Managing Inclusive EnvironmentsSession 2:Understanding InclusionDr. Whittney Smith
Two Truths and a LieThink of three statements about yourself. Two must be true statements, and one must be false. Each person will share the three statements with the group. The object is to determine the lie*
The TeacherConcerning a teachers influence, I have come to the frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom. Its my personal approach that creates the climate. Its my daily mood that makes the weather. As a teacher, I possess tremendous power to make a childs life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all situations, it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated, and a child humanized or dehumanized.
- Haim Ginott
FAPEA Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) is what all children in the U.S.are entitled to under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). What does "appropriate" mean?It's important to note that "appropriate" does not mean "best," nor does it mean "appropriate to the school district's plans for this year." The law requires that this FAPE take place in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)For some kids, this will mean full inclusionFor other kids, a self-contained classroom may in fact be less restrictive and more appropriate."appropriate" --- interpretations must be individualized to the needs of the child, not the needs of the school or the needs of the district
Movement to InclusionNormalizationDeinstitutionalizationEarly Intervention (EI) and Early Childhood ProgramsTechnological AdvancesCivil Rights Movement and Resulting LitigationAdvocacy GroupsSegregated Nature of Special Schools and ClassesDisproportionate RepresentationEducational Reform
Laws that Shape Special EducationPL 94-142: Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975)First!PL 99-457: Education for All Handicapped Children Act Amendments (1980)Add a provision for the early years (EI)PL 101-476(IDEA): Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1990)IDEA Amendments of 1997IDEA 2004
IDEAIDEA is organized in four parts: Part A, General ProvisionsPart B, Assistance for the Education of All Children with Disabilities (school age/preschool programs)Part C, Infants and Toddlers with DisabilitiesPart D, National Activities to Improve the Education of Children with Disabilities (support programs)
Not all children with disabilities are entitled to services under IDEA, only those who are "eligible" under the specified disability categoriesAutismDeaf-BlindnessDeafnessEmotional DisturbanceHearing ImpairmentMental Retardation (Intellectual Disability)Multiple DisabilitiesOrthopedic ImpairmentOther Health ImpairmentSpecific Learning DisabilitySpeech or Language ImpairmentTraumatic Brain InjuryVisual Impairment Including Blindness
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation ActSection 504 is less discriminatory: it protectsall persons with a disability who: 1. have a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more major life activities; 2. have a record of such an impairment; or 3. are regarded as having such an impairment.
Examples of Major Life Activitiescaring for one's self, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, and working. eating, sleeping, standing, lifting, bending, reading, concentrating, thinking, and communicating. major bodily functions that are major life activities, such as the functions of the immune system, normal cell growth, digestive, bowel, bladder, neurological, brain, respiratory, circulatory, endocrine, and reproductive functions.
Expanded List (January 2009)Reading, concentrating, standing, lifting, bending, etc. This may include individuals with AD/HD, dyslexia, cancer, diabetes, severe allergies, chronic asthma, Tourette s syndrome, digestive disorders, cardiovascular disorders, depression, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, HIV/AIDS, behavior disorders and temporary disabilities (e.g., broken writing arm, broken leg, etc.). Conditions that are episodic or in remission are also now covered if they create a substantial limitation in one or more major life activity while they are active.*
Including SamuelQuestion for Reflection as you view the video:As Samuels teacher in an inclusive classroom, what concerns would you have?
Impact of Inclusion on Students with DisabilitiesAcademic PerformanceImproved standardized test scores, reading performance, mastery of IEP goals, grades, on-task behavior, motivation, and attitudeSocial Performance Interaction with typically developing peers --- some characterize their experience by fear, frustration, ridicule and isolation while others speak about friendships, intellectual challenges, self-esteem, and success
Impact of Inclusion on Others:Impact on Students without DisabilitiesAcademic ---- equal or better performance than those not educated in inclusion classrooms.Impact on EducatorsAttitudesImpact on FamiliesAttitudes
ReflectionIf your child had a disability, would you prefer a general education or special education setting?
If your child did not have a disability, which class would you prefer?
For next classRespond to the previous questions on the blog!We will be focusing on the IEP next class!