Memoirs of theRUSSIANREVOLUTION
NEW YORKTHE RAND SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
GEORGE V. LOMONOSSOFF
ASSISTANT DIRECTOR GENERAL OF RUSSIAN RAILWAYS, CHIEF OFTHE OFFICE OF EXPERIMENTS, MEMBER OF THE RUSSIAN EX-
TRAORDINARY MISSION AND CHIEF ENVOY OF THE RUS-SIAN MINISTRY OF WAYS OF COMMUNICATION TO
THE UNITED STATES, MEMBER OF THE SUPREMEENGINEERING SOVIET, PROFESSOR, KIEFF
POLITECHNICUM, WARSAW UNI-VERSITY, PETROGRAD INSTI-
TUTE OF WAYS OFCOMMUNICATION.
Authorised TranslationBy D. H. Dubrowsky and Robert T. Williams.
NEW YORKThe Rand School of Social Science
Prof. G. V. Lomonossoff
RAND SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE7 EAST 15xH STREET
ForewordImmediately after the March Revolution, I made
some notes concerning what I had personally wit-nessed. These memoranda I took with me to Americabut so successfully mislaid them among my booksthat I was not able to locate them until August 2,1918. I read them then to my friends in Chicago.They insisted and still insist that I publish theserecollections. To be frank, I could hardly consent to
it; my views have somewhat radically changed in thelast two years and I have a strong desire to correctsome of my memoranda and to change others en-tirely. Nevertheless, I have not done this. If mymemoirs have any historical value, it is only in theway in which they were first recorded. An historianis interested not only in the naked facts, but also inthe way in which these facts reacted on the men oftheir time.
Nevertheless, in some places, I have considered it
necessary to make some additional remarks whichare the result of my later ideas and of the laterexperiences of my life.
G. V. L.
May 9, 1919,New York City.
Memoirs of the Russian RevolutionPRECEDING DAYS
I arrived at Tzarskoye Sielo from the Roumanian front onFebruary 20, 1917. At the front, life was running its normalcourse. There was plenty of ammunition but a scarcity _ofJood.The average amount of food received from Roumania was about60% of the apportionment but in various places this amountwas sometimes lower than 20%. Dead horses had to be eaten.The railroads, on account of the dreadful condition of the loco-jnotiyes, began to become paralyzed. I do not know where itwas worse, at the Roumanian front or on our own southwesternrailways. The Ministry hated to listen to the truth aboutexisting conditions and in this respect the General Staff wasbraver.
The extent of the paralysis of the railroads at the Roumanianfront can be seen from the fact that they were compelled to stopthe sanitary trains and instead ship the wounded in the freightcars which had been emptied of provisions sent to the front.The thermometer registered 14 degrees below zero and manyof the wounded froze to death in these unheated cars. To rein-troduce the sanitary trains meant to stop the supply of provi-sions to the army of unwounded. General Sacharoff finallysolved this question in these words : "Let them die, if they arecompelled to be out of the firing line."
Under such conditions, discontent in the army practicallytook place as a natural result. It is interesting to note that,as far as I heard, this discontent was directed almost entirelyagainst the Tzar, and particularly against the Tzarina. Amongthe General Headquarter's Staff, the Tzarina was never sparedThey spoke quite openly of imprisoning her and also of forcingNicholas to abdicate. This kind of conversation was commonlyheard even at the officers' messes. But always, during this kindof talk, the most usual opinion seemed to be "Court Revolution,"like the murder of Paul.
With the soldiers at the front I could hardly talk: my gen-eral's shoulder straps did not allow them to be quite open intheir conversation. I remember that on the way to Roumania,at one of the railroad stations, I met an acquaintance of mine,
a soldier, who was a well-to-do Poltava peasant, an honest mon-archist and a man of considerable common sense. We talked.
At that time, the daily topic was the murder of Rasputin andour conversation naturally turned toward the same thing. Ican even now see before me the sad, bewildered eyes of myfriend and hear his sad voice as he asked me :
"Tell me, you live in the Tzarskoye Sielo, tell me, I askyou, how could the Tzar stand for such a nuisance in his ownhouse?"
I could only shrug my shoulders."I am only a plain peasant, but I would not allow such
disgrace. And he is an Emperor. Do you understand theword? Emperor! For him we spill here our blood. Not forhim? For whom, then?" And then, thinking a few seconds,he added, "Is he worth it?"
