umurdanjeniskelamin Sikaporangtuaterhadapmedsos Etnik Susunankeluarga TingkatpendidikandalamKeluarga Polakomunikasi dalamkeluarga Jumlahtemandekat Total pengeluaranuntukkebutuhanIT

    PilihFaktoryangbelumpernahditeliti Memungkinkan untukditeliti Berkontribusi padapertanyaanriset Mengarahkepertanyaanrisetlanjutan Adaketertarikansecarapersonalprofessional

  • FormulatingHypothesis Althoughyoudonothavetodefinehypothesesalongsidearesearchquestion,theydopresentpotentialanswerstothequestion(s)youhaveposedandprovidedefinitivestatementsthatwillfocusyourresearch.

    Ahypothesisisaconjecturalstatementoftherelationshipbetweentwoormorevariables(Kerlinger,1986)

    Ahypothesisisatentativepropositionwhichissubjecttoverificationthroughsubsequentinvestigation(VermaandBeard,1981citedbyBell,2007).

    imaginethatyouareattheracesandyouplaceabet.Youbetonahunchthataparticularhorsewillwin.Youwillonlyknowifyourhunchwasrightaftertherace.

    Supposeyouhaveahunchthattherearemoresmokersthannonsmokersinyourclass.Totestyourhunch,youaskeitherallorjustsomeoftheclassiftheyaresmokers.Youcanthenconcludewhetheryourhunchwasrightorwrong.

  • CollectingRelevantInformation Onceahypothesisisformulated,thenextstepisthecollectionofinformationorempiricaldatathatwillconfirmorrefutethehypothesis.

    So,ifyouareinterestedinwhetherornotparticipatinginsocialmediahasanimpactonadolescentssocialskills,thekindsofdatathatwillallowthehypothesistobetestedmustbecollected.

    Forexample,youmightcollecttwotypesofdatatotestthehypothesis.Thefirstmightbethenumberoffriendsanadolescentmighthave.Thesecondmightbethequalityofthoserelationships.

  • TestingtheHypothesis Animportantpointabouttestinghypothesesisthatyousetouttotestthem,nottoprovethem(Salkind,2012)

    Bagaimanajikadidapatihasilbahwaterdapatperbedaanketrampilansosialantaraorangyangintensifdimediasosialdenganmerekayangkurangintensif?

    Bagaimanamenjelaskanterdapatperbedaanmenjadisebuahkesimpulan?

    Perlupendekatan/perangkatyangmampumembantupenelitimenyikapi/menterjemahkan/mengintepretasihasilpenelitian(contoh:pendekatanstatistik)

  • WorkingwiththeHypothesis Onceyouhavecollectedtherequireddataandhavetestedthehypothesis,asagoodscientistyoucansitdownandexaminetheresults.

    Theresultsmayconfirmorrefutethehypothesis. Ifthedataconfirmyourhypothesis,then

    theimportanceofthefactorsthatwerehypothesizedtoberelatedandconceptuallyimportantwereborneout,and

    youcangoonandplanyournextscientificexperiment. Ifthehypothesisisnotconfirmed,then

    itmayverywellbeatimeforlearningsomethingthatwasnotknownpreviously.

    theresultsofawellrunstudyalwaysprovidevaluableinformation,regardlessoftheoutcome.

  • ReconsideringtheTheory Theorywasdefinedasasetofstatementsthatpredictthingsthatwilloccurinthefutureandexplainthingsthathaveoccurredinthepast(salkind,2012).

    Theycanbemodifiedaccordingtotheresultsofresearchbasedonthesameassumptionsonwhichthetheoryisbased

    Inthisway,newknowledgecanchangeormodifythewaythetheoryappearsandwhatithastosayabouthumanbehavior.

  • AskingNewQuestions Newquestionsmightbegeneratedfromthetheorythatwillhelpcontributefurthertothewayinwhichthehouseisstructured.

    Itmightbeasimplevariationonatheme(Domalesusesocialmediainadifferentwaythanfemales?)orarefinementoftheoriginalquestion.

  • BasicTypeofResearch Jenismetoderisetdibedakansecaraumummengacupada3dimensiberikut:1. Sifatdasarpertanyaanrisetyangdiajukan2. Metodeyangdigunakanuntukmenjawabpertanyaan

    tersebut,dan3. Tingkatketelitianyangdimilikiolehmasingmasingmetode.

    Seiringdenganperkembanganilmupenelitiandanpenelitiyangsemakinterlatih,akanadapeningkatanketergantunganpadametodecampuranmodel,dimanakeduametodeeksperimentaldannonexperimentaldigabungkan.

    Mengapademikian?

  • BasicTypesofResearch

    Salkind,2012

  • WhatMethodResearchtoUse?

  • Referensi1. ChristianW.Dawson,ProjectinComputingand

    InformationSystemaStudentGuide2ndEdition,AddisonWesley,2009

    2. MikaelBerndtsson,JrgenHansson,BjrnOlsson,BjrnLundell,ThesisProjects AGuideforStudentsinComputerScienceandInformationSystem2ndEdition,SpringerVerlagLondonLimited,2008

    3. C.R.Kothari,ResearchMethodology,NewAgeInternational,2004

    4. NeilJSalkind,ExploringResearch,Pearson,2012