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1342 " CHILDREN’S EYESIGHT. "-MANCHESTER. to use the stethoscope nor did I give him instruction in the diseases of the heart. I may add that the recommendations, amounting to two or at most three, were for the extraction of a certain definite number of decayed teeth. Mr. Matthews, the dentist called for the plaintiff, stated that his fees for extraction were one guinea a tooth and that the lowest figure at which he could supply a set to anyone in the position of the plaintiff-a nurse-girl receiving £12 or £14 a year-was twenty-five guineas. Unfortunately all my patients cannot afford to pay such fees. In recom- mending a dentist a medical man has to consider the means of his patients, and to send many of them to those who will, he believes, do good work at a reasonable charge. As for the case which formed the subject of the trial I knew nothing of it until the evening of the day on which the trial began. I never saw the plaintiff until her cross-examination was almost finished. I appeared in the witness-box to state- what I am prepared to reaffirm-that Mr. Harrison is a careful and skilful operator, and to express my belief that he was incapable of doing what was alleged against him. As to the merits of the particular case, I was not in a position, nor did it concern me, to say anything. My examination and cross- examination were very brief. I was not even questioned on the statement of the dentist called for the plaintiff, who swore that he was able, by an examination of the mouth two months after the extraction of the teeth, positively to assert that only two of the teeth removed were unsound. You will thus see that you have brought against me an entirely unfounded charge of promoting "covering." " Your sense of justice and fairness will, I feel confident, induce you at once to withdraw the accusation and to apologise for making it. I am, Sirs, yours faithfully, Liverpool, May 22ud, 1894 H. A. CLARKE. *** It must be seen, we are certain, by every reader that the words in our article upon the action against a Liverpool dentist, to which Dr. H. A. Clarke takes exception, con- tained no personal reflection whatever upon him. They were not intended to apply to him, and, as written, do not apply to him. They were and are a general expression of opinion the soundness of which is unimpeachable.-ED. L. "CHILDREN’S EYESIGHT." To the Editors of THE LANCET. SIRS,—An error occurs in your report of my remarks at the last meeting of the Ophthalmological Society in THE LANCET of May 19th. I did not speak of the difficulty of obtaining examinations in schools owing to the want of appreciation on the part of the teachers, but, on the other hand, I referred to the increasing interest which teachers displayed, in my experience, in the question of the children’s eyesight. I shall be obliged if you will kindly insert this correction. I am. Sirs. yours faithfully. Sheffield, May 21st, 1894. SIMEON SNELL. MANCHESTER. (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.) The Botanical Gardens. THE Whitsuntide Flower Show in the gardens at Old Trafford is always looked forward to with interest not only by Manchester people fond of flowers, but by horticulturists in all parts of the country. It is open the whole week, and this year has more than sustained its reputation. For very many years the late Dr. Ainsworth was wont to exhibit orchids showing great beauty and vigour, though grown within a couple of miles from the Manchester Exchange. The gardens themselves, though so close to a populous district, still maintain their beauty, and are now, perhaps, seen at their best while the fresh young foliage of the trees and shrubs is as yet unsullied by the smoke which before long will destroy much of its charm. The opening was made the occasion of the presentation of an address and a service of plate to Mr. Bruce Findlay, curator of the gardens for thirty- five years, whose great services, not only to Manchester, but to the development of horticulture through the United Kingdom, have thus been deservedly acknowledged. The Dean of Rochester-perhaps better known as Canon Hole- in the course of his speech, said be preferred this development in the culture of fruit and flowers to that of the neighbouring Ship Canal, and questioned even if they went down to the canal they would find anything brighter or sweeter- smelling than they had in the gardens. The smell from the canal, by the, way, has been much lessened by the recent rains. It is to be feared that its proximity and the probable multiplication of works of various kinds bode no good to the gardens. The preservation of their beauty is becoming increasingly difficult, for vegetation is always worsted in the struggle against smoke and noxious vapours. In the meantime they still form one of the most valuable of the "lungs" of Manchester. Whitworth Park, in Oxford- road, on the south side of the city, has been recently added to the open spaces, and should have been named in a former communication. It contains numerous well grown trees, is attractively laid out, bright with flowers, and is much frequented by the large population living within a short distance. Manahester Paupers. The budget presented by the clerk to the guardians is of interest not only as showing the money cost of pauperism, but as indicating in some measure the social condition of a large section of the community. The estimate for last year was exceeded by £3000 ; this is explained by an increase in the number relieved, an improved dietary for the inmates, and extra cost of fuel owing to the coal strike. This year it is expected there will be more cases for relief ; but coal is cheaper, and "the materials used in breadmaking have reached the lowest price on record." "The gross expenditure for the current year is put down at ;&bgr;69,815, of which 48, 000 must come from the rates." The remainder comes from other sources, nearly £20,000 being a payment under the Local Government Act in relief of rates. The expenditure per week per head of the inmates is estimated at 3s. 5d., which cannot be called extravagant. It had been anticipated that the demolition of old property, the railway extensions and street improvements would have led to an exodus from the Manchester township of the classes on the verge of pauperism from which the paupers are recruited ; but it is not so. Those who leave are the better sort of poor, while the worst and the lowest remain in low lodging-houses, which are increasing in number to supply the demand. From these they drift into the workhouse as soon as thev are ill or in want. Last year £479 above the estimates was spent in the main- tenance of lunatics, and this year a further increase is provided for. As reported in the City NE7vs of March 31st, Dr. Rhodes, chairman of the Chorlton Board, said there was a large increase of lunacy all over the country, his opinion being that bad feeding, insanitary dwellings, and drunken- ness were among the causes. No doubt ; but is the feeding worse, are the dwellings more insanitary, and is drunkenness greater than in days gone by ? The Chorlton Board spent £14,000 last year, against E9000 in 1890, in the maintenance of lunatics. If this may be taken as an indication of what is going on through the country, the prospect is grave. The struggle for existence becomes keener day by day, and while the present generation is perhaps quicker and more mentally alive-more nervously susceptible-than the pre- ceding one, its physical vigour in our large towns is certainly less. The Queen’s Visit. Her Majesty’s visit to Manchester and Salford yesterday for the official opening of the Ship Canal is chronicled with much detail in this morning’s papers. She passed through several of the principal streets in Manchester and also through a considerable part of Salford. On her arrival at Trafford Wharf she went on board the Enahantress. and took her seat on a raised platform at the stern of the boat. Here an address was presented to Her Majesty by Lord Egerton (the chairman) from the directors of the company, who were then presented to the Queen, as also were the engineer, Mr. Leader Williams ; the manager, Mr. Mar- shall Stevens ; and the secretary, Mr. Whitworth. The Lord Mayor of Manchester and the Mayor of Salford were then summoned, and both received the honour of knight- hood. "Taking the sword of Sir John McNeill the Queen lightly touched the shoulder of Mr. Marshall, and he rose Sir Anthony. " The anticipations of last week were not fulfilled, for after these ceremonies were over the Enchantress went down to the Mode Wheel Locks. Here electric com- munication with the centre of one of the piers was estab- lished, the Queen pressed a button, and the gates began to

