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Marine fisheries sector in India-Resource endowments ... · PDF file are NE 11.4 per cent, SE 22.0 per cent, SW 35.2 per cent and NW 31.4 per cent. Pelagic fin fishes formed 55 per

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  • Shyam S. Salim and R.Narayanakumar, (2012). Manual on World Trade Agreements and Indian Fisheries Paradigms: A Policy Outlook. 9

    Marine fisheries sector in India-Resource endowments, infrastructure intensities and stakeholder analysis T.V.Sathianandan Head-in-Charge and Senior Scientist, Fisheries Resources Assessment Division Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi Email: [email protected]

    World fish production has increased gradually from below 20 million tonnes in 1950

    to more than 160 million tonnes in 2009. In a similar fashion the total fish production from India has grown up to around 8 million tonnes in 2010 from below 1 million tonnes in 1950. Marine fish production from India has increased from mere 50,000 tonnes in 1950 to 3.4 million tonnes in 2010. Aquaculture production has reached around 4 million tonnes in 2010 which was almost nil in 1950.

    The fisheries sector plays an important role in Indian economy and its contribution to the GDP is about one per cent. Export earnings from marine sector have increased from Rs. 3.92 crores in 1961-62 to Rs. 12,901.47 crores in 2010-11 with 11.8 per cent growth during 2009-10. There are 0.99 million active fishermen employed directly and 0.61 million employed indirectly with the marine fisheries sector. The total fisher folk population in the country is 4.00 million and there are about 1,94,490 fishing crafts operated in the country for harvesting marine fishery resources (CMFRI, 2010). Out of this about 72,500 are mechanized crafts, 71,300 are motorized and the rest are non- mechanized. In mechanized sector there are about 35,200 trawlers. Fishing by all these crafts are concentrated in the depth zone up to 100 m. The traditional crafts and motorized crafts are concentrated more in the east coast (72 per cent and 58 per cent) where as the mechanized vessels are more along the west coast (58 per cent).

    India is a tropical country with multi-species fishery in the marine sector. Various

    types of fishing crafts and gears are used for fishing from the seas. The development of fisheries sector in India can be classified into three phases. Prior to 1965-66 is the first phase when landings were mainly by non-mechanized indigenous crafts and gears and the landings remained below one million tonnes during this phase. The second phase is the period upto 1985-86 and the important features of this phase were increased mechanization, improved gear materials, introduction of motorization of country crafts, expansion of export trade etc. The last phase is the period after 1986. This phase featured intensification of mechanization, motorization of country crafts, multi-day voyage fishing etc. The average contribution from west coast is 67 per cent and that from the east coast is 33 per cent. The overall percentage contribution from the four regions are NE 11.4 per cent, SE 22.0 per cent, SW 35.2 per cent and NW 31.4 per cent. Pelagic fin fishes formed 55 per cent, Demersal 26 per cent, Crustaceans 15 per cent and Molluscs 4 per cent. As per the Silas committee (2000), the potential yield of marine fishery resources in the Indian EEZ is 3.93 million tonnes.

    There are about 2000 marine species that are caught from the Indian seas. Over

    years changes have occurred in the type of fishing, crafts and gears used, time spend in

  • 10 Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi : Cadalmin, 458 pp.

    T.V. Sathianandan

    the sea for harvesting the resources, storage and infrastructural facilities, commercial importance, export demand etc. Fish is one of the costliest items of food in the present days. The gross revenue from the marine fish landings during 2009-10 at the point of first sales (landing centre) was estimated at Rs.19,753 crores (CMFRI, 2011). There are more resources that are exported now and from India marine products are exported to nearly 100 countries. Since marine fishery resources are renewable and not in- exhaustible management and conservation of these resources are very much essential for sustained production from the seas. Thus, monitoring the harvest of different marine fishery resources is of great concern. With this view, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) has developed a sampling design for collecting the required information and to estimate marine fish landings along with effort expended. The sampling design adopted is based on stratified multi-stage random sampling technique, with stratification over space and time. The harvest potential of each of the commercially important marine fishery resources have to be periodically revalidated along with the optimum size of different types of fleets operating in the fishery.

