Master Herbalist (Phytotherapy) Diploma Course Assignment Thirteen Page 1
MASTER HERBALIST (PHYTOTHERAPY)
TUTOR TALK: The Learning Outcomes for this assignment are:
Define fruits and vegetables, noting their colour, shape and seed.
Master Herbalist (Phytotherapy) Diploma Course Assignment Thirteen Page 2
OTHER NAMES: Wild purple flag. Iris florentina. It is important to get the correct plant so use the Latin name, otherwise you will purchase the usual variety of Iris Iris germanica var. florentina.
HISTORY: The Romans, the Greeks, and the Egyptians all cultivated this herb in order to extract its refreshing violet-scented oil. It is one of the few perfume fixatives that can be grown in the ordinary garden, which makes it a natural choice for adding to a pot pourri. The iris was named after the Greek goddess of the rainbow because of the huge number of shades of the flowers. Egyptians choose the iris to decorate the Sphinx. DESCRIPTION OF THE HERB: The root of this hardy plant is a rhizome, a thick mass of roots. Its leaves are grey-green, sword-shaped and grow up to 45cms long. The whole is a shrub that grows between 60 and 120cms tall in deep, rich, well-drained soil. It is a variety of iris and its flowers are white. Orrisroot powder, which is a golden-yellow colour, is used in shampoos, as a fixative in perfumery and for pot pourri. Contains isoflavones, triterpenes and an essential oil. HABITAT: Native to Southern Europe and naturalised in Central Europe, Iran and North India. It tolerates most well-drained soils, preferring sunny, stony, dry, hilly situations. PART/S USED: The dried rhizome, which is gathered in the autumn. PREPARATIONS: NOT FOR EATING. Used as an ingredient in perfumery and in pot pourri ONLY. ACTIONS: NONE USES OF THE HERB MEDICAL: NONE CAUTIONS: DO NOT USE except for perfumery. Hypersensitive individuals may react with urticaria on handling.
OSHA is an herb similar to parsley and dill; it is used often for respiratory ailments. OSWEGO TEA - See BERGAMOT ORANGE. PAEONY - See PEONY. PALAS
OTHER NAMES: Flame of the Forest, Bengal Kino HISTORY: Not known
Master Herbalist (Phytotherapy) Diploma Course Assignment Thirteen Page 3
DESCRIPTION OF THE HERB: A deciduous tree that grows to about 15 metres high, it has 3-lobed leaves and large orange-red flowers in clusters. All parts of the tree except the seeds contain tannins. HABITAT: Palas is native to India and Malaysia. It grows in forests and in open areas to altitudes of up to 1,200m. PART/S USED: Bark, flowers, leaves, gum, and seeds PREPARATIONS: Decoctions, tinctures, and the gum resin ACTIONS: It is astringent, anti-diarrhoea, digestive and a purgative. USES OF THE HERB MEDICAL: The gum that oozes from incisions made in palas bark is known as Bengal Kino. Mildly astringent Bengal Kino is used as a substitute for the kino derived from bastard teak. Bengal kino is taken as a decoction or a tincture for acid indigestion, diarrhoea and dysentery, it is used as a gargle for sore throats and as a douche for vaginitis. A decoction of the astringent leaves and flowers is taken for diarrhoea, heavy menstrual bleeding and fever, and can be applied to haemorrhoids and skin conditions. A decoction of leaves, bark or flowers is also thought to have aphrodisiac properties, while the flowers are believed to have a contraceptive effect. The seeds are purgative, and are mainly used externally to treat herpes and ringworm. CAUTIONS: Do not take during pregnancy
PALE CATECHU - See BABUL. PANDAN
OTHER NAMES: Screw Pine HISTORY: It was called Screw Pine after the spiral arrangement of its leaves. DESCRIPTION OF THE HERB: The herb is small and tender, the stem tough and woody, and its stout roots protrude from the plants leaf bases. The fragrance of the picked leaf is said to resemble freshly mown grass or rice. The fresh leaves are often added to curries or are eaten with rice in coconut milk. In Bali streamed rice is served on the leaves of this herb woven into baskets. The leaves are sword-shaped and grow up to 90cms long. HABITAT: It originated in India but is now widely cultivated in Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Thailand as well as other parts of Asia. PART/S USED: The leaves, dried or fresh [it has no flowers] PREPARATIONS: None ACTIONS: None not used for medicine
Master Herbalist (Phytotherapy) Diploma Course Assignment Thirteen Page 4
USES OF THE HERB MEDICAL: Not used CAUTIONS: None
