Making Thinking Visible: Using Thinking Routines in the Classroom

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Making Thinking Visible: Using Thinking Routines in the Classroom. Maria McCoy Three Ways to Look at Thinking Routines Simple Tools, used in ones learning to support specific thinking moves . Structures and scaffolds through which we explore, discuss, document, and - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Making Thinking Visible: Using Thinking Routines in the ClassroomMaria


Project Zero is an educational research group at the Harvard Graduate School of Education composed of multiple, independently-sponsored research projects. Since 1967, Project Zero has examined the development of learning processes in children, adults, and organizations. Today, Project Zeros work includes investigations into the nature of intelligence, understanding, thinking, creativity, ethics, and other essential aspects of human learning. Our mission is to understand and enhance high-level thinking and learning across disciplines and cultures and in a range of contexts, including schools, businesses, museums, and digital environments.2Three Ways to Look at Thinking Routines

Simple Tools, used inones learning to supportspecific thinking moves.

Structures and scaffoldsthrough which we explore,discuss, document, anddirect our thinking andlearning.

Patterns of behavior thatwe adopt to help us useour minds well in newsituations.



Identifying Thinking

Recall a lesson or activity youve seen that you feel really engaged students in developing understanding.

What kinds of thinking did you observe the students engaging in during that activity or lesson?

Generating ideas Analyzing Reasoning with evidence Making connections Summarizing Interpreting & forming Posing questions conjectures about things Observing closely Identifying and exploring Building explanations multiple perspectives Synthesizing information Looking below the Predicting surface of things Evaluating Looking for patterns Visualizing ClarifyingIdentifying the Thinking We Value...and so on.What Kinds of Thinking Do We Value?

What does this remind you of?Where else have you seen something like this?How does this connect to the topic youve been studying?Where does this fit within the grand scheme of things?What is it like? What is it not like?If you were to group these things, what would go together?Whats a metaphor that might fit this?

Routines SamplerSee-Think-WonderZoom InChalk TalkHeadlinesCircle of ViewpointsSEE-THINK-WONDERLooking at an image or object:What do you see?What do you think is going on?What does it make you wonder?This routine was designed to draw on students close looking and intent observation as the foundation for greater insights, grounded interpretations, etc. At the beginning of this routine, students spend a few minutes silently looking at a work of art, image, photo, video clip, excerpt of text, political cartoon, chart, or some kind of artifact. This Seeing gives students the opportunity to look carefully and to notice before interpreting. The placement of Wonder as the final step ensures students have had time to take in new info through careful observation, think about and synthesize this information, and then identify additional wonderings. These additional wonderings can open up whole new areas of exploration and thinking initiated by the students themselves. For this reason, this routine is a favorite choice for starting a unit of study.18SEE-THINK-WONDERSteps:Set upSeeThinkWonderShare The ThinkingSet Up Project the image or give a printed image to student pairs, 2 to 3 minutes of silent time before any talk or discussionSee ask students to state what they notice (no interpretations) I see (Think Pair-Share)Think Ask learners what they think is going on What does it make us think? What else is going on here? Respond to students with: What do you see that makes you say that? This encourages learners to provide supporting evidence.Wonder Ask learners what they are now wondering about based on what they have seen and have been thinking? Students might initially find it hard to separate thinking from wondering. To help, you might suggest that wondering is about asking broader questions that push us beyond our interpretations to look at ideas or issues raised by the image.Share The Thinking students generally share their thinking at each step along the way before moving on to the next step. It can be very useful to document the wonderings so students can revisit them over time.19

ZOOM INLook closely at the small bit of image that is revealed:What do you see or notice?What is your hypothesis or interpretation of what this might be based on what you are seeing?Reveal More of the ImageWhat new things do you see?How does this change your hypothesis or interpretation? Has the new information answered any of your wonders or changed your previous ideas?What new things are you wondering about?Repeat the Reveal and Questioning Until the Whole Image Has Been RevealedWhat lingering questions remain for you about this image?This routine is like See-Think-Wonder in that it focuses on looking closely and making interpretations. Difference is that this routine reveals only portions of an image over time. This routine asks students to observe closely a portion of an image and develop a hypothesis. Once new visual information is presented, students must reassess their initial interpretation in light of the new information. This process encourages students to be open-minded and flexible to change your mind when new and sometimes conflicting info is available. Learners must act as detectives to build up meaning.21ZOOM INSteps:Set upRevealRepeat Share The ThinkingSet Up Begin w/ observations first before moving to invite learners to develop hypotheses or interpretations, can be done individually, in small groups or as a classReveal uncover more of the image & again ask learners to identify anything new & how this effects their interpretations & hypotheses. You might ask more pointed questions: What do you think the relationship is between these two people? Do you have a prediction of what the next section of data will look like?Repeat Continue the process until the entire image is revealed and invite learners to state any lingering questions they have. Share The Thinking Ask students to reflect on how their interpretations shifted and changed over time. Encourage students to discuss their different interpretations and how their thinking changed with each additional piece of information 22

