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Mastering NT Greek 2. Accents, Syllables, and English Grammar By Ted Hildebrandt © 2003 Baker Academic

Mastering NT Greek - Gordon College · Syllable Slicing -- 4 Rules 3. Split two vowels (except for diphthongs), allowing only one vowel or diphthong per syllable. 4. Split compound

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  • Mastering NT Greek

    2. Accents, Syllables, and English Grammar

    By Ted Hildebrandt © 2003Baker Academic

  • Syllable Slicing -- 4 Rules1. Consonants goes with the vowel that follows it (unless in a pronounceable consonant cluster, i.e. a consonant cluster which can begin a word: e.g. st, ch,…).2. Split two consonants if they are thesame letter or if they create anunpronounceable combination (i.e., anyconsonant combination that cannot begin/end a Greek word).

  • Syllable Slicing -- 4 Rules

    3. Split two vowels (except for diphthongs),allowing only one vowel or diphthong persyllable.4. Split compound words into their originalparts before applying the rules of syllabledivision.

  • Rules 1: Consonant goes with what follows

    e]gw< e] / gw<


  • Rule 2. Split consonants but keep consonant clusters together


  • Rule 3. Split vowels but keep diphthongs together


  • 4. Split between words


  • 3 Syllable Names

    [email protected] -- [email protected] / qrw / poj (3 syllables)Antepenult Penult Ultima

    [email protected] qrw poj

    [Penult = almost last in Latin][Ante-Penult = before the almost last]

  • 3 Accents

    Acute ( < ) le) a]delfo>j brotherCircumflex ( ? ) au]tou? his

  • Potential Accent Placement

    Acute– can be placed on any of the last three [email protected] ([email protected] qrw poj) - antepenultle

  • Potential Accent Placement

    Circumflex – can be placed only on last 2 syllablesfarisai?oj (fa ri sai? oj) - penultau]tou? (au] tou?) - ultima

  • Grave only last syllable

    Xristo>j (Xri sto>j) - ultima

  • 6 Accent Rules

    1. Nouns are [email protected], a]gge

  • 6 Accent Rules (cont.)

    4. If the ultima is long and the penult isaccented, then that accent must be anacute.

    [email protected], a]gge

  • 6 Accent Rules (cont.)

    6. If an acute is on the ultima, it becomesa grave when followed by anotherword without intervening punctuation.kai> qeo>j h#n

  • Possible Accent Placement Chart

    < < < Acute? ? Circumflex

    > Grave

  • Words with No Accents

    Clitics are words that "lean on" the words preceding or following. Proclitic: comes before the word that carries the accent

    o[ Xristo

  • Words with no accents

    Enclitic: comes after the word that carries the accent

    ]Egw< ei]mi

  • Breathing Marks

    Smooth Breathing: ( ] ) a]delfo

  • Punctuation Marks

    Period ( . ) lo

  • Apostrophe

    dia< + au]tou? == di ] au]tou?

  • Coronis contraction

    kai + e]gw< == ka]gw< a]lla + i!na == a]ll ] i!na

  • Diaeresis ( *) --the diphthong buster

    Placed over second of two vowels in a row to keep the sounds separate -- not letting them become a diphthong.]Hsai~aj ]H sa i~ ajMwu*sh?j Mw u* sh?j

  • English Grammar Review: parts of speech

    Noun: person, place or thing: bookAdjective: noun modifier -- big red bookDefinite Article: the (indefinite=a)Pronoun: I, we, you, he, she, it, theyPreposition: in, by, because, outVerb: swam, ran, studiedAdverb: modifies verb – quickly, swiftly

  • Sentence Parts (syntax)

    1) Subject: about which something is saidTerry went to the store.

    2) Predicate: that which is said about thesubject: He drove the car. Predicate Nominative: It is I.

    Phrases: group of words with no verb but used as a single part of speech: The book on the table is mine.

  • Sentence Parts (syntax)

    Clauses: group of words that has a verb The student who studied Greek bythe ocean is relaxed.

    SVOM -- Subject, Verb, Object, Modifier The girl climbed the tree in the yard.

    S V O M

  • Vanquishing Verbs: Tense

    Present: Zach plays basketball. Past: Zach played basketball. Future: Zach will play basketball. Perfect: Zach has played basketball.

  • Vanquishing Verbs: Aktionsart: How

    Continuous action: I was studying Greek.Undefined: I studied for the test.Perfect: I have studied for the test.

  • Vanquishing Verbs: Voice

    Active: subject does the actionTanya took the car.

    Middle: subject involved/interested/ participating or rarely reflexiveaction on or for itselfTanya took herself (reflexive).

    Passive: the subject receives the actionTanya was taken by the car.

  • Vanquishing Verbs: Verb Moods

    Indicative: statement of fact He stood.

    Subjunctive: desire or possibility He may stand.

    Imperative: command Stand!

    Optative: wish Oh that he would stand.

  • Nouns

    Gender: masculine, feminine, neuterNumber: singular / plural -- skate/skatesCase: Role the noun plays in the sentenceNominative: subject of sentence

    (She received the award.)Accusative: object of the sentence

    (The car hit her.)Genitive: possessive

    (The car was hers.)

  • NounsGreek Adds two more casesDative: Indirect object

    (I told the story to the teacher.)Vocative: direct address

    (O Lord, save me.)Learn these 5 cases cold as they

    are crucial in Greek.

  • Chapter 2 Vocabulary


  • Chapter 2 Vocabulary


  • Chapter 2 Vocabulary


  • Chapter 2 Vocabulary

    [email protected] I have

  • Chapter 2 Vocabulary


  • Chapter 2 Vocabulary


  • Chapter 2 Vocabulary


  • Chapter 2 Vocabulary


  • Chapter 2 Vocabulary


  • Chapter 2 Vocabulary

    Farisai?oj, -ou, o[ Pharisee

  • Chapter 2 Vocabulary


  • Chapter 2 Vocabulary


  • Chapter 2 Vocabulary


  • Chapter 2 Vocabulary


  • Chapter 2 Vocabulary