Materials Handling MODULE 18

Materials Handling - OSHA

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Page 1: Materials Handling - OSHA

Materials HandlingMODULE 18

Page 2: Materials Handling - OSHA

2 ©2006 TEEX

Materials Handling on Oil and Gas Sites

What materials are handled? What machines are used to handle

them? What precautions are taken to avoid

accidents and injuries?

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3 ©2006 TEEX


29 CFR 1910 Subpart N 29 CFR 1926 Subparts H and N API RP 54, 4G, 9B ANSI B56.6 for forklifts Crane standards for derricks?

RP 54 and general duty clause Look at application for each crane standard

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Materials Handling and Storage29 CFR 1910 SUBPART N

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Organization of Subpart N

1910.176 - Handling materials - general 1910.177 - Servicing multi-piece and single piece rim

wheels 1910.178 - Powered industrial trucks 1910.178 App A – Stability of powered industrial

trucks (non-mandatory) 1910.179 - Overhead and gantry cranes 1910.180 - Crawler locomotive and truck cranes 1910.181 - Derricks 1910.183 - Helicopters 1910.184 - Slings

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1910.176 Handling materials - general

Mechanical equipment: safe clearances; permanent passageways marked

Housekeeping – avoid tripping, fire, explosion, or pest harborage hazards

Covers or guardrails for open pits, tanks, vats, ditches

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1910.176 Handling materials - general

Storage must not create a hazard: Stable/secure against sliding or collapse

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1910.177 Servicing multi-piece and single-piece rim wheels

Applies to large vehicles; not pickups, automobiles, or vans

Training Tire servicing equipment Wheel component acceptability Safe operating procedures

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Powered Industrial Trucks29 CFR 1910.178

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1910.178 Powered industrial trucks

Contains safety requirements relating to: Fire protection Design Maintenance Use of fork trucks, tractors, platform lift trucks,

motorized hand trucks, and other specialized industrial trucks powered by electric motors or internal combustion engines

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1910.178 Powered industrial trucks

ANSI B56.1 1969 Marking indicating approval by testing

laboratory No modifications that affect capacity

and safe operation without manufacturer’s prior written approval

Front-end attachments identified Markings maintained legible

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1910.178(b) and (c)

Designations for industrial trucks by fuel and safeguards against ignition source

Designated locations where specific types of trucks may be used Table N-1

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1910.178(e) Safety guards

Overhead guards for High Lift Rider trucks if operations permit

Vertical load backrest extension for types of loads that present hazards

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1910.178(f) Fuel handling and storage

Storing and handling of liquid fuels: Follow NFPA No. 30-1969

Storing and handling of LPG fuel: Follow NFPA No. 58-1969

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1910.178(g) Changing and charging storage batteries

Battery charging installations located in areas designated for that purpose

Facilities provided for Flushing and neutralizing spilled electrolyte, For fire protection, For protecting charging apparatus from damage

by trucks, and For adequate ventilation for dispersal of fumes

from gassing batteries

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1910.178(g) Changing and charging storage batteries

Conveyor, overhead hoist, or equivalent provided for handling batteries

Reinstalled batteries properly positioned and secured in the truck

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1910.178(g) Changing and charging storage batteries

When charging batteries, acid poured into water; not water poured into acid

Trucks properly positioned and brake applied before attempting to change or charge batteries

Care taken to assure that vent caps are functioning

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1910.178(g) Changing and charging storage batteries

Smoking prohibited in the charging area Precautions taken to prevent open

flames, sparks, or electric arcs in battery charging areas

Tools and metallic objects kept away from the tops of batteries


sparks oropen flames

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1910.178(h) and (i)

Auxiliary directional lighting on truck if lighting <2 lumens per square foot

Control carbon monoxide to levels in 1910.1000

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1910.178(k) Trucks and railroad cars

Brakes set and wheel chocks placed for highway trucks boarded with powered industrial trucks

Positive protection to keeptrain cars from moving while loading or with dockboards/bridge plates

Fixed jacks for uncoupled semitrailer during loading

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1910.178(l) Operator training

Ensure that before employee operates a powered industrial truck, operator has completed training and evaluation successfully

Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck only: Under direct supervision of persons with the

knowledge, training, and experience to train operators and evaluate their competence; and

Where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees.

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1910.178(l) Operator training

Required: Lecture or other formal instruction

(computer, video tape, written) Practical training (demonstrations and

exercises) Evaluation by trainer of operator

performance in workplace Refresher training required after certain

conditions in (4)

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1910.178(l)(3) Training program content

Truck-related training topics: Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions Differences between the truck and the automobile Truck controls and instrumentation:

where they are located what they do how they work

Engine or motor operation Steering and maneuvering Fork and attachment adaptation

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1910.178(l)(3) Training program content

Truck-related training topics: Vehicle capacity Vehicle stability Any vehicle inspection and maintenance that the

operator will be required to perform Refueling and/or charging and recharging of

batteries Operating limitations Operating instructions, warnings, or precautions

listed in the operator's manual

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1910.178(l)(3) Training program content

