PHYSICAL REVIEW D, VOLUME 64, 096002Masses of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons in the two flavor color superconducting phase
V. A. Miransky*Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7, Canada
I. A. Shovkovy*School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455
L. C. R. WijewardhanaPhysics Department, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0011
~Received 19 April 2001; published 3 October 2001!
The masses of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons in the color superconducting phase of dense QCD withtwo light flavors are estimated by making use of the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis effective action. Parametri-cally, the masses of the doublet and antidoublet bosons are suppressed by a power of the coupling constant ascompared to the value of the superconducting gap. This is qualitatively different from the mass expression forthe singlet pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, resulting from nonperturbative effects. It is argued that the~anti!doublet pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons form colorless@with respect to the unbrokenSU(2)c# charmonium-like bound states. The corresponding binding energy is also estimated.
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.64.096002 PACS number~s!: 11.15.Ex, 12.38.Aw, 26.60.1cetoo
Although there is no reliable observational signature yfrom the theoretical point of view, it is quite reasonableassume that the cores of compact stars are made of csuperconducting quark matter@1#. If we take this assumptionseriously, it becomes quite important to study the properof the possible color superconducting phases in full de~for an up to date review on color superconductivity, sRefs.@2,3#!. In this paper, we continue our study@4,5# of thepseudo Nambu-Goldstone~NG! bosons, related to the approximate axial color symmetry, in theS2C phase of colddense QCD.
Let us recall that the axial color transformation is nosymmetry of the QCD action. However, its explicit breakiis a weak effect at sufficiently high quark densities wherecoupling constantas(m) is small~m is a chemical potential!.This was our main argument in Refs.@4,5# suggesting theexistence of five~rather than one@6#! light pseudo NGbosons in theS2C phase of cold dense QCD. No mass esmates for these pseudo-NG bosons were given in Refs@4,5#. In this paper, we fill in the gap by developing the formaism and calculating the masses.
This paper is organized as follows. In the next section,briefly introduce our model and notation. In Sec. III, wdescribe our method, based on the Cornwall-JackTomboulis~CJT! effective action, for calculating mass esmates of the pseudo-NG bosons. Then, in Sec. IV, the leing order diagram is approximately calculated, usianalytical methods. The fate of the colored pseudo-bosons in the doublet and antidoublet channels is discuin Sec. V. In Sec. VI, we give our conclusions. In Appendic
*On leave of absence from Bogolyubov Institute for TheoretiPhysics, 252143, Kiev, Ukraine.0556-2821/2001/64~9!/096002~17!/$20.00 64 0960t,
A and B we present the general expression for the glupolarization tensor and the calculation of the integrals tappear in its definition. In Appendix C the problem of thgauge invariance in the loop expansion of the CJT effecaction is discussed.
II. THE MODEL AND NOTATION
Here we consider cold dense QCD with two light quaflavors ~u and d! in the fundamental representation of thSU(3)c color gauge group. In order to keep the analyticcalculation under control, we assume that the chemicaltentialm is much larger thanLQCD . Of course, when we talkabout the compact stars, this is a far stretched assumpTherefore, while extending our analytical results to the reistic densities existing, for example, at the cores of compstars, one should be very careful. While most of the qualtive results may survive without being affected, most of tquantitative estimates would probably be valid only up toorder of magnitude. From the viewpoint of a theorist, itstill most interesting to study the predictions of the micrscopic theory, i.e. QCD in the problem at hand. The pricesuch a luxury is the necessity to work at asymptotically ladensities.
Instead of working with the standard four componeDirac spinors, in our analysis below, it is convenient totroduce the following eight component Majorana spinors:
& S cDcDCD , cDC5CcDT , ~1!wherecD is a Dirac spinor andC is a charge conjugationmatrix, defined byC21gmC52gm
T and C52CT. In thisnotation, the inverse fermion propagator in the color supconducting phase reads@711#l
2001 The American Physical Society02-1
MIRANSKY, SHOVKOVY, AND WIJEWARDHANA PHYSICAL REVIEW D 64 096002@G~p!#2152 i S ~p01m!g01pW DD ~p02m!g
52 i S g0@~p02ep2!Lp11~p01ep1!Lp2# DD g0@~p02ep
D , ~2!beefi
hiswhere D5g0Dg0, Dabi j [g5 i j ab3@D
1# andthe on-shell projectorsLp
2 S 16aW pWupW u D , where aW 5g0gW , ~3!~note thatD6 are complex valued gap functions!. Color andflavor indices are denoted by small latin letters from theginning and the middle of the alphabet, respectively. By dnition, ep
65upW u6m andpW 52pW gW . The effects of the quarkwave function renormalization are neglected here.
