Medieval feudalism 4

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  • 1.The Middle Ages The dArk Ages #26 World History Ch 13 &

2. Europe in the 6 Century ADth 3. Changes in W. Europe due to Germanic Invasions Disruption of Trade /Economic Centers Downfall of Cities - abandoned - dwindling population moved to the countryside Decline of Learning - besides clergy /few were educated Loss of Common Language - Cultural Unity is Destroyed 4. FeudAlisM System of Govt. / Military that began after the fall of the Franks from power Small kingdoms developed / ex. 350 counties In order to maintain control a relationship between kings and lesser nobles was needed This was the Feudal Contract Two Important Aspects: 1. Land Grants from Lords 2. Exchanged for Protection & Loyalty 5. (Serfs) Peasants who worked the land 6. The Road to KNIGHT KnighthoodAge 21SQUIRE Age 14PAGEAge 7 7. Knight in Full Armor - Jousting 8. Chivalry A Code of Honor and Behavior 9. Knights Ruled the Battlefield From Charlemagne to the Hundred Years War 10. Age of Knights Ends with Development of the Welsh Up to six feet long Longbow - Cheap to make - Easy to Carry - Quick to Fire 12-15 shots per min Deadly from 200yd The Middle Finger - Capture/Fr. Cut M.F. Bodkin - Battle of Agincourt (Eng. Showed Finger) 11. Feudalismpolitical, economic & social system based on loyalty and military service 12. Key words/Concepts Lords nobles who make a grant of land (kings / barons / counts, etc) Vassals nobles who received the land (knights could be included here) Fief the land that was granted (hereditary) - Could be Both a lord & vassal - couldnt divide the fief within the family - Law of Primogeniture (eldest son) - Obligations were only for lord above & vassal below 13. The Manor System within Feudalism Economic System of the Dark Ages (agricultural based) Large fiefs might have several manors - stewards ran them if lords were away Centered around the Manor (estate) - manor house(castle), pastures, fields village, church, mill, forests,etc. Manors were Self-Sufficient very little trade during this period 14. Social Structure 1. Nobility Kings/Lords/Knights inherited2. Clergy each manor had a priest 3. Free Men (Few) had certain valuable skills Blacksmith,etc. - rented land from nobility 4. Serfs peasants bound to the land 15. Serfs lived a hard life Forced to work land they were born on - farmed the Domain (1/3 of Land) for the lord: 1 or 2 days of week - farmed land assigned to them(2/3) paid taxes on what was produced In exchange for protection in the Castle Denied Marriage or leaving land w/out consent of the lord Standard of living was very low 16. Manor in the Middle Ages examples 17. The Medieval Manor / p.362 18. Life on the Medieval ManorSerfs at work on the manor 19. Castles were the best example of Power in the Medieval World 20. Medieval Castle In France 21. Akershus Castle in Oslo 22. View from the Top 23. Trebuchet 24. Small model 25. Making a trebuchet Nova 5 min Film / Two types of Trebuchets are shot at a stone wall -- accurate from about mile -shot up to 500 pd. boulders The Trebuchet ruled the Medieval battlefield for more than 200 years The Cannon Ultimately Ended the Age of the Castle & Feudalism 26. The Roman Catholic Church Ch 13.4 27. A Medieval Monastery-Spread the word of God-Keep alive the memories of the past- 28. Illuminated Manuscripts 29. A Medieval Monks Day 30. The Medieval Catholic filled the power vacuum left from the Churchworld. collapse of the classical monasticism: St. Benedict Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience. (giving up free will) No Speaking, etc provided schools for the children of the upper class.(later Middle Ages) inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war. libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts. monks missionaries to thebarbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface] 31. The Power of the bishops and abbots played a large part in Medieval the feudal system. Church the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe. tried to curb feudal warfare only 40 days a year for combat. curb heresies crusades; Inquisition tithe 1/10 tax on your assets given to the church. Peters Pence 1 penny per person [paid by the peasants]. 32. The Middle Age ChurCh Feudalism/Manor system fragmented EuropeThe Church was the glue (stability) LATIN CHRISTIANDOM Religious Events Marked a Persons Life Eventually the Church devised a uniform path for all Christians to follow 7 Sacraments 1. Baptism enter church community 2. Holy Eucharist communion 3. Confirmation church membership 4. Penance repentance of sins 5. Holy Orders admitted to priesthood 6. Matrimony marriage 7. Extreme Unction anointing the sick/dying last rights 33. Beginning of Modern States Ch 14.3 & .4 England absorbs waves of Invaders Englands evolving govt. France / Capetian Dynasty The Hundred Years War / Joan of Arc 34. Feudalism and the Mounted Knight comes to England -Battle of Hastings 1066 Angles & SaxonsHarold Godwinson William of Normandy 35. William the Conqueror: Battle of Hastings, 1066 (Bayeaux Tapestry) 36. Modern States Emerge 1. England After the Norman Conquest Kings begin to unify but lose their power to a Great Council of Nobles & The Church 2. France Charlemagne's old land Kings used a Council to control the Nobles & Clergy 3. Holy Roman Empire German & Italy(800 yrs) Power struggle between the Emperors & the Clergy power is divided(no one side wins) 37. Evolution of Englands Political System Henry I: Williams son. set up a court system. Exchequer dept. of royal finances. Henry II: established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom. grand jury. trial by jury. 38. Magna Carta, 1215 King John I Runnymeade Great Charter monarchs were not above the law. kings had to consult a council of advisors. kings could not tax arbitrarily. 39. The Beginnings of the British Parliament Great Council: middle class merchants, townspeople[burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c. eventually called Parliament. by 1400, two chambers evolved: o House of Lords nobles & clergy. o House of Commons knights and burgesses. 40. The Rise of European Monarchies: 41. The Beginnings of European Transformation 42. Gothic Architectural Style Pointed arches. High, narrow vaults. Thinner walls. Flying buttresses. Elaborate, ornate, airier interiors. Stained-glass windows.Flying Buttresses 43. Oxford University 44. Medieval Universities 45. Late Medieval Town Dwellings 46. Medieval Guilds Guild Hall Commercial Monopoly- (Trade Associations) Controlled membershipapprentice journeyman master craftsman Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. Controlled prices 47. Medieval Guilds: A Goldsmiths Shop 48. Medieval Trade 49. Possible Three-Field System 50. Film Knights & Armor Knights / William Marshall Squires Tournaments Events - Running of the Rings Joust Quatrain Castles Coat of Arms / Order of the Garter Chivalry (Chivalary) King Arthur 51. Medieval Life & Times Assignment: 1. From within selected Topic pick two sub categories for your paper Ex. Medieval Clothing /Chain Mail & Hair Styles2. Discuss or Define its purpose 3. Compare or Contrast to Modern Times 4. Short Presentation to Class