Workplace-related topics: Surface conditions Composition of loads and load stability Load manipulation, stacking, and

unstacking Pedestrian traffic in areas where the

vehicle will be operated Ramps and other sloped surfaces that

could affect the vehicle's stability

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1910.178(l) Certification

The certification shall include: Name of the operator; Date of the training; Date of the evaluation, and; Identity of the person(s)

performing the training or evaluation Previous training does not need to be

repeated if operator can operate safely

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1910.178(m) Truck operations

Trucks never driven up to anyone standing in front of a bench or other fixed object

No one allowed to stand or pass under the elevated portion of any truck, whether loaded or empty

Unauthorized personnel not permitted to ride on powered industrial trucks

A safe place to ride provided where riding of trucks is authorized

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1910.178(m) Truck operations

Prohibit arms or legs from being placed between the uprights of the mast or outside the running lines of the truck

When truck left unattended (25 ft. away or out of view): load engaging means fully lowered controls neutralized power shall be shut off brakes set

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1910.178(m) Truck operations

Maintain safe distance from edges of ramps or platforms while on any elevated location

Never use trucks to open or close freight doors

Trucks, trailers, and railroad cars: Immobilize vehicles and check floors for breaks and weakness before driving on

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1910.178(m) Truck operations

Overhead guard as protection against falling objects Intended to offer protection

from the impact of small packages, boxes, bagged material, etc.

Not intended to withstand the impact of a falling capacity load

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1910.178(n) Traveling

Follow all traffic regulations, including authorized speed limits

Maintain safe distance approximately three truck lengths from the truck ahead

Keep truck under control at all times

Three truck lengthsminimum

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1910.178(n) Traveling

Never pass other trucks traveling in the same direction at intersections, blind spots, or other dangerous locations

Slow down and sound horn at cross aisles and other locations where vision is obstructed

If the load being carried obstructs forward view, travel with the load trailing

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1910.178(n) Traveling

Ascending or descending grades >10%: drive loaded trucks with the load upgrade

On all grades the load and load engaging means tilted back if applicable, and raised only as far as necessary to clear the road surface

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Overhead and Gantry Cranes29 CFR 1910.179

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1910.179(b) General Requirements

Application: cranes with trolleys and other characteristics similar to gantry cranes

ANSI B30.2.0-1967 Rated load marking on

each side and legible from the floor

Operated by designated personnel only

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Organization of Standard

c. Cabs – access, controls, locationd. Footwalks and ladders – location,

construction, walking/working surfacese. Stops, bumpers, rail sweeps, and

guardsf. Brakesg. Electric equipment, including


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Organization of Standard

h. Hoisting equipment – sheaves, ropes, equalizers, hooks

i. Warning devicej. Inspection – frequent and periodick. Testing – operational and loadl. Maintenancem. Rope inspection

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Organization of Standard

n. Handling the load1. Size2. Attaching the load3. Moving the load4. Hoist limit switch

o. Other requirements – ladders, cabs, fire extinguishers

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Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes

29 CFR 1910.180

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1910.180(b) General Requirements

Application: Crawler cranes, locomotive cranes, wheel

mounted cranes, used as lifting cranes Both truck and self-propelled wheel type Powered by internal combustion engines or

electric motors Utilize drums and ropes

ANSI B30.5-1968 Operated by designated personnel only

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Organization of Standard

c. Load ratingsd. Inspection classificatione. Testingf. Maintenance procedure – Generalg. Rope inspectionh. Handling the loadi. Other requirementsj. Operations near overhead lines

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Derricks29 CFR 1910.181

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1910.181(b) General Requirements

Application: “any modification of these types which

retain their fundamental features, except for floating derricks”

ANSI B30.6-1969 Operated by designated personnel only

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Organization of Standard

c. Load ratings – permanent and nonpermanent

d. Inspection e. Testingf. Maintenanceg. Rope inspectionh. Operations of derricksi. Handling the loadj. Other requirements

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Slings29 CFR 1910.184

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Used for hoisting of material Alloy steel chain Wire rope Metal mesh Natural or synthetic fiber rope Synthetic web

Illustrations in (b)

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(c) Safe operating practices

1. Never use damaged / defective slings2. Never shorten slings with makeshift

devices3. Never use kinked sling legs4. Never load slings in excess of rated

capacities5. Balance loads in basket hitches to

prevent slippage.

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(c) Safe operating practices

6. Attach slings securely to loads.7. Pad / protect slings from sharp edges.8. Keep suspended loads clear of

obstructions9. Keep employees clear of loads to be

lifted and suspended loads.

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(c) Safe operating practices

10.Never place hands or fingers between sling and load while sling is being tightened.

11.Shock loading is prohibited – take up the slack in the sling slowly.

12.Never pull a sling out from under a load while the load rests on it.

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Organization of Standard

c. Inspections – each day before use and during use

d. Alloy steel chain slingse. Wire rope slingsf. Metal mesh slings

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Construction Standards29 CFR 1926 Subparts H and N

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Applicability of Construction Standards in 29 CFR 1926

Subpart H: Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal

Subpart N: Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors

Do construction standards apply: To a derrick during drilling operations? To a crane setting up equipment at a site?

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Hazards & Standards for Oil & GasAPI RP 54, RP4G, RP9B