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Make a Sperm and Ovum Female Mons Pubis Labia Urethra Perineum Vagina Cervix Uterus Endometrium Fallopian tubes Ovaries Ovum Male Scrotum Testicle

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Page 1: Make a Sperm and Ovum Female Mons Pubis Labia Urethra Perineum Vagina Cervix Uterus Endometrium Fallopian tubes Ovaries Ovum Male Scrotum Testicle
Page 2: Make a Sperm and Ovum Female Mons Pubis Labia Urethra Perineum Vagina Cervix Uterus Endometrium Fallopian tubes Ovaries Ovum Male Scrotum Testicle

Make a Sperm and Ovum

Page 3: Make a Sperm and Ovum Female Mons Pubis Labia Urethra Perineum Vagina Cervix Uterus Endometrium Fallopian tubes Ovaries Ovum Male Scrotum Testicle
Page 4: Make a Sperm and Ovum Female Mons Pubis Labia Urethra Perineum Vagina Cervix Uterus Endometrium Fallopian tubes Ovaries Ovum Male Scrotum Testicle

Female• Mons Pubis• Labia• Urethra• Perineum• Vagina• Cervix• Uterus• Endometrium• Fallopian tubes• Ovaries• Ovum

Male• Scrotum• Testicle• Sperm• Epididymis• Vas Deferens• Seminal Vesicles• Prostate Gland• Cowper Gland• Ejaculation• Semen• Seminal Fluid• Urethra• Urinary Bladder• Penis

Page 5: Make a Sperm and Ovum Female Mons Pubis Labia Urethra Perineum Vagina Cervix Uterus Endometrium Fallopian tubes Ovaries Ovum Male Scrotum Testicle

A five year old girl asked the question that every parent dreads, “Mommy, how are babies made?” The mom did her best to explain, but the daughter still looked confused.

“But what about kittens?” she asked.“Well, it is exactly the same way.” I said.“Wow!” she said excitedly, “My Daddy

can do anything!”

Page 6: Make a Sperm and Ovum Female Mons Pubis Labia Urethra Perineum Vagina Cervix Uterus Endometrium Fallopian tubes Ovaries Ovum Male Scrotum Testicle
Page 7: Make a Sperm and Ovum Female Mons Pubis Labia Urethra Perineum Vagina Cervix Uterus Endometrium Fallopian tubes Ovaries Ovum Male Scrotum Testicle
Page 8: Make a Sperm and Ovum Female Mons Pubis Labia Urethra Perineum Vagina Cervix Uterus Endometrium Fallopian tubes Ovaries Ovum Male Scrotum Testicle

5. FERTILIZATION / Conception• The end purpose for the

ova and the sperm• When the sperm

penetrates the surface of the ova and enters inside.

• The 23 chromosomes from each sex cell combine and begin to multiply to begin to form a new human being!!!

Page 9: Make a Sperm and Ovum Female Mons Pubis Labia Urethra Perineum Vagina Cervix Uterus Endometrium Fallopian tubes Ovaries Ovum Male Scrotum Testicle

During MenstruationDays 1-5

Menstruation occurs and the lining of the uterus, with a small amount of blood, leaves the body. At this time, another egg is maturing in the ovary.

The Menstrual Cycle

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After MenstruationDays 6-15

The lining of the uterus repairs itself and once again prepares for a fertilized egg. Around days 13-15 an egg is released from an ovary. This is called OVULATION

The Menstrual Cycle

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Before MenstruationDays 16-28

If the egg is fertilized by the male sperm cell, it embeds itself in the wall of the uterus (endometrium lining). If the egg is not fertilized, the blood vessels in the wall of the uterus shrinks and breaks down. The menstruation cycle begins again.