Now, after inverting the expression in Eq.~2!, we arrive atthe following propagator:
G~p!5 i S R11 R12R21 R22D , ~4!where
R11~p!5g0I1Fp01ep2ED2 Lp21 p02ep
1G1g0I2F 1p02ep2 Lp21 1p01ep1 Lp1G , ~5a!
R22~p!5g0I1Fp01ep1ED1 Lp21 p02ep
1G1g0I2F 1p02ep1 Lp21 1p01ep2 Lp1G , ~5b!
R12~p!5g5FD1Lp2ED1 1 D
ED2 G , ~5c!
R21~p!52g5F ~D2!* Lp2ED2 1 ~D
ED1 G , ~5d!
22(ep6)22uD6u2, and the three color-flavor ma
trices are defined as follows:
~I1!abi j 5~dab2da3db3!d i j , ~6!
~I2!abi j 5da3db3d i j , ~7!
abi j 52iTab
2 i j . ~8!
Notice that, when using this quark propagator in loop callations, one should make the substitutions09600--
ED6ED61 i e, ~9!
p06ep2p06ep27 i e sgn~ep2!, ~10!
p06ep1p06ep17 i e, ~11!
in the denominators, and take the limit of vanishinge at theend. This is important for preserving the causality of ttheory.
III. DESCRIPTION OF THE FORMALISM
Let us start from a simple observation. If the model undconsideration had real NG bosons in the spectrum, its eftive potential as a function of the order parameterDab
i j wouldhave a degenerate manifold of minima. The dimensionsuch a manifold would be equal to the number of the Nbosons. We know, however, that no global symmetriesbroken in theS2C phase and, therefore, the potential shouhave a single nondegenerate global minimum. The existeof the pseudo-NG bosons means, however, that the poteis nearly degenerate along selected directions. The curvaalong these directions defines the masses of the pseudobosons. In the limit of the zero curvature, masses go to zas it should be for the NG bosons.
In order to select the directions in the color-flavor spathat correspond to the five pseudo-NG bosons introduceRefs. @4,5#, we should recall their definition. Thespseudo-NG bosons correspond to breaking of the appromate axial color symmetry, given by the following transfomations of the quark fields:
cDUP1cD1UP2cD , ~12a!
cDCU* P2cDC1UTP1cDC , ~12c!
cDCcDCP1UT1cDCP2U* . ~12d!
Of course, this isnot an exact symmetry of the model. Foexample, the kinetic term of the Lagrangian density traforms as follows:
cD~ i ]1mg01A !cDcD~ i ]1mg01P1UA U
1P2UA U !cD , ~13!and no transformation of the vector field could promote ttransformation to a symmetry.2-2
MASSES OF THE PSEUDO NAMBU-GOLDSTONE BOSONS . . . PHYSICAL REVIEW D 64 096002The axial color transformation, as defined above, allous to explicitly extract the phase factors of the gap that crespond to the nearly degenerate directions of interest,
DP1UDU* 1P2UDUT, U5exp~ ivATA!. ~14!One could considervA as the dynamical fields of thpseudo-NG bosons~which, up to a factor of the decay constant, are related to the canonical fields!. Such a substitutionleads to the following changes of the components ofquark propagator:
R22R22~v!5P2UTR22U* 1P1U* R22UT, ~15b!
R12R12~v!5P1UR12U* 1P2UR12UT, ~15c!
R21R21~v!5P2UTR21U1P1U* R21U, ~15d!assuming that the fieldsvA are constant in space-time.
In order to construct the effective potential, we useCJT formalism@12#. The corresponding general expressireads
V5 i E d4p~2p!4
Tr@ ln G~p!S21~p!2S21~p!G~p!11#
where V2@G# represents the two-particle irreducible~withrespect to quark lines! contributions~we will discuss thispoint below!. There are, in general, an infinite numberdiagrams inV2@G#. In our analysis, we leave only a fewleading order diagrams, graphically shown in Fig. 1.
Before proceeding to the actual calculation, let us tryunderstand which type of diagrams could produce a ntrivial dependence of the potential on the pseudo-NG fievA. To this end, we have to recall the origin of thpseudo-NG bosons under consideration. In particular, icruc