CHALK TALKLooking at the topic or question written on the chart paper:What ideas come to mind when you consider this idea, question, or problem? What connections can you make to others responses?What questions arise as you think about the ideas and consider the responses and comments of others?This routine is a conversation conducted silently on paper. It allows all students voices to be heard. Chalk Talk can provide a safe and calm environment for discussing issues that may be more difficult in a live, verbal discussion. Chalk Talk can be likened to equal opportunity time as the students who normally hold back verbally due to a myriad of reasons , have a chance to be part of a very rich yet silent dialogue.24CHALK TALKSteps:Set up Present the Chalk Talk PromptCirculateFacilitateShare the thinkingSet Up Write each prompt on a large sheet of chart paper or butcher paper and place on tables around the roomPresent the Chalk Talk Prompt invite learners to think about their reactions to the prompt and record their ideas and questions. Encourage learners to read and add to each others responses with additional comments and questionsCirculate students need time to circulate around the chalk talk paper, can be done in groups giving each group 5 minutes to respond silently to the paperFacilitate you might need to prompt the group about types of responses they can make as they read: connecting ideas, elaborating on others ideas, commenting on what others have written, asking others to respond with more detailShare the Thinking if groups have rotated allow them to return to their original starting places to read what others have written. Give groups time review the various chalk talks, ask them what themes are emerging. Where did they see common issues and reactions? What questions surprised them? 25HEADLINESThink of the big ideas and important themes in what you have been learning.Write a headline for this topic or issue that summarizes and captures a key aspect that you feel is significant and important.This routine asks students to reflect and synthesize as they identify the essence or core of a situation or learning experience. By asking students to sum up their current notions of a lesson or concept using a headline, teachers send the message that taking notice of big ideas is critical to understanding.26HEADLINESSteps:Set up Write a headlineShare the thinkingInvite further sharingSet Up After students have had some learning experiences, ask them to consider what they think some of the core ideas in what they have been learning seem to beWrite a headline invite learners to write a headline for this topic or issue that captures an important aspect or core idea that we would want to remember. This can be done individually or in pairs.Share the Thinking students share their headlines with each other. Not only do they share their headline , but also the story and reasoning behind their choice. The goal is to create a forum in which different perspectives can be shared. Invite further sharing Once pairs or small groups have had the opportunity to share, you can create a class collection of the headlines that document the groups thinking. The class can then search for common themes or elements among the headlines.27

The Headlines routine is used to synthesize learning. First attempts by students with Headlines, will typically be a fact from the learning: Rosa Parks Refuses To Give Up Bus Seat The intent, however,is for the headline to reflect the impact ormeaning of the learning as a whole:Rosa Parks Sits Down for Racial EqualityTohelp students develop this understanding of Headlines, time must be taken to study examples of headlinesin newspapers and magazines and to model the thinking behind creating a headline. Once this is established, it can be a powerful way to promote deep understanding as well as a means of formative assessment.

28CIRCLE OF VIEWPOINTSIdentify the different perspectives that could be present in or affected by what you have just read, seen, or heard. Record these in a circle with the issue or event at the center. Choose one of these perspectives to explore further, using the following prompts as a starting place:I am thinking of [name the event/ issue] from the point of viewI think.[describe the topic from your viewpoint. Be an actor take on the character of your viewpoint]. Because[explain your reason]A question/ concern I have from this viewpoint is This routine focuses on perspective taking. This routine helps learners to identify and consider these different and diverse perspectives involved in and around a topic, event, or issue. This process creates a greater awareness of how others may be thinking and feeling and reinforces that people can and do think differently about the same things. The ultimate goal of this process is to gain a broader and more complete understanding of the topic, event, or issue through this process.29CIRCLE OF VIEWPOINTSSteps:Set up Identify viewpointsSelect a viewpoint to exploreRespond to the I think promptRespond to the A question I have from this viewpoint... promptShare the thinkingSet Up When introducing the source material (image, story, issue, event, topic), provide plenty of time for examination. Write the topics or issues identified on the board or chart paper. You will need to decide if this will be an oral or written activity. Identify viewpoints invite learners to generate a list of viewpoints, these can also be from inanimate objects that are in the setting of the piece or can identify actors and groups not immediately present in the story or image but affected by it. Record these in a circle around the listed topic or issue.Select a viewpoint to explore students select a viewpoint they want to explore. If in groups, they might each want to choose a different viewpoint to explore. You might want to do this routing as a whole group first.Respond to the I think prompt Ask students to take on the character of their viewpoint and describe the topic from this new perspective. What does this person or character think about the event or situation? What is their take? Why do they think this? Students will need time to process their ideas (notetaking, formal recording, or mentally).Respond to the A question I have from this viewpoint prompt Ask students to imagine what this person or thing might be puzzled or curious about and create a question from this viewpoint, as if the person or thing was asking this question aloud. Provide time.Share the thinking Decide if sharing will take place in small groups or as a whole class. Initially, a whole group will provide everyone with lots of models and give you a chance to assess everyones efforts.30

31Have great expectations. Students surprise us daily with their connections, ideas, and the multiple languages they use to make their thinking visible.

2. Do the routines pretty much as is initially. It may feel uncomfortable but wait to see what you learn from using them before adapting them.

3. Match the routines with topics and projects that are significant to students. The routines arent the content, they are vehicles for exploring the content.10 Suggestions for Getting Started with Thinking Routines4. Model the language for younger and less language able students. Build up the language over time and by modeling your own thinking.

5. Use the language of thinking as often as you can. Name childrens actions like you made a connection or I find your point of view very interesting, and so on.

6. Document students thinking. It send a clear message of how much we value students, their thoughts, and work; and it allows revisiting, reflecting on and re-enforcing the topics later.

10 Suggestions for Getting Started with Thinking Routines7. Give yourself permission to be a learner and experiment with the routines in a variety of ways.

8. Understand this is a process that takes time. Be patient, consistent and a risk taker.

9. Focus on the thinking you want to promote and why it is important. This will help you attend to students thinking as it emerges.

10. Include parents in the process, they are your allies and it is amazing how they become the first advocates for the use of thinking language at home.10 Suggestions for Getting Started with Thinking RoutinesAt the core of Visible Thinking are practices that help make thinking visible: Thinking Routinesloosely guide learners thought processes and encourage active processing. They are short, easy-to-learn mini-strategies that extend and deepen students thinking and become part of the f...