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Materiay pomocnicze do wicze z przedmiotu:

Termodynamika techniczna

mgr in. Agnieszka Sadowska-Saga

Materiay pomocnicze do przedmiotu Termodynamika techniczna.

mgr in. Agnieszka Sadowska-Saga 3

Spis treci Spis treci ................................................................................................................................................... 3 1 Gaz jako czynnik termodynamiczny ............................................................................................. 5

1.1 Prawa gazowe .......................................................................................................................................................6 1.1.1 Prawo Boyle'a-Mariotte'a..................................................................................................................................6 1.1.2 Prawo Gay-Lussaca ..........................................................................................................................................7 1.1.3 Prawo Avogadra...............................................................................................................................................7 1.2 Rwnanie stanu gazu doskonaego i pdoskonaego ..............................................................................................7 1.2.1 Ciepo waciwe ...............................................................................................................................................7 1.2.2 Staa gazowa ....................................................................................................................................................9 1.2.3 Rwnanie Clapeyrona rwnanie stanu gazu doskonaego ..............................................................................10

2 Bilans energii. Pierwsza zasada termodynamiki......................................................................... 13 2.1 Przemiany termodynamiczne ...............................................................................................................................13 2.2 Energia wewntrzna ukadu .................................................................................................................................14 2.3 Praca i ciepo przemiany......................................................................................................................................16 2.3.1 Praca przemiany.............................................................................................................................................16 2.3.1.1 Praca bezwzgldna ....................................................................................................................................17 2.3.1.2 Praca uyteczna.........................................................................................................................................18 2.3.1.3 Praca techniczna........................................................................................................................................19 2.3.2 Ciepo przemiany ...........................................................................................................................................22 2.4 Entalpia i entropia ...............................................................................................................................................23 2.4.1 Entalpia..........................................................................................................................................................23 2.4.2 Entropia .........................................................................................................................................................23 2.5 Pierwsza zasada termodynamiki...........................................................................................................................24 2.5.1 Bilans energii przemiany termodynamicznej....................................................................................................24 2.5.2 Bilans energii maszyny przepywowej.............................................................................................................26

3 Przemiany charakterystyczne gazw doskonaych oraz pdoskonaych .................................. 27 3.1 Przemiany charakterystyczne ...............................................................................................................................27 3.1.1 Izobara...........................................................................................................................................................27 3.1.1.1 Praca bezwzgldna ....................................................................................................................................28 3.1.1.2 Praca techniczna........................................................................................................................................28 3.1.1.3 Ciepo przemiany ......................................................................................................................................28 3.1.1.4 Przyrost entropii ........................................................................................................................................29 3.1.2 Izochora .........................................................................................................................................................29 3.1.2.1 Praca bezwzgldna ....................................................................................................................................30 3.1.2.2 Praca techniczna........................................................................................................................................30 3.1.2.3 Ciepo przemiany ......................................................................................................................................31 3.1.2.4 Przyrost entropii ........................................................................................................................................31 3.1.3 Izoterma.........................................................................................................................................................31 3.1.3.1 Praca bezwzgldna ....................................................................................................................................32 3.1.3.2 Praca techniczna........................................................................................................................................33 3.1.3.3 Ciepo przemiany ......................................................................................................................................33 3.1.3.4 Przyrost entropii ........................................................................................................................................33 3.1.4 Izentropa (adiabata) ........................................................................................................................................34 3.1.4.1 Praca bezwzgldna ....................................................................................................................................35 3.1.4.2 Praca techniczna........................................................................................................................................35 3.1.4.3 Ciepo przemiany ......................................................................................................................................36 3.1.5 Politropa ........................................................................................................................................................36 3.1.5.1 Praca bezwzgldna ....................................................................................................................................37 3.1.5.2 Praca techniczna........................................................................................................................................37 3.1.5.3 Ciepo przemiany ......................................................................................................................................37 3.2 Napenianie i oprnianie zbiornikw ..................................................................................................................38 3.2.1 Napenianie zbiornika.....................................................................................................................................38 3.2.1.1 Oprnianie zbiornika ...............................................................................................................................40

4 Obiegi termodynamiczne. Druga zasad termodynamiki ............................................................ 41 4.1 Obiegi termodynamiczne .....................................................................................................................................41 4.1.1 Obiegi prawo- i lewobiene ............................................................................................................................42 4.1.1.1 Obiegi prawobiene...................................................................................................................................42

Materiay pomocnicze do przedmiotu Termodynamika techniczna.

mgr in. Agnieszka Sadowska-Saga 4

4.1.1.2 Obiegi lewobiene..................................................................................................................................... 42 4.1.2 Praca obiegu i ciepo obiegu ........................................................................................................................... 42 4.1.2.1 Obieg prawobieny ................................................................................................................................... 43 4.1.2.2 Obieg lewobieny .......................