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Page 1: MANCHESTER

1342 " CHILDREN’S EYESIGHT. "-MANCHESTER.

to use the stethoscope nor did I give him instruction in thediseases of the heart. I may add that the recommendations,amounting to two or at most three, were for the extractionof a certain definite number of decayed teeth. Mr. Matthews,the dentist called for the plaintiff, stated that his fees forextraction were one guinea a tooth and that the lowestfigure at which he could supply a set to anyone inthe position of the plaintiff-a nurse-girl receiving £12or £14 a year-was twenty-five guineas. Unfortunatelyall my patients cannot afford to pay such fees. In recom-

mending a dentist a medical man has to consider the meansof his patients, and to send many of them to those who will,he believes, do good work at a reasonable charge. As forthe case which formed the subject of the trial I knewnothing of it until the evening of the day on which the trialbegan. I never saw the plaintiff until her cross-examinationwas almost finished. I appeared in the witness-box to state-what I am prepared to reaffirm-that Mr. Harrison is a carefuland skilful operator, and to express my belief that he wasincapable of doing what was alleged against him. As to themerits of the particular case, I was not in a position, nor didit concern me, to say anything. My examination and cross-examination were very brief. I was not even questioned on thestatement of the dentist called for the plaintiff, who sworethat he was able, by an examination of the mouth twomonths after the extraction of the teeth, positively to assertthat only two of the teeth removed were unsound. You willthus see that you have brought against me an entirelyunfounded charge of promoting "covering."

" Your sense of

justice and fairness will, I feel confident, induce you at onceto withdraw the accusation and to apologise for making it.