Page 12: Make a Sperm and Ovum Female Mons Pubis Labia Urethra Perineum Vagina Cervix Uterus Endometrium Fallopian tubes Ovaries Ovum Male Scrotum Testicle
Page 13: Make a Sperm and Ovum Female Mons Pubis Labia Urethra Perineum Vagina Cervix Uterus Endometrium Fallopian tubes Ovaries Ovum Male Scrotum Testicle

SEYMOUR and OLIVIA STORY

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Male Reproductive SystemMale Reproductive System

Male reproductive organs are for intercourse, Male reproductive organs are for intercourse, reproduction and urinationreproduction and urination

Page 15: Make a Sperm and Ovum Female Mons Pubis Labia Urethra Perineum Vagina Cervix Uterus Endometrium Fallopian tubes Ovaries Ovum Male Scrotum Testicle
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Male Anatomy

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MALE TIME LINE:• Infancy

– Erections begin• Ages 11-14

– Secondary sex characteristics appear• Ages 13-16

– Sperm produced in adult amounts (puberty)• Late teens

– Peak sexual urges for boys• Throughout life

– If good health is present, there is the sex urge and ability to father children

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6. Scrotum 6. Scrotum

• A sac-like pouch located behind the penis that A sac-like pouch located behind the penis that holds each testes and helps regulate holds each testes and helps regulate temperature for sperm production.temperature for sperm production.

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10. Testicles or Testes10. Testicles or Testes• The two testes are small organs that lie in the scrotum and The two testes are small organs that lie in the scrotum and

produce sperm and the male hormone testosterone. produce sperm and the male hormone testosterone. • The testicles are the male sex gland. The testicles are the male sex gland. • The testicles are outside the body because the male sperm The testicles are outside the body because the male sperm

that is manufactured in the testes need cooler-than-body that is manufactured in the testes need cooler-than-body temperature for normal growth and development. temperature for normal growth and development.

• They are the counterpart to the female ovary. They are the counterpart to the female ovary. • Loss of one does not impair the function of the other.Loss of one does not impair the function of the other.• Four to five billion sperm cells are produced each month. Four to five billion sperm cells are produced each month.

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11. Testosterone11. Testosterone

• The male reproductive hormone made by the The male reproductive hormone made by the testicles which causes the changes of puberty. testicles which causes the changes of puberty.

• This hormone causes secondary sex This hormone causes secondary sex characteristics, production of sperm and characteristics, production of sperm and sexual urge. sexual urge.

• It is produced in the testicles and enters the It is produced in the testicles and enters the bloodstream at a fairly constant rate. bloodstream at a fairly constant rate.

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9. Sperm 9. Sperm • The microscopic cells produced by the male's The microscopic cells produced by the male's

testicles which can fertilize the female's testicles which can fertilize the female's ovumovum. .

• They are tiny, living cells 100 times smaller They are tiny, living cells 100 times smaller than a pencil dot. (the smallest cell in a mans than a pencil dot. (the smallest cell in a mans body body

• Enough sperm would fit on the head of a pin Enough sperm would fit on the head of a pin to re-populate the earth if each sperm to re-populate the earth if each sperm fertilized an egg. fertilized an egg.

• It is destroyed by warm body temperature, It is destroyed by warm body temperature, acidic environment. acidic environment.

• It can survive in a women’s body for 5-8 days. It can survive in a women’s body for 5-8 days. • Any sperm not ejaculated are passed in the Any sperm not ejaculated are passed in the

urine.urine.

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Swimming for your lifeA sperm is a tiny package with a big responsibility – to fertilize

the egg and create a human life. So that tiny package is loaded with “gear” for its important journey.

A few facts:• Daily sperm production by a healthy man:

10 million to 50 million• Contents of average ejaculation:

50 million sperm; 25 million moving; 20 million deformed• Maturation: 72 hours• Average swimming speed of a sperm:

8 inches per hour

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3. Epididymis3. Epididymis

• The structure that forms a mass over the back The structure that forms a mass over the back and upper part of each testes.and upper part of each testes.

• Sperm are stored there for as long as six Sperm are stored there for as long as six weeks while they ripen to maturity. weeks while they ripen to maturity.

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1. Cowpers Gland1. Cowpers Gland

• Two small pea-sized glands located beneath Two small pea-sized glands located beneath the prostate gland on both sides of the base the prostate gland on both sides of the base of the penis. of the penis.

