Medieval Period 1066-1485

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Medieval Period 1066-1485. 1066 AD The death of Edward the Confessor and The Battle of Hastings 1485 AD The Battle of Bosworth Field, The End of the War of the Roses,and the Rise of the Tudors Dynasty. Historical Events that Started and Ended this Period. 1066 A.D. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Medieval Period1066-14851066 AD The death of Edward the Confessor and The Battle of Hastings

1485 AD The Battle of Bosworth Field, The End of the War of the Roses,and the Rise of the Tudors Dynasty

1066 A.D. Norman conquest of England; Battle of Hastings; William the Conqueror defeats, Harold, the last Anglo-Saxon kingHistorical Events that Started and Ended this Period

1485 A.D. Invention of printing press by Johannes Gutenberg; in 1485 William Caxton sets up the first one in England; Battle of Bosworth FieldIntroduction to Medieval Period

Dark Ages: Barbarian Germanic tribes move across Europe. Generally rough, crude, illiterate, new Christians.Englands Invaders:

Prior to 1100 AD:England is invaded often by tribes from many different parts of Europe.Normans 1. Descendants of a Germanic tribe2. Loyal to the French King3. Very powerful, French King made their ruler a DukeEnglands Invaders: 1066ADKing Edward the Confessor, the Anglo-Saxon king, dies without an heirKing Edwards witan demanded that his distant relative Harold be given the throneThe Norman Duke, William, a relative of Edward, also claims the throneWilliam is triumphant at The Battle of Hastings.He is crowned the king of England on Christmas Day, 1066.6. He will go down in history as William the Conqueror

Englands Invaders: William The Conqueror (1066-1087)

His most significant introduction into English society was the concept of FEUDALISM.

A political economic system in which the hierarchy of power was based on the premise that the king owned all the land in the kingdom. Essentially he claims that all English soil belongs to him.

3. Keeping a fourth for himself, granting a fourth to the church, he then parcels out the rest of English land to his men in exchange for their loyalty

4. With the birth of Feudalism many people became serfs - - the permanent servants to the Norman Lords

5. In 1086, he compiles The Doomsday Book, a record of all property. (Think of the census and IRS, all rolled into one.)

The Results of the Norman Invasion for England:William the Conqueror used superior military might and ORGANIZATION to defeat King Harold and the Anglo-Saxons

The Normans did not want to eradicate the Anglo-Saxon culture - - they wanted to RULE the people, not destroy them

Normans strengths - - administrative ability, emphasis on law & order, democratic and artistic tendencies

The Normans brought England into mainstream of Europe - - Eastern Europe: the Netherlands, western France, Austria are more civilized

The Results of the Norman Invasion for England:The Feudal caste, property, and military system

KING

LORDLORDLORD

KNIGHTSKNIGHTSKNIGHTS

SQUIRESQUIRESQUIRE

YEOMANYEOMANYEOMAN

SERFSSERFSSERFSThe Results of the Norman Invasion for England:The Feudal System Developed in Two Ways -

Landowners wanted protectionA. Paid a portion of the yield from their lands (King and his Lords wanted to be paid what they felt was their due.) B. Provided soldiers from their families C. Performed whatever other duties and homage were required

2. Conquering princes and warlords would reward valued allies with grants of land. The land still technically belonged to the king or prince, but they administered it. However, the king could revoke these rewards at any time.

3. Serfs were not really slaves. Bottom of the feudal social order though. Not truly free: bound to the land they worked on. Owed service to the master of the land and were passed along from owner to owner.

The Medieval Church

Clergy were important and powerfulChurch owned and controlled a fourth of the land in EnglandChurch had its own legal systemChurch had its own tax systemChurch leaders could speak with the religious leaders in other countries WITHOUT the permission of the King (No one else could do that!!!)Church supervised education (Education meant POWER!!)The Medieval Church

GOD

POPE

CARDINALS

BISHOPS

PRIESTS, FRIARS, NUNSMedieval Language

Three languages spokenA. French by the Norman rulersB. Latin by the clergy and lawyersC. Anglo-Saxon (Old English) by the common people

2. Middle EnglishA. Evolves over a period of 400 yearsB. Old English combines with the Norman FrenchC. Latin terms are added to the language of the common peopleCode of Knighthood and Chivalry:

Out of the feudal system during the Medieval Period grew a sense of form and manners :

Chivalry a system of ideals and behavior that governed knights and gentlemen. It also set the rules of war

From the French word Chevalier (knight)