I am, Sirs, yours faithfully,Liverpool, May 22ud, 1894 H. A. CLARKE.

*** It must be seen, we are certain, by every reader thatthe words in our article upon the action against a Liverpooldentist, to which Dr. H. A. Clarke takes exception, con-

tained no personal reflection whatever upon him. They werenot intended to apply to him, and, as written, do not applyto him. They were and are a general expression of opinionthe soundness of which is unimpeachable.-ED. L.

"CHILDREN’S EYESIGHT."To the Editors of THE LANCET.

SIRS,—An error occurs in your report of my remarks at thelast meeting of the Ophthalmological Society in THE LANCETof May 19th. I did not speak of the difficulty of obtainingexaminations in schools owing to the want of appreciation onthe part of the teachers, but, on the other hand, I referred tothe increasing interest which teachers displayed, in myexperience, in the question of the children’s eyesight.

I shall be obliged if you will kindly insert this correction.I am. Sirs. yours faithfully.

Sheffield, May 21st, 1894. SIMEON SNELL.

MANCHESTER.(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)

The Botanical Gardens.THE Whitsuntide Flower Show in the gardens at Old

Trafford is always looked forward to with interest not onlyby Manchester people fond of flowers, but by horticulturistsin all parts of the country. It is open the whole week, andthis year has more than sustained its reputation. For verymany years the late Dr. Ainsworth was wont to exhibitorchids showing great beauty and vigour, though grownwithin a couple of miles from the Manchester Exchange. Thegardens themselves, though so close to a populous district,still maintain their beauty, and are now, perhaps, seen attheir best while the fresh young foliage of the trees and shrubsis as yet unsullied by the smoke which before long willdestroy much of its charm. The opening was made theoccasion of the presentation of an address and a service ofplate to Mr. Bruce Findlay, curator of the gardens for thirty-five years, whose great services, not only to Manchester, butto the development of horticulture through the UnitedKingdom, have thus been deservedly acknowledged. TheDean of Rochester-perhaps better known as Canon Hole-

in the course of his speech, said be preferred this developmentin the culture of fruit and flowers to that of the neighbouringShip Canal, and questioned even if they went down tothe canal they would find anything brighter or sweeter-

smelling than they had in the gardens. The smell fromthe canal, by the, way, has been much lessened by therecent rains. It is to be feared that its proximity and theprobable multiplication of works of various kinds bode nogood to the gardens. The preservation of their beauty isbecoming increasingly difficult, for vegetation is alwaysworsted in the struggle against smoke and noxious vapours.In the meantime they still form one of the most valuable ofthe "lungs" of Manchester. Whitworth Park, in Oxford-road, on the south side of the city, has been recently addedto the open spaces, and should have been named in a formercommunication. It contains numerous well grown trees, isattractively laid out, bright with flowers, and is muchfrequented by the large population living within a shortdistance.

Manahester Paupers.The budget presented by the clerk to the guardians is of

interest not only as showing the money cost of pauperism,but as indicating in some measure the social conditionof a large section of the community. The estimate forlast year was exceeded by £3000 ; this is explainedby an increase in the number relieved, an improveddietary for the inmates, and extra cost of fuel owingto the coal strike. This year it is expected there willbe more cases for relief ; but coal is cheaper, and "thematerials used in breadmaking have reached the lowestprice on record." "The gross expenditure for the currentyear is put down at ;&bgr;69,815, of which 48, 000 must comefrom the rates." The remainder comes from other sources,nearly £20,000 being a payment under the Local GovernmentAct in relief of rates. The expenditure per week per head ofthe inmates is estimated at 3s. 5d., which cannot be calledextravagant. It had been anticipated that the demolition ofold property, the railway extensions and street improvementswould have led to an exodus from the Manchester townshipof the classes on the verge of pauperism from which thepaupers are recruited ; but it is not so. Those who leaveare the better sort of poor, while the worst and the lowestremain in low lodging-houses, which are increasing innumber to supply the demand. From these they drift intothe workhouse as soon as thev are ill or in want. Last

year £479 above the estimates was spent in the main-tenance of lunatics, and this year a further increase is

provided for. As reported in the City NE7vs of March 31st,Dr. Rhodes, chairman of the Chorlton Board, said there wasa large increase of lunacy all over the country, his opinionbeing that bad feeding, insanitary dwellings, and drunken-ness were among the causes. No doubt ; but is the feedingworse, are the dwellings more insanitary, and is drunkennessgreater than in days gone by ? The Chorlton Board spent£14,000 last year, against E9000 in 1890, in the maintenanceof lunatics. If this may be taken as an indication of whatis going on through the country, the prospect is grave.The struggle for existence becomes keener day by day, andwhile the present generation is perhaps quicker and morementally alive-more nervously susceptible-than the pre-ceding one, its physical vigour in our large towns is certainlyless.

