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and the suburbs is not, as a rule, longer than one and a halfhours.
In some respects the conditions in regard to milk trans-port by the South-Eastern and Chatham Railway and by theLondon, Brighton, and South Coast Railway are similar.Both lines carry milk into London and the suburbs from com-
paratively short distances and both deposit the greater partof their milk cargo at suburban stations. Passenger trainsare employed by both lines to transport milk, more so by theSouth-Eastern and Chatham Railway than by the London,Brighton, and South Coast Railway. The milk cans are
unlocked and unsealed, which doubles the risk of carryingthe fluid in the guard’s van of a passenger train.
(To be continued.)
MANCHESTER.(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)
St. John Ambulance Work.THE annual competition in connexion with the North
Western District Nursing Division of the St. John AmbulanCEAssociation took place at Blackpool on May 4th. Thisvery useful association covers a wide area, as shown by thesections examined coming from Liverpool, Rochdale,Lytham, Preston, Accrington, Bolton, Castleton, Brierfield,Bury, Crompton, Barrowford, Oldham, and Nelson. The
trophy offered was a silver shield which was presented tothe association in 1902, in which year and also in 1903 it waswon by Blackpool. Since then it has been won by Lytham,Rochdale, and Blackpool in chronological order. Winningin 1906 Blackpool did not compete this year, when Brierfieldcame out first, Lytham second, and Nelson third. Theexaminers and judges were Dr. J. W. Johnstone of Bolton andDr. J. Broomhead of Haslingden. It is difficult to estimate thegood that is done in this way; we may be sure, however,that it is not limited to the winning teams but that a leavenof sanitary growth is working far and wide through the
manufacturing districts of Lancashire where it is so muchneeded.
Royal Albert Asylum, Lancaster.It is now more than 40 years since the Royal Albert
Asylum at Lancaster was opened for the treatment of all
improvable grades of the feeble-minded in the northerncounties of England. It was established, and is chieflymaintained, by public subscription and there is now accom-modation for 700 inmates. At present there are about 650patients and the election for this year’s applicants will takeplace at the County Hall, Carlisle, on Wednesday next. Theobjects and methods of the institution will be explained andspecimens of work done by the patients will be exhibited.For the 50 vacancies there are 83 candidates-a fact whichshows not only the great need that there is for such aninstitution but also the confidence of the public in
intrusting those whose mental strength is feeble to thejudicious and kindly training given at the asylum. Thecommittee appeals for donations and subscriptions, as a
large addition to the annual income is needed if full I
advantage is to be taken of the existing accommodation. Ofthe present inmates 269 belong to Lancashire, 72 of themcoming from the Manchester and Salford district. In con-nexion with this forthcoming election a meeting of theManchester local committee and the members of theManchester and Salford District Ladies’ Association was heldin the Memorial Hall on April 30th. The secretary, Mr. Keir,said that the district was still deeply indebted to the institu-tion for the maintenance and training of the patients whom itsent. The returns of the District Ladies’ Association, thoughnot yet complete, compared favourably with those of lastyear and a substantial increase in the amount collected wasanticipated. On behalf of the central committee Mr. Keirthanked the members of the local committee for their ser-vices. It is to be hoped that the efforts made will takeaway the reproach that the Manchester district does’ not pro-vide sufficiently for the patients whom it is so glad to safe-guard in the asylum.
University of Manchester.Interesting developments are taking place in the Univer-
sity of Manchester. One of them is perhaps only indirectly;onnected with medicine but is interesting on its own account.ft has been decided to appoint lecturers in economic zoology
and economic botany. They will investigate the life-historyof animal and vegetable pests and will inquire into definiteinstances of damage done by pests which are brought to thenotice of the University by local authorities, by farmers, orothers. This branch of work is in many respects analogousto that carried on in the field of bacteriological research bythe public health department of the University under ProfessorS. Delépine. Lectures on their subjects will be given in theUniversity by the new members of the staff. Improvedfacilities for teaching experimental psychology fare alsoreceiving consideration by the University authorities, andindeed the appointment of a teacher in this subject is onlyawaiting the possession of sufficient means. It is thoughtthat this appointment will have an important influence onthe investigation of mental and nervous diseases and like.wise on the study of the conditions of school life and themental development of children.
.1Jfanolwsterr Jewish Hospital.The board of the Manchester Jewish Hospital has appointed
Dr. Julius Dreschfeld and Dr. Judson Bury :as honoraryconsulting physicians.
Pulmonary Tuberczclosis at Boo7idale.
During the last half century the deaths from pulmonarytuberculosis at Rochdale have fallen to 1 - 32 per 1000,being 2’33 per cent. lower than the rate at the beginningof the period. This reduction is something to be thankfulfor but not to rest satisfied with.
Manchester Royal Eye Hospital.The Manchester Eye Hospital is to be enlarged at an
estimated cost of .623,000. 50 more beds for patients will beprovided, making a total of 160, a number expected to meetall requirements for a long time to come. The old hospitalin John-street is retained for out-patients, and the two out-patients’ departments treat about 30,000 cases annually.
Lead and ASodc-7vccter,An inquest was held on April 30th on the body of the
wife of a Manchester fruiterer. She had been ailing forsome time and had suffered some pain. To relieve thisshe took several draughts of soda-water from the soda-water fountain in the shop, but as she grew worse
Dr. Saul and Dr. Helm were called in and advised herremoval to the Northern Hospital, where she died. Dr.Helm said that the cause of death was lead poisoning,md on analysing a sample of water from the fountain hefound that it contained seven grains of lead per gallon,Lbsorbed from the lead piping attached to the machine.rhe verdict was Death from lead poisoning " and the jury’ecommended the inspection of all the machines of the kindn the city. It would have been quite justifiable if theylould have ordered the destruction of all such machines.Che knowledge of the very easy contamination of water byead is now so general that it is scarcely possible to imaginehe manufacturers of these dangerous fountains having pre-erved their ignorance of this fact intact, more especially inegard to water charged with carbonic acid. It becomes,herefore, a question as to their position legally and morallyvhen they turn out for public use these fountains for distri.buting lead and soda-water.May 7th.
WALES AND WESTERN COUNTIES NOTES.
(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENTS.)
Cardiff Port Sanitary Authority.ALTHOUGH at the time of its establishment the Cardiff
and County Public Health Laboratory was criticised asinvolving an unnecessary and useless expenditure of publicfunds, every year the advantages of such an institution aremore apparent. Nowhere are these more clearly shown thanin the work done in the laboratory for the port sanitaryauthority. On several occasions, though happily the neces-sity did not arise in 1906, the diagnosis of plague has beenspeedily verified, so that justification has been found for thesubsequent drastic measures which have prevented anyspread of the disease. This ability to deal speedily andsuccessfully with such a disease as plague must give a senseof security to all those who are engaged in the shippingbusiness of the port and it is beginning to be realisedthat the expenses connected with the administration