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Management of Cat’s Claw Vine (Dolichandra unguis-cati) in ... › aw19 › presentations... MANAGEMENT OF CAT’S CLAW VINE (DOLICHANDRA UNGUIS-CATI) IN FLORIDA Leah Aidif*, Greg

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  • MANAGEMENT OF CAT’S CLAW VINE

    (DOLICHANDRA UNGUIS-CATI) IN FLORIDA

    Leah Aidif*, Greg MacDonald, and Candice Prince

  • Agenda • History

    • Need for Research

    • Identification

    • Current Recommendations

    • Ground Cover Herbicide Treatments

    • Climbing Stem Herbicide Treatments

    • Future Research Plans

  • History

    • Native to the West Indies and Central and South America

    • Introduced as an ornamental

    • First record in Florida was in Miami-Dade County, 1957

  • Need for Research

    • FLEPPC Category I • Altering native plant

    communities

    • Considered a high risk invader by IFAS Assessment

    • Populations documented in multiple counties around Florida

    https://www.eddmaps.org/distribution/usstate.cfm?sub=3048

    https://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/dolichandra-unguis-cati/

  • Identification Characteristics

    • Woody vine

    • 3-forked tendrils

    • Dark green leaf color

    https://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/dolichandra-unguis-cati/, https://weeds.brisbane.qld.gov.au/weeds/cats-claw-creeper, https://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/bignonia-capreolata/

    https://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/dolichandra-unguis-cati/ https://weeds.brisbane.qld.gov.au/weeds/cats-claw-creeper https://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/bignonia-capreolata/

  • Seedlings and mature plants have different characteristics

  • Cat’s claw vine Cross-vine https://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/dolichandra-unguis-cati/, https://weeds.brisbane.qld.gov.au/weeds/cats-claw-creeper, https://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/bignonia-capreolata/

    Similar appearance to native cross-vine (Bignonia capreolata)

    https://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/dolichandra-unguis-cati/ https://weeds.brisbane.qld.gov.au/weeds/cats-claw-creeper https://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/bignonia-capreolata/

  • Identification Characteristics

    • Tubers and stolons can form at each node, along the soil surface

    • Flowering on climbing vines

    • Long fruit pods carrying winged seeds

    https://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/dolichandra-unguis-cati/, https://weeds.brisbane.qld.gov.au/weeds/cats-claw-creeper

    https://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/dolichandra-unguis-cati/ https://weeds.brisbane.qld.gov.au/weeds/cats-claw-creeper

  • Chemical Management – Foliar

    • Foliar spray over seedlings, re-sprouts, and small vines

    • Recommendation to apply between July and October

    • Triclopyr (1-2% solution) or Glyphosate (2-3% solution) with surfactant at 0.25% v/v

  • Chemical Management – Cut Stump

    • 100% solution of glyphosate or triclopyr

    • Cut stem horizontally near ground level

    • Cover the entire cut stem (marker dye is helpful)

  • Chemical Management – Basal

    • Triclopyr solution applied with basal oil

    • Apply 12 to 15 inches above the ground on climbing vine

    • Wet thoroughly for adequate control

  • Mechanical Management

    • Hand pulling seedlings, include all roots and tubers attached

    • Cut vine down to ground level

    • Mowing is effective but must be repeated

  • Biological Management

    • Currently no known biological control agents for cat’s claw vine in Florida

    • In South Africa, research is being conducted on a leaf-tying moth (Hypocosmia pyrochroma) (King, Williams, and Madire 2011)

    • In Brazil, research is being conducted for fungal pathogens as potential agents (de Silva, Barreto, ad Pereira 2012)

  • • Evaluate effectiveness of different herbicide treatments for control of mature vines in the field

    Objective - Experiment 1

  • Materials and Methods

    • 5ft by 10ft plot size

    • Treatments applied using backpack sprayer (20 gal per acre)

    • 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant

    • 3 repetitions per treatment

    • Randomized complete block design

    https://shop.turfmate.com.au/products/backpack-chapin-pro-with-boom

  • Treatment Trade Name Mode of Action lb ai a-1

    glyphosate Powermax Amino acid synthesis inhibitor (EPSP)

    3.0

    imazapic Plateau Amino acid synthase inhibitor (ALS)

    0.25

    imazapyr Arsenal Amino acid synthase inhibitor (ALS)

    0.125

    metsulfuron-methyl MSM Amino acid synthase inhibitor (ALS)

