MEASURES OF SOCIAL COHESION IN POLISH CITIES: Professor Renata Siemienska, Dr Anna Domaradzka and M.A

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  • MEASURES OF SOCIAL COHESION IN POLISH CITIES: WARSAW

    Professor Renata Siemienska, Dr Anna Domaradzka and M.A. Ilona Matysiak The Robert B. Zajonc Institute for Social Studies

    University of Warsaw (Poland)

    WILCO Publication no. 31

    This report is part of Work Package 3 of the research project entitled "Welfare innovations at the local level in favour of cohesion" (WILCO). WILCO aims to examine, through cross-national comparative research, how local welfare systems affect social inequalities and how they favour social cohesion, with a special focus on the missing link between innovations at the local level and their successful transfer to and implementation in other settings. The WILCO consortium covers ten European countries and is funded by the European Commission (FP7, Socio-economic Sciences & Humanities).

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    1. General introduction ...............................................................................3

    1.1. Transformations in the labour market .......................................................3 General trends in the labour market ............................................................3 Legal framework ....................................................................................3 Structure of the administration ..................................................................4 Social welfare .......................................................................................5 Grey labour market ................................................................................6

    1.2. Demographic changes and family .............................................................6 Socio-economic trends.............................................................................6 Public regulation ...................................................................................7

    1.3. Immigration .................................................................................... 10 General trends in immigration ................................................................. 10 Population of immigrants ....................................................................... 11 Immigrants on the labour market .............................................................. 13 Regulations concerning immigrants ............................................................ 16

    1.4. Trends in the housing field ................................................................... 18 Socio-economic trends........................................................................... 18 Public regulation ................................................................................. 22

    2. Warsaw............................................................................................. 24

    2.1. Transformations in the labour market ..................................................... 26 Socio-economic trends........................................................................... 26 Public regulation ................................................................................. 32 Annex A. Transformations in the labour market: indicators ............................... 35

    2.2. Demographic changes and family ........................................................... 41 Socio-economic trends........................................................................... 41 Annex B. Demographic changes and family: indicators ..................................... 50

    2.3. Immigration .................................................................................... 55 Socio-economic trends........................................................................... 55 Public regulation ................................................................................. 60 Annex C. Immigration: indicators .............................................................. 61

    2.4. Trends in the housing field ................................................................... 61 Socio-economic trends........................................................................... 61 Public regulation ................................................................................. 65 Annex D. Trends in the housing field: indicators ............................................ 68

    Administrative map of Warsaw .................................................................... 73

    Bibliography ............................................................................................ 74

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    1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION The detailed study of Warsaw, one of the two Polish cities analysed in the framework of the WILCO project (namely Warsaw and Płock) is preceded by an introduction on the general nature of the Polish public regulations concerning the labour market, child care, immigrants and housing. This information is related to the content of the report prepared within the framework of WP2, which we consider to be significant in the context of analyses of these two cities. The two city analyses are presented respectively in the present report (Warsaw) and in the other Polish report for WP4 (Płock - see WILCO Publication no. 28). In this introductory section, we discuss in detail the nationwide trends and public regulations on immigrants. These topics were not discussed separately within the framework of WP2; understanding of the specific characteristics of Poland requires presentation of the basic migration trends and institutional conditions. 1.1. Transformations in the labour market General trends in the labour market Poland is characterized by a lower rate of employment in comparison with the average values of labour market activity indicators in the European Union (the so-called "former EU 15" and 27 member states) within the last decade. At the same time, the unemployment rate in Poland was decreasing steadily (with a slight increase in the last two years), and it has now reached the European average. Lowering of the unemployment rate in Poland is a result of Poland’s accession to the European Union, which has resulted in emergence of new workplaces in the Polish economy, as well as migration of the Poles, searching for jobs mostly in those member states, which have opened their labour markets. The recent increase in the unemployment rate in Poland is a result of the last financial crisis in the global economy. The values of the indicators of labour market activity are differentiated in Poland mainly according to gender and age. In years 2003-2009, the rate of employment of women was significantly lower than among men, and this difference is permanent. Similarly, the unemployment rate among women is slightly higher than among men. The less significant difference in this case is associated with the fact that women are dominant among the inactive persons. The highest unemployment rate is typical for young people, aged 15-24. The unemployment rate in this group has been decreasing steadily in the recent years – in 2008, it amounted to 17.3%, in 2007 – 21.6%, in 2006 – 29.8%, and in 2005 – 37.7%. In year 2009, the unemployment rate among the youngest employees amounted to 20.5%, that is, more than the EU average (19.8%) (Ministry of Labour and Social Policy 2010). The lowest unemployment rate can be observed among the oldest, aged 55-64 (6.3% in year 2009), which is associated with low values of indicators of professional activity in this group. Low professional activity and quick withdrawal from the labour market of persons, who do not belong to the mobile age groups, is one of the basic problems of Polish economy (Ministry of Labour and Social Policy 2010). Legal framework Like other member states of the EU, Poland is subject to the European Strategy of Employment, which has been a part of the Lisbon strategy since year 2000. The legal basis for the labour market policy, implemented in Poland, is provided by the act of April 20th, 2004 on promotion of employment and the labour market institutions (Journal of Laws of 2010, no. 81, item 531, as amended). The detailed obligations of the state with regard to

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    the labour market policy have been specified in the National Action Plan for Employment for 2009-2011, which serves as a basis for regional action plans prepared by provincial authorities, as well as the National Reform Programme on behalf of implementation of the Lisbon Strategy for years 2009-2011. The primary objective of the Polish labour market policy in the context of these documents is to include the maximum number of Poles, who are able to work, in the labour market (Ministry of Labour and Social Policy 2009). Great emphasis is put on increasing of professional activity of various social groups, e.g. through supporting and developing the continuous education programmes, reconciliation between family life and career. In the period of 2000-2010, one of the key changes with regard to labour market legal regulations was passing of the act on promotion of employment and labour market institutions preceding directly Poland’s accession to the EU in 2004. Secondly, since year 2004, the availability of resources from the European Social Fund has made it possible to broaden the scope of services offered both by public institutions of the labour market and private entities and the third sector. For instance, in the last period of programming (2007-2013), supporting of activation of various social groups on the labour market is the key objective of implementation of the Human Capital Operational Programme. Structure of the administration In the Polish context, the most s