Marine Geophysics Data Acquisition, Processing ... 5 activity and conservation in the marine environment

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    2013

    Marine Geophysics Data Acquisition, Processing and Interpretation Guidance Notes

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    Contents

    List of acronyms ................................................................3

    Preface ................................................................................4

    Part I Standards for geophysical survey .....................4

    1 Legislation, existing standards and guidance ...............4

    2 Geophysics and maritime archaeology .........................6

    3 General guidance .........................................................6 3.1 Justification for a geophysical survey ...........................6 3.2 Fieldwork .....................................................................7 3.3 General equipment statement ......................................8 3.3.1 Navigation ....................................................................8 3.3.2 Side scan survey ...........................................................8 3.3.3 Bathymetric survey .......................................................8 3.3.4 Sub-bottom profiler survey ...........................................8 3.3.5 Magnetometer survey ...................................................8 3.4 Data treatment .............................................................8 3.5 Data interpretation .......................................................8 3.6 The survey report .........................................................8 3.7 Data archiving and dissemination ................................9

    Part II Planning and reporting for a marine archaeo-geophysical survey ...........................................9

    4 Archaeology and planning ............................................9

    5 MoRPHE – a project’s life cycle ....................................9 5.1 Start-up and project proposal .......................................9 5.2 Initiation and project design .........................................9 5.3 Execution stages .........................................................10 5.3.1 Desk-based assessment ...............................................10 5.3.2 Fieldwork ...................................................................10 5.3.3 Data processing and analysis ......................................11 5.3.4 Assessment of data potential for further analysis .......11 5.3.5 The survey report .......................................................11 5.3.6 The main project report ..............................................11 5.3.7 End of project report ..................................................11 5.3.8 Final (digital) archiving and dissemination ................11

    Part III Practitioner’s guide – techniques and geophysical instrumentation ..............................12

    6 Application of techniques ...........................................12 6.1 Navigation, positioning and datum ............................12 6.1.1 Navigation and positioning ........................................12 6.1.2 Datum, coordinate system and projections .................14 6.2 Side scan sonar survey ...............................................15 6.2.1 Instrumentation – side scan sonar ..............................15 6.2.2 Survey design – side scan sonar .................................17 6.3 Bathymetry survey ......................................................19 6.3.1 Instrumentation – bathymetry ....................................19 6.3.2 Survey design – bathymetry .......................................20 6.4 Sub-bottom profiler survey .........................................23 6.4.1 Instrumentation – sub-bottom profiler .......................23 6.4.2 Survey design – sub-bottom profiler ...........................25 6.5 Magnetometer survey .................................................26 6.5.1 Instrumentation – magnetometer ...............................26 6.5.2 Survey design – magnetometer ..................................28 6.6 Integrated surveys ......................................................29 6.7 Other systems .............................................................30

    7 Processing and analysis of geophysical data ...............32 7.1 General data processing, presentation and interpretation ......................................................32 7.1.1 General geophysical data processing ..........................32 7.1.2 General geophysical data presentation .......................33 7.1.3 General geophysical data interpretation .....................33 7.2 Side scan sonar processing, presentation and interpretation ......................................................34 7.2.1 General side scan sonar processing, presentation and interpretation ......................................................34 7.2.2 Side scan sonar processing, presentation and interpretation for wreck sites ...............................35 7.2.3 Side scan sonar processing, presentation and interpretation for submerged landscapes .............36 7.3 Bathymetry processing, presentation and interpretation ......................................................36 7.3.1 General bathymetry processing, presentation and interpretation ......................................................36 7.3.2 Bathymetry processing, presentation and interpretation for wreck sites ...............................37 7.3.3 Bathymetry processing, presentation and interpretation for submerged landscapes .............38 7.4 Sub-bottom profiler processing, presentation and interpretation ......................................................39 7.4.1 General sub-bottom profiler processing, presentation and interpretation ..................................39 7.4.2 Sub-bottom profiler processing, presentation and interpretation for wreck sites ...............................40 7.4.3 Sub-bottom profiler processing, presentation and interpretation for submerged landscapes .............40 7.5 Magnetometer processing, presentation and interpretation ......................................................41

    References and further reading ..................................42

    Contacts and useful addresses ....................................47

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    List of acronyms ADS Archaeology Data Service ALSF Aggregate Levy Sustainability Fund BGS British Geological Survey BMAPA British Marine Aggregate Producers Association BODC British Oceanographic Data Centre CEFAS Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science COWRIE Collaborative Offshore Wind Research Into the Environment DBA Desk-based Assessment DCLG Department for Communities and Local Government DCMS Department for Culture Media and Sport Defra Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs DGPS Differential Global Positioning System DNH Department of National Heritage DoE Department of the Environment EH English Heritage EIA Environmental Impact Assessment ETRS89 European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 GEBCO General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans GPS Global Positioning System GRS80 Geodetic Reference System 1980 HER Historic Environment Record HWTMA Hampshire and Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology Hz/kHz hertz/kilohertz ICOMOS International Council on Monuments and Sites IHO/IHB International Hydrographic Organisation/ Bureau IfA Institute for Archaeologists

    JNAPC Joint Nautical Archaeology Policy Committee JNCC Joint Nature Conservation Committee LBL Long Baseline LINZ Land Information New Zealand MAG Maritime Affairs Group MBARI Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute MCA Maritime and Coastguard Agency MEDIN Marine Environmental Data Information Network MESH Mapping European Seabed Habitats MEPF Marine Environment Protection Fund MMO Marine Management Organisation MoRPHE Management of Research Projects in the Historic Environment ms milliseconds nT nanotesla NIEA Northern Ireland Environment Agency NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration OASIS Online AccesS to the Index of archaeological investigationS PPK Post-Processed Kinematic RCAHMS Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historic Monuments of Scotland RCAHMW Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historic Monuments of Wales REC Regional Environmental Characterisation ROV Remotely Operated Vehicles RTK Real Time Kinematic SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar SAS Synthetic Aperture Sonar SBL Short Baseline TWTT Two-way Travel Time

    UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UKHO UK Hydrographic Office UKOOA United Kingdom Offshore Operators Association USBL Ultra-short Baseline USGS United States Geological Survey US MMS United States Minerals Management Service UTM Universal Transverse Mercator VENUS Virtual Exploration of Underwater Sites VORF Vertical Offshore Reference Frame WGS84 World Geodetic System 1984

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    Preface

    These guidelines are part of the ALSF’s dis- semination of heritage information, which is managed by English Heritage. Previously the ALSF has funded studies of the potential and applicability of geophysical techniques for maritime archaeology, to provide basic information for and characterisation of wreck sites and submerged prehistoric landscapes. In preparing these guidelines we have assessed several projects: Seabed in Prehistory: Gauging the Effects of Marine Dredging undertaken by Wessex Archaeology (2008), which ultimately comprises four ALSF projects, 3876, 4600, 5401 and 5684, and the project archive comprises eight individual project reports; Wrecks on the Seabed/Multi

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