The Queen’s Visit.Her Majesty’s visit to Manchester and Salford yesterday

for the official opening of the Ship Canal is chronicled withmuch detail in this morning’s papers. She passed throughseveral of the principal streets in Manchester and also througha considerable part of Salford. On her arrival at TraffordWharf she went on board the Enahantress. and took her seaton a raised platform at the stern of the boat. Here anaddress was presented to Her Majesty by Lord Egerton(the chairman) from the directors of the company, whowere then presented to the Queen, as also were theengineer, Mr. Leader Williams ; the manager, Mr. Mar-shall Stevens ; and the secretary, Mr. Whitworth. TheLord Mayor of Manchester and the Mayor of Salford werethen summoned, and both received the honour of knight-hood. "Taking the sword of Sir John McNeill the Queenlightly touched the shoulder of Mr. Marshall, and he roseSir Anthony. " The anticipations of last week were notfulfilled, for after these ceremonies were over the Enchantresswent down to the Mode Wheel Locks. Here electric com-munication with the centre of one of the piers was estab-lished, the Queen pressed a button, and the gates began to

Page 2: MANCHESTER

1343NORTHERN COUNTIES NOTES.—SCOTLAND.

open." She then declared the Ship Canal open. Theconcourse of people all along the whole of the route wasenormous, every window, even the roofs of the highest build-ings, as well as the roadways, being crowded with people.Some have estimated the number at 1,000,000. Even if thisestimate is too high, the crowd was impressive from its vast-ness, while its enthusiasm and loyalty were abundantlyevident. The Queen expressed to the Lord Mayor her grati-fication with the warmth of the welcome she had receivedand with the decorations so liberally displayed all along theroute. The crowd was good-humoured, patient, and well-behaved, and, notwithstanding the pressure, few accidentsseem to have occurred. One young girl, however, was injuredby the pressure of the crowd and taken to the infirmary. Twopeople were run over, but not seriously hurt; a woman hadher leg broken from the fall of a stand ; and in the eveninga mother and her child were killed by the fall of a heavystone from a fourth-storey window. The marvel is that manymore accidents did not occur. The recent rains had donewonders in improving the condition of the water, and so farI have heard no complaints of its being offensive.May 22nd.

NORTHERN COUNTIES NOTES.(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)

Accidents in Northern Coal Mines.THE recently issued report of Mr. J. L. Hedley, Her Majesty’s

Inspector of Mines in the Newcastle district, comprising thenorth part of the county of Durham and the countiesof Cumberland and Northumberland, as to accidents duringthe past year, shows the loss of 86 lives, while 312 personshave been injured. These figures show an increase of 13 inthe number of fatal accidents and of 44 in the number of theinjured. It should be noted, however, that 7 of the deathsresulted from injuries received in the year 1892, and of thisnumber 5 were somewhat doubtfully accounted for. Thismight be said of 5 other deaths, making a total of 10, aboutwhich it was uncertain how the fatal injuries had beenreceived. Two deaths resulted from an explosion of fire-damp, 47 from falls of roof and side of excavations, and 10 inshafts; 22 deaths followed miscellaneous causes underground,and 5 occurred on the surface. Although the number offatal accidents and deaths resulting therefrom were so muchin excess of the previous year, it is satisfactory to notethat the quantity of mineral raised per life lost is not farbehind that for 1892, the figures being 235,358 tons and248,345 tons respectively, or a decrease of 12,987 tons. Onthe other hand, there has been a considerable decrease in thenumber of men employed per life lost ; but this is accountedfor by the fact that there was a strike of three months’duration in 1892 in the Durham portion of the district and aconsequent diminution in the number of accidents.

Telephones in Workhouse.A Newcastle guardian suggested that a telephone should

be established in the centre of the town for the convenienceof poor people who wished to inquire after their sick friendsat the Workhouse Infirmary. He instanced the case of apoor woman, who knew nothing of the death of a relativeuntil a considerable time after the occurrence, as an argu-ment for the usefulness and the humanity of the innovation.I am glad to state that this useful suggestion was adopted.