• They secrete a clear, sticky fluid that helps to They secrete a clear, sticky fluid that helps to neutralize the acidity of the urethra.neutralize the acidity of the urethra.

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12. Vas Deferens12. Vas Deferens

• two long, thin tubes that serve as a two long, thin tubes that serve as a passageway for sperm and a place for sperm passageway for sperm and a place for sperm storage. storage.

• The contraction of the vas deferens along with The contraction of the vas deferens along with the action of the cilia help transport the the action of the cilia help transport the sperm through the vas deferens.sperm through the vas deferens.

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8. Seminal Vesicles 8. Seminal Vesicles

• two small glands that secrete a fluid that two small glands that secrete a fluid that nourishes and enables the sperm to move.nourishes and enables the sperm to move.

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5. Prostate Gland 5. Prostate Gland

• surround the urethra beneath the bladder. surround the urethra beneath the bladder. The gland secretes an alkaline fluid that The gland secretes an alkaline fluid that neutralizes the acid found in the male urethra neutralizes the acid found in the male urethra and the female reproductive tract. and the female reproductive tract.

• Without the action of the secretions of the Without the action of the secretions of the prostate gland, many sperm would die and prostate gland, many sperm would die and fertilization of an ovum would be impossible.fertilization of an ovum would be impossible.

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13. Urethra13. Urethra• A dual purpose tube that both semen and urine pass A dual purpose tube that both semen and urine pass

through to leave the body. Semen and urine never through to leave the body. Semen and urine never mix. mix.

• Special muscles or sphincters surround the urethra. Special muscles or sphincters surround the urethra. • During urination, one sphincter will relax so that the During urination, one sphincter will relax so that the

pressure from the bladder will push urine out from pressure from the bladder will push urine out from the body. the body.

• During ejaculation, another sphincter will relax so During ejaculation, another sphincter will relax so that semen can flow through the urethra to the that semen can flow through the urethra to the outside of the body.outside of the body.

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4. Penis4. Penis• The male organ for sexual intercourse, The male organ for sexual intercourse,

reproduction, and urination. reproduction, and urination. • The reproductive purpose of the penis is to deposit The reproductive purpose of the penis is to deposit

semen in the vagina during sexual intercourse. semen in the vagina during sexual intercourse. • The head of the penis or glans contains many nerve The head of the penis or glans contains many nerve

endings. At birth the glans is covered by a loosely endings. At birth the glans is covered by a loosely fitting skin called the foreskin. fitting skin called the foreskin.

• When the penis is erect it is 5-7 inches long An When the penis is erect it is 5-7 inches long An erection occurs when the sponge-like chambers in erection occurs when the sponge-like chambers in the penis fill with blood. the penis fill with blood.

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7. SEMEN:7. SEMEN:

• a combination of fluid that is produced in the a combination of fluid that is produced in the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and Cowper's seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and Cowper's gland. This fluid nourishes and helps sperm gland. This fluid nourishes and helps sperm move through the urethra.move through the urethra.

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2. EJACULATION2. EJACULATION

• the passage of sperm from the penis, a result the passage of sperm from the penis, a result of a series of muscular contractions.of a series of muscular contractions.

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External Male Reproductive

• Testosterone: the male reproductive hormone made by the testicles which causes the changes of puberty.

• Penis: the organ of transfer of sperm to female.• Scrotum: pouch-like sac holding both testicles in a

separate compartment that hang underneath the penis.

• Testicles – Testes Gland: two glands in the male, located in the scrotum, which produce male hormones (testosterone).

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Internal Male Organs

• Sperm: the microscopic cells produced by the male’s testicles which can fertilize the female’s ovum.

• Prostate Gland: a man’s gland that helps make semen.

• Cowper’s Glands: behind the base of the penis which secretes fluid to make semen and neutralize acid during sexual excitement.

• Ejaculatory duct: a short straight tube that passes into the prostate gland and opens into the urethra.