    0.075

    triclopyr amine Garlon 3A Growth regulator 2.0

    triclopyr ester Remedy Ultra Growth regulator 1.5

    aminopyralid Milestone Growth regulator 0.11

    aminocyclopyrachlor Method Growth regulator 0.18

    2,4-D amine Weedar 64 Growth regulator 2.0

    untreated N/A N/A 0

  • Materials and Methods

    • Evaluation of initial cover of the cat’s claw vine

    • Visual evaluation of cat’s claw vine cover (0-100%) at 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment (MAT)

    • Average % reduction in cover from initial rating calculated

    • Data analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher’s LSD in RStudio

  • -20

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    Imazapyr Tric_amine Aminocyc Aminopyr Msm Imazapic Gly Tric_ester 2,4-D Untreated

    % R

    ed u

    ct io

    n in

    C o

    ve r

    Results – 3 MAT

    C C

    C

    CC

    B

    B

    AB

    AB

    A

  • -40

    -20

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    Imazapyr Tric_amine Aminocyc Aminopyr Msm Imazapic Gly Tric_ester 2,4-D Untreated

    % R

    ed u

    ct io

    n in

    C o

    ve r

    Results – 6 MAT No Significance

  • -20

    -10

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    Imazapyr Tric_amine Aminocyc Aminopyr Msm Imazapic Gly Tric_ester 2,4-D Untreated

    % R

    ed u

    ct io

    n in

    C o

    ve r

    Results – 12 MAT

    AA A

    ABC

    BCD

    CD

    CD

    CD

    D

    D

  • 2,4-D (Weedar 64) Metsulfuron-methyl (MSM)

    Untreated

    12 MAT

  • Imazapyr (Arsenal) Imazapic (Plateau)

    12 MAT

  • Glyphosate (Powermax)

    Triclopyr-ester (Remedy-Ultra)

    Triclopyr-amine (Garlon 3A)

    12 MAT

  • Aminocyclopyrachlor (Method)

    Aminopyralid (Milestone)

    12 MAT

  • Results & Discussion

    • Aminocyclophyrachlor, glyphosate, aminopyralid, imazapic, and triclopyr (both formulations) provided some control

    • Imazapyr showed minimal control, possibly due to low rates used

    • MSM and 2,4-D were not successful

  • Objective – Experiment 2

    • Evaluate two different application methods to treat climbing cat’s claw vines in a field setting

  • Materials and Methods

    • Apply using hand wand OR paint roller

    • 2 herbicides • aminocyclopyrachlor 5% (Method) • triclopyr 20% (Remedy-Ultra)

    • All using basal oil

    • 5 trees per treatment

  • https://www.google.com/search?q=basal+bark+application&client=firefox-b-1-d&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiO0pCqn4DiAhVPDq0KHQYIDkwQ_AUIDygC&biw=1442&bih=787#imgrc=iHHdnciO6Np0uM:

    https://www.google.com/search?q=basal+bark+application&client=firefox-b-1-d&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiO0pCqn4DiAhVPDq0KHQYIDkwQ_AUIDygC&biw=1442&bih=787#imgrc=iHHdnciO6Np0uM

  • Why these methods?

    • Amount of herbicide used • Method paint roller – 14.96 ml per tree • Remedy-Ultra paint roller – 17 ml per tree

    • Method basal – 50 ml per tree • Remedy-Ultra basal – 62 ml per tree

    • Helps stay within labeled use rates

    • Paint roller more precise

  • Future Research

    • Repeat herbicide trial

    • Seed and tuber biology

    • Combining mechanical and chemical control

    • Focus on application timing

    • Repeated applications

  • Acknowledgements

    • Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC)

    • Chinsegut Manor County Park, Hernando County, and Mike Singer

    • UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants

    • Michael Durham

  • Work Cited

    da Silva, M., R. W. Barreto, and O. L. Pereira. 2012. “Fungal pathogens of ‘cat’s claws’ from Brazil for biocontrol of Macfadyena unguis-cati.” Mycotaxon no. 119 (Journal Article):181–195.

    Langeland, K.A. and K. Craddock Burks. 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. IFAS Publication SP 257. University of Florida, Gainesville. 165 pp.

    King, A. M., H. E. Williams, and L. G. Madire. 2011. “Biological control of cat’s claw creeper, Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) AHGentry (Bignoniaceae), in South Africa.” African Entomology no. 19 (2):366–377.

    Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). Plant Threats to Pacific Ecosystems: http://www.hear.org/pi

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