Daplingto7b Queen’s Nurses Association.On Sunday afternoon, May 20th, there was an immense

assemblage in Darlington Park, the occasion being a sacredconcert by the united choirs of the town. A collection wasmade on behalf of the Queen’s Nurses Association.

Penrith Water-supply.The Local Government Board have just published an

important report by Dr. Bruce Low, one of their medicalinspectors, upon his recent examination of the Penrith water-supply. For several years past the local Board of Healthhave discussed various schemes for improvements, buthitherto have been hopelessly divided between the presentscheme of pumping from the river Eamont, which flows fromUUswater Lake, and going to the Melmerby section of theCross Fell Range for a gravitation supply. Dr. Bruce Low,in concluding his report, says: "In my view the town ofPenrith is, under present conditions, at all times liable to beattacked by epidemic disease such as can be conveyed by

water, as, for instance, enteric fever and cholera, and thesooner the urban sanitary authority can be brought torecognise this fact the better will it be for the inhabitantsof the place."

Death of Mr. Gilbert Ward, F. R. C. S. Eng, of Blyth.Mr. Gilbert Ward died last Thursday at his residence,

Blyth, after a short illness, in his ninetieth year. Mr. Ward,as well as being the oldest surgeon in the north, having firstqualified in 1828, was well known as a public man, havingfilled various offices in Blyth and helped very much todevelop its capabilities as a seaport. Mr. Ward notably distin-guished himself in the cholera visitations, and also during theterrible Hartley colliery accident in 1860. He was an activepromoter of the Knight Memorial Hospital at Blyth. Hereceived decorations from the Emperor Napoleon and theKing of Italy.Newcastle-on-Tyne, May 23rd.

SCOTLAND.

(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)

Sir Joseph Lister in Gtiasgow.UNDOUBTEDLY the event of the past week was the visit of

Sir Joseph Lister to the scene of his early triumphs in anti-septic surgery-to Glasgow and the wards of its old RoyalInfirmary. To return after an absence of nearly a quarter ofa century, to be met by many of his old infirmary anduniversity colleagues, to be surrounded again by a host ofhis old pupils, and to stand once more face to face with aneager, critical, but appreciative and enthusiastic assemblageof Scottish medical students, must have been a pleasantexperience for Sir Joseph Lister. There can be no doubtas to the warmth of his reception. No one who wasprivileged to hear his address to the students will ever forgetthe enthusiasm of his welcome, the attitude of strainedand eager attention on the part of his audience, or thereadiness with which all the speaker’s points were ap-preciated. Professor George Buchanan spoke of his

early experiences of the antiseptic system, and struck thenail fairly on the head when he drew a contrast betweenthe "lucky hit" which led to the introduction ofanaesthetics, and the steady, gradual, laborious, and trulyscientific evolution of the Listerian theory and practice.Professor Gairdner also spoke, and with all his usual felicity.He was particularly happy when he claimed a share inthe origination of " Listerism, " going back to a conversationwith Sir J. Lister, in the early "fifties," on the very

’ different behaviour of an empyema, according as it burstsoutwardly or inwardly ; and he made a peculiarly good point,when speaking of Sir J. Lister’s knack of absorbing facts and

, hints from every side, in characterising him as a "walkingphagocyte." After the address the students became demon-strative again, sang "Auld Lang Syne " (in which Sir JosephLister and his old pupils joined with evident feeling), and

; finally, outside the University Union, unyoked the horse

,

from his cab and dragged the conveyance, amidst deafeningcheers, from the University to Dr. Hector C. Cameron’s house,

: a distance of over a mile. The distance was covered in: a remarkably short space of time, and probably Sir Joseph

Lister and his companions in peril were glad. when thejourney was safely accomplished. Finally, on the steps ofDr. Cameron’s house a few words were said, "Auld LangSyne" again sung, and the most exciting part of the visit

i was over. The reception of old pupils and friends, held,

next day at Dr. Cameron’s, was equally enjoyable thoughaltogether a quieter function. Taking it altogether, it isscarcely possible to imagine a more hearty or more enthu-siastic reception than that given to Sir Joseph Lister.May 23rd.

_______________

IRELAND.(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENTS.)

Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland.A MEETING of the Fellows will be held on June 2nd to

receive the annual report of the council, and on June 4tha second meeting will be held to elect a president, vice-president, council, and secretary of the College for theensuing year. Mr. Hamilton, the present president, will