Page 34: Make a Sperm and Ovum Female Mons Pubis Labia Urethra Perineum Vagina Cervix Uterus Endometrium Fallopian tubes Ovaries Ovum Male Scrotum Testicle

• Urethra: a tube that connects with the vas deferentia to carry sperm cells out of the body.

• Epididymis: the structure that forms a mass over the back and upper part of each testes.

• Vas Deferens (singular): two tubes leading

from the epididymis to the seminal vesicles.• Seminal Vesicles: two pouch-

like structures which serve to store mature sperm until ejaculated.

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Other related concerns• Circumcision: A process that surgically removes the flap of

skin that covers the glans of the penis.• Ejaculation: when semen carrying sperm spurts out of penis• Semen: the thick, sticky fluid which contains sperm

ejaculated by the male from the penis during orgasm (climax).• Nocturnal Emissions: normal, involuntary ejaculation of

semen and sperm while a male is asleep.• Impotence: the failure to get or maintain an erection• Vasectomy: surgical procedure for sterilization of the male.

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TimelinesMale Time Line:Infancy Erections begin

Ages 11-14 Secondary sex characteristics

appear

Ages 13-16 Sperm produced in adult amounts (puberty)

Late teens Peak sexual urges for boys

Throughout life If good health is present, there is the sex urge and ability to father children.

Female Time Line:

Ages 9-12 Secondary sex characteristics

appear

Ages 11-14 Menstrual cycle begins

Late 20-30’s Peak sexual urges

Ages 45-55 menopause (cycle stops, but sex urge continues)

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Female Reproductive SystemFemale Reproductive System

Female reproductive organs are for Female reproductive organs are for intercourse, reproduction, urinationintercourse, reproduction, urinationpregnancy and childbirth.pregnancy and childbirth.

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External Female Anatomy• Vulva: woman’s external genital area.• Pudendum or Pubes: the area in the body where

the sex organs are located.• Mons Pubis: a mound of fatty tissue which covers

the pubic bone. • Labia Majora: (large lips) two folds of skin running

from the mons pubis to below the vaginal opening• Labia Minora: two smaller folds of tissue which lie

just within the labia majora. • Clitoris: a small, pea-shaped bump at the front of

the labia that contains erectile tissue (counter part to male penis.)• Urethra: below the clitoris, the opening to the

bladder.

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Internal Organs• Hymen: a narrow fold of tissue

encircling the entrance to the vagina.

• Vagina: passageway between the uterus and the outside of a woman’s body.

• Cervix: Opening from the uterus to the vagina.

• Uterus: place where the baby grows in a woman’s abdomen.

• Oviducts (Fallopian Tubes): two tubular structures leading from the ovaries to the uterus

• Ovaries: organs holding a woman’s eggs.

Page 41: Make a Sperm and Ovum Female Mons Pubis Labia Urethra Perineum Vagina Cervix Uterus Endometrium Fallopian tubes Ovaries Ovum Male Scrotum Testicle

Front ViewFront View

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Internal Female Anatomy—

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9. Ovary (Ovaries)9. Ovary (Ovaries)

• Two solid egg-shaped structures Two solid egg-shaped structures • They are attached to the uterus by ligaments. They They are attached to the uterus by ligaments. They

are the counterpart of the male testicles.are the counterpart of the male testicles.• Ovaries have two main functions:Ovaries have two main functions:

#1-store and release the ova or female egg cell. Some of #1-store and release the ova or female egg cell. Some of the ova disappear; others are dormant until each is ripened the ova disappear; others are dormant until each is ripened and released after puberty.and released after puberty.

#2-produce female sex hormones ESTROGEN and #2-produce female sex hormones ESTROGEN and PROGESTERONE PROGESTERONE

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8. Ova 8. Ova • The female reproductive cell. The female reproductive cell. • They are the largest cells in the They are the largest cells in the

female body. female body. (about the size of a grain of (about the size of a grain of sand.) sand.)

• The female baby is born with all The female baby is born with all the ova she will ever have the ova she will ever have (about (about 200,000 in each ovary). 200,000 in each ovary).

