Making Thinking Visible: Using Thinking Routines in the Classroom

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


Making Thinking Visible: Using Thinking Routines in the Classroom. Maria McCoy Three Ways to Look at Thinking Routines Simple Tools, used in ones learning to support specific thinking moves . Structures and scaffolds through which we explore, discuss, document, and - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PowerPoint Presentation

Making Thinking Visible: Using Thinking Routines in the ClassroomMaria


Project Zero is an educational research group at the Harvard Graduate School of Education composed of multiple, independently-sponsored research projects. Since 1967, Project Zero has examined the development of learning processes in children, adults, and organizations. Today, Project Zeros work includes investigations into the nature of intelligence, understanding, thinking, creativity, ethics, and other essential aspects of human learning. Our mission is to understand and enhance high-level thinking and learning across disciplines and cultures and in a range of contexts, including schools, businesses, museums, and digital environments.2Three Ways to Look at Thinking Routines

Simple Tools, used inones learning to supportspecific thinking moves.

Structures and scaffoldsthrough which we explore,discuss, document, anddirect our thinking andlearning.

Patterns of behavior thatwe adopt to help us useour minds well in newsituations.



Identifying Thinking

Recall a lesson or activity youve seen that you feel really engaged students in developing understanding.

What kinds of thinking did you observe the students engaging in during that activity or lesson?

Generating ideas Analyzing Reasoning with evidence Making connections Summarizing Interpreting & forming Posing questions conjectures about things Observing closely Identifying and exploring Building explanations multiple perspectives Synthesizing information Looking below the Predicting surface of things Evaluating Looking for patterns Visualizing ClarifyingIdentifying the Thinking We Value...and so on.What Kinds of Thinking Do We Value?

What does this remind you of?Where else have you seen something like this?How does this connect to the topic youve been studying?Where does this fit within the grand scheme of things?What is it like? What is it not like?If you were to group these things, what would go together?Whats a metaphor that might fit this?

Routines SamplerSee-Think-WonderZoom InChalk TalkHeadlinesCircle of ViewpointsSEE-THINK-WONDERLooking at an image or object:What do you see?What do you think is going on?What does it make you wonder?This routine was designed to draw on students close looking and intent observation as the foundation for greater insights, grounded interpretations, etc. At the beginning of this routine, students spend a few minutes silently looking at a work of art, image, photo, video clip, excerpt of text, political cartoon, chart, or some kind of artifact. This Seeing gives students the opportunity to look carefully and to notice before interpreting. The placement of Wonder as the final step ensures students have had time to take in new info through careful observation, think about and synthesize this information, and then identify additional wonderings. These additional wonderings can open up whole new areas of exploration and thinking initiated by the students themselves. For this reason, this routine is a favorite choice for starting a unit of study.18SEE-THINK-WONDERSteps:Set upSeeThinkWonderShare The ThinkingSet Up Project the image or give a printed image to student pairs, 2 to 3 minutes of silent time before any talk or discussionSee ask students to state what they notice (no interpretations) I see (Think Pair-Share)Think Ask learners what they think is going on What does it make us think? What else is going on here? Respond to students with: What do you see that makes you say that? This encourages learners to provide supporting evidence.Wonder Ask learners what they are now wondering about based on what they have seen and have been thinking? Students might initially find it hard to separate thinking from wondering. To help, you might suggest that wondering is about asking broader questions that push us beyond our interpretations to look at ideas or issues raised by the image.Share The Thinking students generally share their thinking at each step along the way before moving on to the next step. It can be very useful to document the wonderings so students can revisit them over time.19

ZOOM INLook closely at the small bit of image that is revealed:What do you see or notice?What is your hypothesis or interpretation of what this might be based on what you are seeing?Reveal More of the ImageWhat new things do you see?How does this change your hypothesis or interpretation? Has the new information answered any of your wonders or changed your previous ideas?What new things are you wondering about?Repeat the Reveal and Questioning Until the Whole Image Has Been RevealedWhat lingering questions remain for you about this image?This routine is like See-Think-Wonder in that it focuses on looking closely and making interpretations. Difference is that this routine reveals only portions of an image over time. This routine asks students to observe closely a portion of an image and develop a hypothesis. Once new visual information is presented, students must reassess their initial interpretation in light of the new information. This process encourages students to be open-minded and flexible to change your mind when new and sometimes conflicting info is available. Learners must act as detectives to build up meaning.21ZOOM INSteps:Set upRevealRepeat Share The ThinkingSet Up Begin w/ observations first before moving to invite learners to develop hypotheses or interpretations, can be done individually, in small groups or as a classReveal uncover more of the image & again ask learners to identify anything new & how this effects their interpretations & hypotheses. You might ask more pointed questions: What do you think the relationship is between these two people? Do you have a prediction of what the next section of data will look like?Repeat Continue the process until the entire image is revealed and invite learners to state any lingering questions they have. Share The Thinking Ask students to reflect on how their interpretations shifted and changed over time. Encourage students to discuss their different interpretations and how their thinking changed with each additional piece of information 22

CHALK TALKLooking at the topic or question written on the chart paper:What ideas come to mind when you consider this idea, question, or problem? What connections can you make to others responses?What questions arise as you think about the ideas and consider the responses and comments of others?This routine is a conversation conducted silently on paper. It allows all students voices to be heard. Chalk Talk can provide a safe and calm environment for discussing issues that may be more difficult in a live, verbal discussion. Chalk Talk can be likened to equal opportunity time as the students who normally hold back verbally due to a myriad of reasons , have a chance to be part of a very rich yet silent dialogue.24CHALK TALKSteps:Set up Present the Chalk Talk PromptCirculateFacilitateShare the thinkingSet Up Write each prompt on a large sheet of chart paper or butcher paper and place on tables around the roomPresent the Chalk Talk Prompt invite learners to think about their reactions to the prompt and record their ideas and questions. Encourage learners to read and add to each others responses with additional comments and questionsCirculate students need time to circulate around the chalk talk paper, can be done in groups giving each group 5 minutes to respond silently to the paperFacilitate you might need to prompt the group about types of responses they can make as they read: connecting ideas, elaborating on others ideas, commenting on what others have written, asking others to respond with more detailShare the Thinking if groups have rotated allow them to return to their original starting places to read what others have written. Give groups time review the various chalk talks, ask them what themes are emerging. Where did they see common issues and reactions? What questions surprised them? 25HEADLINESThink of the big ideas and important themes in what you have been learning.Write a headline for this topic or issue that summarizes and captures a key aspect that you feel is significant and important.This routine asks students to reflect and synthesize as they identify the essence or core of a situation or learning experience. By asking students to sum up their current notions of a lesson or concept using a headline, teachers send the message that taking notice of big ideas is critical to understanding.26HEADLINESSteps:Set up Write a headlineShare the thinkingInvite further sharingSet Up After students have had some learning experiences, ask them to consider what they think some of the core ideas in what they have been learning seem to beWrite a headline invite learners to write a headline for this topic or issue that captures an important aspect or core idea that we would want to remember. This can be done individually or in pairs.Share the Thinking students share their headlines with each other. Not only do they share their headline , but also the story and reasoning behind their choice. The goal is to create a forum in which different perspectives can be shared. Invite further sharing Once pairs or small groups have had the opportunity to share, you can create a class collection of the headlines that document the groups thinking. The class can then search for common themes or elements among the headlines.27

The Headlines routine is used to synthesize learning. First attempts by students with Headlines, will typically be a fact from the learning: Rosa Parks Refuses To Give Up Bus Seat The intent, however,is for the headline to reflect the impact ormeaning of the learning as a whole:Rosa Parks Sits Down for Racial