The murder of Rasputin agitated the minds of the people ingeneral at that time. I remember another incident at the Yassarailroad station. Winter morning was dawning; slowly a trainmoved into the station. Pourishkevitch was walking back andforth on the platform. He had just put up the provisioning huts(much will be forgiven him for this). The officers and soldiersbegan to pour out of the cars. Among them could be seen aCossack officer who stood out a head taller than all the resta fellow who must have weighed about four hundred pounds.He noticed Pourishkevitch, stopped, looked at him, grunted, andthen slowly rolled toward him.
"Are you Pourishkevitch?""Yes.""In the name of the Russian army, let me shake your honor-
able hand : you killed Rasputin.""But "
"Don't be modest. All Russia knows. Hooray for Pourish-kevitch and all those that killed this damnable dog
"Hooray!" thundered throughout the length of the platform.On the twentieth of February, at noon, I arrived at Tzar-
skoye Sielo. It was a clear, cold day. My wife met me at thestation
;we took a cab and went home. According to the tariff,
I should have paid the cabman 35 kopecks, but in view of thehardships of war-time, I gave him half a rouble, (50 kopecks).Only two months before, they were extremely thankful for sucha tip ; but here the cabman tossed the half-rouble up and down
in his hand and glared at it. My wife, realizing what was thematter, excitedly told me :
"You are insane. Give him a rouble.""A rouble?""Yes; we have been paying that rate for quite a while.
Oats have quadrupled in price."I realized that the rouble had fallen in value more in the
last two months than during the entire war. The queues thatI noticed in Petrograd on the following day showed me thatthere was also very little food in the capital. To get bread, itwas necessary to stand in line three or four hours ; for milk, fiveor six hours; and for shoes, many days and nights.
I went to the new Minister, Krieger-Woynowsky, who wasjust as courteous, just as indefinite and cold as he had been inhis previous capacities. He told me that I would never go backto the front again, as they intended to give me the managementof coal. He ordered me to write a memorandum. He was talk-ing of the plans he had in mind for months and years ahead. Butalready a certain note of indecision made itself felt in his voice.In the General Office of Railways and all the other offices con-ditions were just as before. Their occupants could hardly beswept off their feet. After what I had seen at the front, officework seemed to me useless
;and the self-satisfied and cynical
attitude of the office workers was disgusting. I had a desire toget back to real, actual work. In Roumania, I felt myself use-ful
;here it was doubtful. I did not believe in the success of
my coal dictatorship. From bitter experience I knew that theold powers would be the real directors and that nothing but atangle could result from such a dictatorship. On the morningof February 24, I was working at my office. About eleveno'clock I went to the dentist. On the way I noticed that in thebread queues there was evident unrest. It was said that fortwo days bread would not be sold at all. And this is supposedlyby the order of the new Provisioning Director of the capital,who actually wished to ration the supply of provisions. Hereand there youngsters cried, "Bread, bread!" but passers-by didnot pay any attention.
From the dentist I walked to the barber (near AnitchkowBridge). On the Nevsky Prospekt, I immediately sensed a de-monstration and had not reached Vladimirskaya before ifc ap-peared. Its complexity was strange, students, youths, women
and officers. There were only a few flags, the majority of which/ bore the inscription "Bread." But there was also an old
acquaintance, "Eknvn WjtKI2ytocjacy." With dignity this redflag was carried in view of police captains and policemen. Theylooked at it quietly and cynically. I somehow did not like thislook. It felt like a provocation. Something was being con-templated . . . but contemplated by the police. No workmenwere seen on the streets. At the barber shop, I heard someconversation. "All factories are working." What was most im-portant and strange was that the demonstrators were allowedto walk the streets freely as though they were being trapped.
From the barber shop I went to Kuba's for lunch. Thereeverything was as usual, but the lunch that used to cost one
/'ruble now cost three. They even served white wine. The guestswere the same old frequenters of the place; well fed, contented,monied. These people were making money on the war. Andthose . . . those froze to death in dirty freight cars. On February25, I was running between my office, the Institute and theMinistry. It was said that in the city disorders were increasing,but they appeared to be of an unorganized character. In oursection there was quiet and order.