• About 400-500 ova mature and About 400-500 ova mature and are released over a lifetime are released over a lifetime

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4. Estrogen 4. Estrogen

• Estrogen is responsible for the secondary sex Estrogen is responsible for the secondary sex characteristics and the sex drive in females. It characteristics and the sex drive in females. It spurs the onset of puberty and is responsible spurs the onset of puberty and is responsible for OVULATION. for OVULATION.

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12. Progesterone12. Progesterone

• Progesterone builds up the lining of the Progesterone builds up the lining of the uterus called the endometrium in preparation uterus called the endometrium in preparation for the fertilized ovumfor the fertilized ovum

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11. Ovulation11. Ovulation

• When the egg is released from the ovary.When the egg is released from the ovary.• At the age of pubertyAt the age of puberty• The ovum moves to the surface of the ovary in bursts The ovum moves to the surface of the ovary in bursts

outout• The ova falls into the fallopian tube and waits for The ova falls into the fallopian tube and waits for

fertilization fertilization • This happens every 28 days This happens every 28 days • It happens at about the 14It happens at about the 14thth day of the cycle day of the cycle

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10. FALLOPIAN TUBES10. FALLOPIAN TUBES(oviducts)(oviducts)

• Two tubes attached on either side of the uterus. Two tubes attached on either side of the uterus. • They are about four inches long and 3/16 inch in They are about four inches long and 3/16 inch in

diameter (the size of a cooked spaghetti noodle). diameter (the size of a cooked spaghetti noodle). • The oviducts carry egg cells toward the uterus and sperm The oviducts carry egg cells toward the uterus and sperm

cells toward the egg cell. cells toward the egg cell. • Fertilization takes place in the upper third of the oviduct. Fertilization takes place in the upper third of the oviduct.

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14. Uterus14. Uterus• A hollow, muscular organ (A hollow, muscular organ (shaped somewhat like an upside-down shaped somewhat like an upside-down

pear, about the size of a fist).pear, about the size of a fist). • The uterus is lined with endometrium The uterus is lined with endometrium (a blood lining.) (a blood lining.)

• The uterus has one main function—to protect and The uterus has one main function—to protect and nourish a fetus nourish a fetus

• The walls of the uterus have the ability to stretch to The walls of the uterus have the ability to stretch to the size of a small watermelon. the size of a small watermelon.

• After childbirth the uterus shrinks back to the After childbirth the uterus shrinks back to the original shape in 6-8 weeks, but it can take up to original shape in 6-8 weeks, but it can take up to nine months for the uterus to fully recover. nine months for the uterus to fully recover.

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1. Cervix1. Cervix

• The neck or opening of the uterus. The neck or opening of the uterus. • A normal healthy cervix is the strongest muscle in A normal healthy cervix is the strongest muscle in

the body. the body. • It dips down about half an inch into the vagina. It dips down about half an inch into the vagina. • It is normally plugged by mucus. It stays tightly It is normally plugged by mucus. It stays tightly

closed during pregnancy, but thins and opens for the closed during pregnancy, but thins and opens for the delivery of the baby.delivery of the baby.

• How big does it need to dilate to for birth? How big does it need to dilate to for birth?

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15. Vagina15. Vagina• Female organ used for intercourse, it is an Female organ used for intercourse, it is an

empty passageway leading from the vaginal empty passageway leading from the vaginal opening to the uterus. opening to the uterus.

• It is only 3-4 inches long, but will lengthen It is only 3-4 inches long, but will lengthen during arousal. during arousal.

• The vaginal walls are made of many small The vaginal walls are made of many small folds of membrane that stretch greatly to folds of membrane that stretch greatly to accommodate a baby during birth. accommodate a baby during birth.

• The vaginal wall also secrete a fluid that helps The vaginal wall also secrete a fluid that helps to make intercourse easier. to make intercourse easier.

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13. Urethra 13. Urethra

• The opening to the bladderThe opening to the bladder

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2. Clitoris2. Clitoris

• A small, pea shaped bump at the front of the A small, pea shaped bump at the front of the labia. labia.

