1
1186 AN IMPORTANT ENQUIRY. To the Editors of THE LANCET. SIRS,-Are all district medical officers difqualified for being elected as parish councillors ? If so, can the disqualifi- cation be in any way removed ?-I am, Sirp, yours truly, Nov. 10th, 1894. N. B. * The point is dealt with in Section 46 of the Local Government Act, 1894, which states that "a person shall be disqualified for being elected or being a member or chairman of a council of a parish or of a district other than a borough I or a board of guardians if he "...... "(d) holds any paid office , under the parish council or district council or board of guar- ’i dians, as the case nay be." The words which we have printed ’, in italics clearly refer to the first paragraph of the section quoted ; and it is, we think, clear that the holder of a paid office under a board of guardians is not thEreby disqualified from being a member of a parish council. The disq llalifi0a- tion applies to holding a paid office, and serving as a member on one ard the same body, "as the case may be."-ED. L. MANCHESTER. (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.) Medical Members on the City Council. FOR some time past the air has been charged with electioneering electricity, first as regards the vacancies on the council, and secondly as to the School Board. The first contest has happily gone by without serious results; with the second we are not directly concerned, for there is no contention as to the sanitary requirements of the schools, except, perhaps, on the question of free meals for the children. It is satisfactory to know that the six medical men retain their seats on the council. It was thought that a seventh had a good chance of being returned for one of the recently incorporated townships, but he was defeated by a Labour candidate. The council numbers 104, so that 6 per cent. are medical men and ought to have considerable influence on sanitary questions. Adulteration cf Food, Drugs, 4-c. An interestirg table is appended to the report of the Sanitary Committee of the council, showirg the percentage of adulteration discovered each year since the Act came into force on May lst, 1873. In that year-1873-74-it was 33-33 per cent. In 1833-84 it had fallen to 14 4 and in 1893-94 to 6’5 per cent. But while six articles only were examined in the first year, 595 were examined in 1883-84, and 1644 in the last year. The selection made is curious, and in some things seems haphazard-e.g., one specimen of jam was examined the first year and found adulterated, and one the year after, which proved satisfactory. Then a period of seven years elapsed before any more were tested, but in 1882-83 nine samples were taken, and a few each year since. It is satisfactory to find they all proved genuine, contrary to the idea of many as to bought jam. Milk comes in for the greatest share of attention, and adulteration has declined very considerably since 1873-74, when two samples were examined, one of which (50 per cent.) was adulterated. The greatest number of samples (1297) was examined in 1889-90, when 7’5 per cent. were faulty. Last year (1893-94) 1048 were examined and 5’6 were adul- terated. The fraudulent samples have never fallen below 4’9 per cent. Up to 1888-89 adulteration was much more frequent than it has been since, and the average for the fifteen years was over 23 per cent. Since that year it has been a little over 52 per cent. Great improvement has taken place as to bread, and for the last dozen years it has been free from adulteration. Butter, on the other hand, keeps up its reputation as a much-injured article. Of 138 samples examined in 1893-94, 19-5 per cent. were adulterated. In the previous year the percentage was 31’7, in 1884-85 it was 64’2, and the year before that 86’3. Whether the adulteration consists of foreign fats or of added water is rot stated. As to the former, all are agreed that it is fraudulent, but there is some difference of opinion, even among experts, as to the percentage of water to be found in the best butter. Mustard is often adulterated. The most frequent contamination of mineral waters is from slight traces of lead, as happened in forty. eight cases out of eighty-four examined. "In each of these cases the manufacturers were communicated with, and steps were taken by them to prevent a recurrence of the con- tamination." One inference may fairly be drawn from this table : that frequent examinations notably lessen adultera- tion. Memorial to the late Professor Milnes Marshall. The sum of &pound;783 10s. 3d. has been raised for the fund in memory of the late Professor Marshall, and after expenses &pound; 760 2s. 3d. will be left. Of this sum ;E650 have been invested in Manchester Corporation Stock to provide for the maintenance of the Marshall Biological Library given to the Owens College by the relatives of Professor Marshall, while &pound;102 8s. 6d. have been similarly invested to provide a "Mar- shall Gold Medal " to be annually competed for at the Owens College athletic sporta. The balance (less the expenses of the investments) has been handed to the College to be applied as income for the purposes of the library. Manchester Medical Society. A meeting of this society was held on Nov. 7th, Dr. J. Dixon Mann, President, being in the chair. Mr. Colin Camp- bell showed a patient aged forty-eight, whose right breast he removed for Scirrhus in 1887 and whose axillary glands were excised a year later. &mdash;Dr. Moritz showed a case of Sarcoma of the Tonsil and Upper Jaw, in which considerable improve- ment had followed injections three times a week of saturated solution of the yellow pyoktanin (auranin) -Dr. Ashby read a paper on the Etiology of Scurvy Rickets. Upwards of thirty cases observed by him had been mostly fed with pan- creatised milk, bat none with breast milk. He emphasised the fact that the symptoms had developed while the ratient was taking fresh boiled milk. T<Tmr 1 1;t,n BIRMINGHAM. (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.) The Dangems of anaet Workers. AN inquest was held on the 6th inst. on the body of a girl aged sixteen years, whose death occurred as the result of work- ing in lead at the Imperial Enamel Company. Evidence was given to show that the deceased was in good health before commencing the work some twelve months before. It was found that, though several of the girls at the same works had been ill, none of them had seen a medical man as required by the Act. Some misunderstanding bad existed as to the time when the notification was to come into force. The pro- vision of a monthly inspection by a medical man as required would probably have obviated the death of the deceased, who was described as a careful, steady, and industrious worker. The blame is all the greater from the omission of proper precautions, and the censure of the jury upon those responsible was thoroughly deserved. The attention given to this case by the press has led to some useful criticisms as to the manner of providing adequate means of counteracting the evils of lead poisoning in such processes. Medical Mayors. The borough of Leamington has been fortunate in the election of Dr. T. W. Thursfield as mayor, and Tamworth equally so in the person of Mr. Sculthorpe. The views of life and its responsibilities will be justly held in higher estimation by the public as the privileges of citizenship and professional knowledge are combined for the good of the community in the administration of such important offices. Increase of Small-pox. Owing to the increase of small-pox in the city it was rumoured that the new hospital would have to be opened. The Health Committee think that at present this will not ba necessary, though it is admitted that a slight increase in the number of cases would make it inevitable. At present there are 165 patients in the hospital suffering from this disease ; but, as some are discharged daily and the admissions have diminished, there is reason to believe that the present accommodation will meet the requirements. During the epidemic of last year the committee were able t0 use the stoneyard of the workhouse for temporary build- ings. The board of guardians are unable to grant thia place at the present crisis, hence the inquiry as to the completion of part of the new buildings situated at Yardley,