Code of Knighthood and Chivalry:

Knights were required to Defend his honor by honorable meansSet limits on the scope and nature of revenge that could be taken for real or fancied insultsFight fairly even with Moslems or non-ChristiansLove GodBe loyal to his King or princePractice Christian humility, kindness, and politeness to those of lower stationsBe generous with worldly goods and possessionsStations of a knight:

PAGE SQUIREKNIGHTCode of Knighthood and Chivalry:

If a knight failed to uphold these high principles he must do penance which might be participating in a Crusade or performing some religious duty

Some of these ideals are the same heroic qualities that the Anglo-Saxons admired in Beowulf. Some are different. Anglo-Saxons lived in a more brutal society than the upper classes during the Middle Ages.Stations of a knight:

PAGE SQUIREKNIGHTCourtly Love

By revering and acting in the name of a lady, a knight would become better and braverAdded to the Chivalric Code in the later Middle AgesEach knight devoted himself to a lady of the court (liege lady)Source the religious cult of the Virgin Mary, a non-sexual devotionRarely the knights wife, but rather a lady of a higher station who the knight could never hope to marryOften the knight would only ever see his liege lady from a distanceCourtly Love

How might a knight demonstrate Courtly Love?

Wear his ladys colors into battleGlorify her in wordsBe inspired by herRevere her on a pedestal (like the Virgin Mary)Courtly Love

Chivalry and Courtly Love were only practiced by the upper classes NOT the common people

Contributions of Chivalry and Courtly Love:An improved and even idealized attitude toward womenThe birth of the form of literature known as the RomanceA civilizing influence in human behavior Henry IIImportant king and beginning of the Plantagenet DynastyReformed the Judicial SystemInstituted a jury system and the idea of common law

King Henry II and St. Thomas a Becket 1118 to 1170 ADThe holy blissful martyr

Was a friend of King Henry II

Appointed Archbishop of Canterbury

King hoped for Thomas support against Pope

Henry II said in a fit of anger, Will no one rid me of this meddlesome priest?

Four knights murdered him in the cathedral in Canterbury

Led to pilgrimage The Crusades: Richard I The Lionheart

Began in 1096 AD (30 years after Norman Conquest)Christians fought against Muslims along the Mediterranean Sea and in North AfricaPrize Jerusalem and the Holy LandEuropeans benefited from the contact with the higher civilizations of the Middle East. Exposure to mathematics, astronomy, architecture, and medicineRichard I The Lionheart and The Crusades1095 Pope Urban calls for a Crusade to rid the holy land (Jerusalem, modern-day Palestine) of MuslimsRichard I was one of the English kings who answered this callInterestingly, The Crusades increased English commerce around the worldDuring his absence, his brother John controlled the kingdom.John was a treacherous and domineering king as we know from

King John & the Magna Carta

Signed by King John in 1215Because of King Johns unpopularity and weakened treasury (due to the Crusades), John was forced to sign the Magna CartaWritten by aristocrats for aristocratsThe Magna Carta limited royal authority, gave power to the nobles, and set the stage for the development of democracyKing could not raise taxes without the consent of the baronsLaid the foundation for rights such as trial by jury and legislative taxation

King John & the Magna Carta

7. The Magna Carta also brought about the decline of Feudalism and the rise of a middle-class Mercantile economic system a system that used money instead of land as the basis of wealth (this was also due to The Crusades).

The Hundred Years War1337-1453 (116 years):

First national war

England attacked France but were largely unsuccessful

Developed a British national consciousness

No longer chivalric knights in armor instead green-clad yeoman with longbows and arrows

The Hundred Years War1337-1453 (116 years):

5. The yeoman or small landowner formed the nucleus of the English Army in France. He became the dominant force in the emerging, NON-FEUDAL England.

6. Long arrows could fly over castle walls and pierce a knights armor.

The Hundred Years War1337-1453 (116 years):

7. Gave confidence

8. Feudalism begins to die out in earnest.

9. Democratic principles begin to take hold.

Key Battles in The Hundred Years WarHenry Vs victory at Agincourt was a key moment for the English sidememorialized in Shakespeares play Henry the FifthJoan of Arcs victory at Orleans broke the Englishs success and began the ejection of the English from France

WAR OF THE ROSESAN ENGLISH CIVIL WAR OVER THE THRONE OF ENGLAND1453 to 1485 King Henry VI

Henry VI in 1453 suffers from extreme madness

His cousin, Ric

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