OTHER NAMES: Paw paw fruit. Melon tree HISTORY: Papaya juice, shoots and latex were used in Mayan herbal medicine. In tropical Latin America, the leaves are used as a meat tenderiser. DESCRIPTION OF THE HERB: A herbaceous tree growing very rapidly to 8m that has segmented leaves, yellow flowers, and large, black seeded yellow to orange fruits weighing up to 5kg. Papaya fruit contains the enzymes papain and chymopapain, and traces of an alkaloid, carpainc. Papain, found in the milky white latex that flows from incisions in the unripe fruit, is a protein-dissolving enzyme that aids digestion HABITAT: Native to tropical America, papaya is now cultivated in tropical regions throughout the world. PART/S USED: The juice of the unripe tropical fruit contains papain, a non-animal enzyme that assists the digestion of protein. The fruit, latex, leaves, flowers and seeds are also used. PREPARATIONS: Used externally; the juice of the fresh plant can be used for wounds that refuse to heal. William Scharf, 31, became desperately ill after a kidney transplant. Strong antibiotics failed to heal the infected wound. The surgeon of the Transplant Department of Guys Hospital laid strips of fresh paw-paw fruit across the wound. After one weeks treatment Mr Scharf was cured. Many commercial preparations available Diet: Paw-paw fruit or juice, raw, at meals. ACTIONS: Acts best with an alkali such as Meadowsweet. Has a similar action to pepsin, an enzyme secreted with the gastric juices of the stomach. Helps with the digestion of wheat gluten, thus assisting recovery from coeliac disease. High in beta-carotene (A). Papaya is amenorrhoea, anti-parasite, and antiseptic, carminative and contains natural enzymes that help any digestion problems. It has high lysine and low arginine poperties USES OF THE HERB - MEDICAL: Helps combat acidity, flatulence and the incomplete digestion of meats. The latex from the trunk of the tree can be applied externally to speed the healing of wounds, ulcers, warts and cancerous tumours. The seeds are used as a gentle purgative for worms. The latex has a similar but more violent effect.
Master Herbalist (Phytotherapy) Diploma Course Assignment Thirteen Page 5
The flowers may be taken in an infusion to induce menstruation, and a decoction of the ripe fruit is helpful for treating persistent diarrhoea and dysentery in children. The ripe fruit is mildly laxative and the leaves can be used to dress wounds. CAUTIONS: Note: The fruit has a contraceptive effect in its ability to halt pregnancy by attacking progesterone, the hormone essential to pregnancy. (Researchers: Sussex University) The large green fruit is widely used as a contraceptive in India and Sri Lanka.
PAPOOSE ROOT - See BLUE COHOSH. PARAGUAY TEA - See MTE TEA. PAREIRA
OTHER NAMES: None known HISTORY: Pareira and similar species are famous for being the source of curare, the paralysing arrow poison used by Amazonian and other South American Indians to catch their prey. A dart or spear tipped with curare causes instantaneous paralysis on entering the bloodstream of the animal. Traditional recipes for toxins usually involve blending 10 or more different plants, but pareira or a plant with similar action is always present in the mix. DESCRIPTION OF THE HERB: A vine that climbs high (up to 30 metres) into the tropical rainforests, it has large leaves up to 30cm long, and trailing clusters of flowers. Pareira contains alkaloids, including delta-tubocurarine and L-curarine. Tubocurarine is a potent muscle relaxant. HABITAT: Pareira grows wild in rainforests in the upper Amazon region and in Panama. It is collected from the wild as available. PART/S USED: Root, stem PREPARATIONS: Not recommended, too toxic ACTIONS: Not recommended, too toxic USES OF THE HERB MEDICAL: Pareiras notoriety as a poison hinges on the effect of its toxic derivative entering directly into the bloodstream. Provided there are no cuts or sores in the mouth, the plant is reasonably safe taken orally as a medicinal remedy. The bitter and slightly sweet-tasting roots and stems are mildly laxative, tonic and diuretic, and also act to induce menstruation. The plant is chiefly used to relieve chronic inflammation of the urinary tubules. In Brazil, it is also used for snakebite, for which purpose an infusion of the root is taken internally, while the bruised leaves are applied externally. CAUTIONS: Use only under professional supervision. Pareira and/or curare are subject to legal restrictions in some countries.
Master Herbalist (Phytotherapy) Diploma Course Assignment Thirteen Page 6
OTHER NAMES: There are many types of parsley. HISTORY: Bought to England by the Romans, it gained huge popularity as a culinary herb. DESCRIPTION OF THE HERB: It is a biennial but grown on an annual basis. It has tiny flowers, and if they grow, the leaves are not worth using and should be discarded as being unsuitable for cooking. The seeds contain apiol and are a source of precursor of carotene, Vitamins C, B, bioflavonoids, iron and folic acid. They also contains apiole and myristicin, a volatile oil, coumarins and flavonoids. The leaves are curly with a saw-toothed edge,