• It contains a small amount of erectile tissue. It contains a small amount of erectile tissue. • The clitoris increases sexual pleasure The clitoris increases sexual pleasure

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3. ENDOMETRIUM

• The lining of the uterus.• During menstruation, it is what sloughs off.• During pregnancy it thickens and provide the

place of implantation for the fertilized ova.

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5. FERTILIZATION / Conception• The end purpose for the

ova and the sperm• When the sperm

penetrates the surface of the ova and enters inside.

• The 23 chromosomes from each sex cell combine and begin to multiply to begin to form a new human being!!!

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6. Menstrual Cycle and 7. 6. Menstrual Cycle and 7.

• Day 1 – Day 1 – MenstruationMenstruation begins (bleeding) begins (bleeding)• Day 1-5 – Bleeding Continues Day 1-5 – Bleeding Continues • Day 6-9 - Ovum is maturing and endometrium lining is thinDay 6-9 - Ovum is maturing and endometrium lining is thin• Day 10 – 14 - Endometrium lining thickens and hormones Day 10 – 14 - Endometrium lining thickens and hormones

rise. rise. – Around Day 14 – Ovum bursts out of the ovary Around Day 14 – Ovum bursts out of the ovary

• Day 15 – After 24 hours the egg is doneDay 15 – After 24 hours the egg is done

• Day 15-28 – Egg travels down to thickened lining and either Day 15-28 – Egg travels down to thickened lining and either is implanted or it dissolvesis implanted or it dissolves– Day 26 – In the absence of fertilization, hormone levels drop and Day 26 – In the absence of fertilization, hormone levels drop and

the endometrium lining breaks down the endometrium lining breaks down – Day 28 – Menstruation prepares to begin again. Day 28 – Menstruation prepares to begin again.

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During MenstruationDays 1-5

Menstruation occurs and the lining of the uterus, with a small amount of blood, leaves the body. At this time, another egg is maturing in the ovary.

The Menstrual Cycle

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After MenstruationDays 6-15

The lining of the uterus repairs itself and once again prepares for a fertilized egg. Around days 13-15 an egg is released from an ovary. This is called OVULATION

The Menstrual Cycle

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Before MenstruationDays 16-28

If the egg is fertilized by the male sperm cell, it embeds itself in the wall of the uterus (endometrium lining). If the egg is not fertilized, the blood vessels in the wall of the uterus shrinks and breaks down. The menstruation cycle begins again.

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Related Menstrual Terms• Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FHS): a substance which

brings to life a few of the ovum in one of the ovaries.• Luteinizing Hormone (LH): causes the follicle to burst, and

allows ovum to fall into the opening of the fallopian tube.• Ova –plural, Ovum—singular: the female reproductive cell.• Ovaries: organs holding a woman’s eggs.• Estrogen: the hormone responsible for secondary sex

characteristics and for the sex drive in females. The “egg producing” hormone.

• Progesterone: builds up the lining of the uterus to prepare it for the fertilized ovum.; the “egg-setting” hormone.

• Ovulation: time when the egg is released from the ovary.

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Other related concerns

• D&C: dilation and curettage, a common minor operation on women.

• Endometriosis: fragments of the endometrium in abnormal places.

• Orgasm: characterized by the massive release of muscle tension which has built up during excitement.

• Dysmenorrhea: painful mentruation• Hysterectomy: surgical removal of uterus.

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• Tubal Ligation: an operation for sterilization of women.

• PMS: premenstrual syndrome.

• Menstrual Cycle: the process of passing the blood and tissue lining of the uterus from the body.

• Toxic Shock Syndrome: caused by bacteria that live in the vagina, which then multiply and causes infection.

• Menopause: the remaining ova no longer ripen or develop.

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SEYMOUR and OLIVIA STORY

1. C2. B3. A4. F5. D6. I7. J8. E9. H

1. H2. B3. A4. C5. D6. K7. J8. G9. H10. F11. I