    Table 2.1 Profile of Indian Marine Fisheries

    Component Profile Physical Component Length of coastline 8129 km

    Exclusive economic zone 2.02 million km2

    Continental shelf 0.50 million km2

    Inshore area (< 50 m depth) 0.18 million km2

    Fishing villages 3288 Human Component Marine fishers population 4.0 million

    Active fishers population 0.99 million

    Fishermen families 0.86 million Infrastructure Component Landing centers 1511

    Major fishing harbours 6

    Minor fishing harbours 27

    Mechanised vessels 72559

    Motorised vessels 71313

    Non-motorised vessels 50618

    Estimation of Marine fish landings in India

    India is one among few countries where a system based on sampling theory is used to collect marine fish catch statistics. The sampling design adopted by the CMFRI to estimate marine fish landings is based on stratified multistage random sampling technique, stratification being done over space and time. CMFRI initiated the process of collection of data on marine fish catch, effort, biological parameters etc. based on scientific principles way back in 1947. In 1959 CMFRI initiated collection of marine fish landings data along the west coast of India through a stratified multistage sampling design. The sampling design became operational in 1961 for both East and West coasts.

  • Shyam S. Salim and R.Narayanakumar, (2012). Manual on World Trade Agreements and Indian Fisheries Paradigms: A Policy Outlook.

    11

    Marine fisheries sector in India-Resource endowments, infrastructure intensities and stakeholder analysis

    Table 2.2 Indian Marine Fisheries Statistics

    Gross value at landing centre Rs. 19,753 crores At retail points Rs. 28,511 crores Export earnings US$ 3.5 billion Percentage in total exports 3 per cent Domestic markets 81 per cent fresh; 5 per

    cent frozen; 6 per cent dry; 5 per cent fish meal

    Per capita fish consumption 2.58 kg (range 0.3 – 39) Share in GDP 1.1 per cent Share in agricultural GDP 5.4 per cent Infrastructure Component Landing centers 1511 Major fishing harbours 6 Minor fishing harbours 27 Mechanised vessels 72559 Motorised vessels 71313 Non-motorised vessels 50618

    Marine Fish Production

    Table 2.3 Top-ten Resources by Value (Landing centre prices)

    Rank Resource/ Stock Rs. Billion US$ Million

    1 Penaeid shrimps 43.4 964.4

    2. Sardines 10.7 237.8

    3. Cephalopods 9.0 200.0

    4. Seer fishes 6.0 133.4

    5. Pomfrets 5.8 128.9

    6. Croakers 4.6 102.2

    7. Carangids 4.6 102.2

    8. Mackerel 3.9 86.7

    9. Perches 3.9 86.7

    10. Bombay duck 2.5 55.6

    11. Others 15.6 346.7

    12. TOTAL 110.1 2446.7

  • 12 Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi : Cadalmin, 458 pp.

    T.V. Sathianandan

    Table 2.4 Top-ten Resources by Quantity (lakh tonnes)

    Name of fish Average landings (2006-2010) Per centage

    Oil sardine 4.48 14.60

    Penaeid prawns 2.16 7.05

    Indian mackerel 1.87 6.09

    Croakers 1.71 5.57

    Ribbon fishes 1.64 5.35

    Non-penaeid prawns 1.58 5.14

    Threadfin breams 1.18 3.86

    Bombayduck 1.11 3.62

    Other sardines 0.98 3.21

    Catfishes 0.81 2.64

    Total 30.67

    Table 2.5 State wise contribution in marine fish landings (lakh tonnes)

    State 2010

    Average (2006-2010)

    Landings Per cent Landings Per cent

    Kerala 6.08 18.31 5.99 18.44

    Gujarat 5.86 17.63 5.83 17.96

    Tamil Nadu 5.09 15.32 4.90 15.08

    Karnataka 3.86 11.61 3.34 10.28

    West Bengal 3.59 10.82 3.39 10.43

    Orissa 2.91 8.76 2.54 7.83

    Andhra Pradesh 2.41 7.27 2.41 7.43

    Maharashtra 2.41 7.26 3.04 9.36

    Goa 0.89 2.69 0.90 2.79

    Pondicherry 0.11 0.33 0.13 0.39

    Total 33.22 100.00 32.46 100.00

  • Shyam S. Salim and R.Narayanakumar, (2012). Manual on World Trade Agreements and Indian Fisheries Paradigms: A Policy Outlook.

    13

    Marine fisheries sector in India-Resource endowments, infrastructure intensities and stakeholder analysis

    Table 2.6 Gear wise contribution in marine fish landings (2006-2010 average)

    Gear Name Landings (lakh tonnes)

    per cent CPUE (Kg/unit)

    CPUE (Kg/hour)

    Mechanized Trawlnet 16.37 49.52 1242 44

    Mechanized Dolnet 2.30 6.96 511 53

    Mechanized Gillnet 1.99 6.03 463 17

    Mechanized Purseine 1.88 5.69 2331 414

    Mechanized Ringseine 1.42 4.31 2584 1