Macromolecules Traci

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    Macromolecules

    Building Complex Molecules

    That Comprise Living Things

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    Comparison of Terms

    Molecule Two or more atoms joined bychemical bonds

    Macromolecule Large polymer made of

    repeating monomer units

    Four types of organic macromolecules

    are important in living systems.

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    Macromolecules: Polymers

    Made of Repeating Monomers

    Macromolecule Monomer Unit

    Carbohydrates Sugars

    Lipids Fatty acids

    Proteins Amino acids

    Nucleic Acids Nucleotides

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    Organic Macromolecules

    Contain Carbon

    Each carbon atom can make four

    covalent bonds with other types of

    atoms or additional carbons.

    Question: How many

    electrons does carbon need

    to fill its outer energy level?

    Answer: Four

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    Carbohydrates: Functions

    Energy source

    Structural component

    Cell-cell communication

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    Carbohydrates: Dietary

    Recommendations

    58% of calories from carbohydrates

    No more than 10% of calories from simple,

    refined sugars Emphasize

    Complex Carbohydrates Starch

    Fiber (cellulose) Naturally-occurring simple carbohydrates

    Fructose from fruit

    Lactose from milk

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    Macronutrients As

    Energy Sources

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    Macromolecules: Polymers

    Made of Repeating Monomers

    Macromolecule Monomer Unit

    Lipids

    (fats, oils, waxes)

    Fatty acids

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    Lipids: Structure

    Triglyceridepredominant form in diet One molecule of glycerol

    Three fatty acids

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    Lipids: Structure Types of Fatty Acids

    Saturated 2H per internal carbon

    Unsaturated --

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    Lipids: Structure

    PolarHead Glycerol Fatty Acid Tails

    HydrophobicHydrophilic

    Phospholipidcomponent of cell membranes

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    Lipids: Functions

    Concentrated energy source Structural components of cell

    membranes

    Phospholipids Cholesterol

    Communication

    Steroid Hormones

    Protection from water

    WaxesCholesterol

    Phospholipids

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    Lipids: Dietary Recommendations

    < 30% of calories from lipids < 10% of calories from saturated fats

    Limit cholesterol to 300 mg/day

    Avoid trans fatty acids in partiallyhydrogenated products

    Emphasize

    Unsaturated fatty acids fromvegetables,fish, legumes,and nuts

    Oils: mono- or polyunsaturated

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    Macronutrients As

    Energy Sources

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    Macromolecules: Polymers

    Made of Repeating Monomers

    Macromolecule Monomer Unit

    Protein Amino acids

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    Proteins: Structure

    Amino

    Group

    The R Group

    Differs for Each Amino Acid

    Carboxylic Acid

    Group

    Alpha

    Carbon

    R

    Primary structure = chain of amino acids

    Amino acids have common features

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    Hair Curling

    |S|

    S|

    |S|

    S| |S

    |S

    |

    |S|S

    |

    |S|S

    |

    StraightHair NaturallyCurlyHair

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    Proteins: Functions

    Structural Component of Cells Control of Metabolic Reactions: enzymes

    Structure & support, bone & muscle

    Communication Protein Hormones

    Cell Receptors

    Energy source

    Protein

    Protein

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    Proteins: Dietary

    Recommendations

    12% of calories from proteins

    8 essential amino acids obtained

    from

    Lean sources of animal protein

    Complementary plant proteins Beans + Grains

    Beans + Seeds

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    Nucleic Acid: Functions

    Biological molecules essential for known formsof life on Earth.

    They include DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and

    RNA (ribonucleic acid).

    Together with proteins, nucleic acids are the

    most important biological macromolecules;each is found in abundance in all living things,

    where they function in encoding,

    transmitting and expressing genetic

    information.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moleculeshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RNAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macromoleculehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macromoleculehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RNAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecules
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    Nucleic Acid: Functions