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Page 1: MANCHESTER

1186

AN IMPORTANT ENQUIRY.To the Editors of THE LANCET.

SIRS,-Are all district medical officers difqualified forbeing elected as parish councillors ? If so, can the disqualifi-cation be in any way removed ?-I am, Sirp, yours truly,

Nov. 10th, 1894. N. B.

* The point is dealt with in Section 46 of the LocalGovernment Act, 1894, which states that "a person shall bedisqualified for being elected or being a member or chairmanof a council of a parish or of a district other than a borough Ior a board of guardians if he "...... "(d) holds any paid office ,

under the parish council or district council or board of guar- ’idians, as the case nay be." The words which we have printed ’,in italics clearly refer to the first paragraph of the sectionquoted ; and it is, we think, clear that the holder of a paidoffice under a board of guardians is not thEreby disqualifiedfrom being a member of a parish council. The disq llalifi0a-tion applies to holding a paid office, and serving as a memberon one ard the same body, "as the case may be."-ED. L.

MANCHESTER.

(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)

Medical Members on the City Council.FOR some time past the air has been charged with

electioneering electricity, first as regards the vacancies onthe council, and secondly as to the School Board. The firstcontest has happily gone by without serious results; withthe second we are not directly concerned, for there is nocontention as to the sanitary requirements of the schools,except, perhaps, on the question of free meals for thechildren. It is satisfactory to know that the six medicalmen retain their seats on the council. It was thought thata seventh had a good chance of being returned for oneof the recently incorporated townships, but he was defeatedby a Labour candidate. The council numbers 104, so that6 per cent. are medical men and ought to have considerableinfluence on sanitary questions.

Adulteration cf Food, Drugs, 4-c.An interestirg table is appended to the report of the

Sanitary Committee of the council, showirg the percentageof adulteration discovered each year since the Act cameinto force on May lst, 1873. In that year-1873-74-it was33-33 per cent. In 1833-84 it had fallen to 14 4 and in1893-94 to 6’5 per cent. But while six articles only wereexamined in the first year, 595 were examined in 1883-84,and 1644 in the last year. The selection made is curious,and in some things seems haphazard-e.g., one specimenof jam was examined the first year and found adulterated,and one the year after, which proved satisfactory. Thena period of seven years elapsed before any more were

tested, but in 1882-83 nine samples were taken, and a

few each year since. It is satisfactory to find they allproved genuine, contrary to the idea of many as to boughtjam. Milk comes in for the greatest share of attention, andadulteration has declined very considerably since 1873-74,when two samples were examined, one of which (50 per cent.)was adulterated. The greatest number of samples (1297)was examined in 1889-90, when 7’5 per cent. were faulty.Last year (1893-94) 1048 were examined and 5’6 were adul-terated. The fraudulent samples have never fallen below4’9 per cent. Up to 1888-89 adulteration was much morefrequent than it has been since, and the average for thefifteen years was over 23 per cent. Since that year it hasbeen a little over 52 per cent. Great improvement hastaken place as to bread, and for the last dozen years it hasbeen free from adulteration. Butter, on the other hand, keepsup its reputation as a much-injured article. Of 138 samplesexamined in 1893-94, 19-5 per cent. were adulterated. In the

previous year the percentage was 31’7, in 1884-85 it was 64’2,and the year before that 86’3. Whether the adulterationconsists of foreign fats or of added water is rot stated. Asto the former, all are agreed that it is fraudulent, but thereis some difference of opinion, even among experts, as to thepercentage of water to be found in the best butter. Mustardis often adulterated. The most frequent contamination of

mineral waters is from slight traces of lead, as happened inforty. eight cases out of eighty-four examined. "In each ofthese cases the manufacturers were communicated with, andsteps were taken by them to prevent a recurrence of the con-tamination." One inference may fairly be drawn from thistable : that frequent examinations notably lessen adultera-tion.

Memorial to the late Professor Milnes Marshall.The sum of &pound;783 10s. 3d. has been raised for the fund in

memory of the late Professor Marshall, and after expenses&pound; 760 2s. 3d. will be left. Of this sum ;E650 have beeninvested in Manchester Corporation Stock to provide for themaintenance of the Marshall Biological Library given to theOwens College by the relatives of Professor Marshall, while&pound;102 8s. 6d. have been similarly invested to provide a "Mar-shall Gold Medal " to be annually competed for at theOwens College athletic sporta. The balance (less the

expenses of the investments) has been handed to the Collegeto be applied as income for the purposes of the library.

Manchester Medical Society.A meeting of this society was held on Nov. 7th, Dr. J.

Dixon Mann, President, being in the chair. Mr. Colin Camp-bell showed a patient aged forty-eight, whose right breast heremoved for Scirrhus in 1887 and whose axillary glands wereexcised a year later. &mdash;Dr. Moritz showed a case of Sarcomaof the Tonsil and Upper Jaw, in which considerable improve-ment had followed injections three times a week of saturatedsolution of the yellow pyoktanin (auranin) -Dr. Ashby reada paper on the Etiology of Scurvy Rickets. Upwards ofthirty cases observed by him had been mostly fed with pan-creatised milk, bat none with breast milk. He emphasisedthe fact that the symptoms had developed while the ratientwas taking fresh boiled milk.

T<Tmr 1 1;t,n

BIRMINGHAM.(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)

The Dangems of anaet Workers.AN inquest was held on the 6th inst. on the body of a girl

aged sixteen years, whose death occurred as the result of work-ing in lead at the Imperial Enamel Company. Evidence was

given to show that the deceased was in good health beforecommencing the work some twelve months before. It wasfound that, though several of the girls at the same works hadbeen ill, none of them had seen a medical man as requiredby the Act. Some misunderstanding bad existed as to thetime when the notification was to come into force. The pro-vision of a monthly inspection by a medical man as requiredwould probably have obviated the death of the deceased,who was described as a careful, steady, and industriousworker. The blame is all the greater from the omission ofproper precautions, and the censure of the jury upon thoseresponsible was thoroughly deserved. The attention givento this case by the press has led to some useful criticisms asto the manner of providing adequate means of counteractingthe evils of lead poisoning in such processes.

Medical Mayors.The borough of Leamington has been fortunate in the

election of Dr. T. W. Thursfield as mayor, and Tamworthequally so in the person of Mr. Sculthorpe. The views of lifeand its responsibilities will be justly held in higher estimationby the public as the privileges of citizenship and professionalknowledge are combined for the good of the community inthe administration of such important offices.

Increase of Small-pox.Owing to the increase of small-pox in the city it was

rumoured that the new hospital would have to be opened.The Health Committee think that at present this will not banecessary, though it is admitted that a slight increase in thenumber of cases would make it inevitable. At present thereare 165 patients in the hospital suffering from this disease ;but, as some are discharged daily and the admissionshave diminished, there is reason to believe that the

present accommodation will meet the requirements. Duringthe epidemic of last year the committee were able t0

use the stoneyard of the workhouse for temporary build-ings. The board of guardians are unable to grant thia

place at the present crisis, hence the inquiry as to the

completion of part of the new buildings situated at Yardley,