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1793 LYNN THOMAS AND SKYRME FUND.-PUBLIC HEALTH AND POOR LAW. as to the desirability of such a directory or of the terms of the circular issued to medical practitioners he had no real ground for complaint. Information concerning this society can be obtained from the general secretary, Dr. Hugh Woods, 31, Craven-street, Strand, W.C. LYNN THOMAS AND SKYRME FUND. THE following subscriptions have been received between June 6th and 12th by Mr. William Sheen, M.S. Lond., F.R.O.S. Eng. (2, St. Andrew’s-crescent, Oardiff), honorary secretary to the fund..617 13.<. 6d. were received from the Westminster Division of the British Medical Association (per Mr. Harvey Hilliard). The subscribers are :- Subscribers of Five G1tineas. Cardiff Medical Society, per W. S. Sheffield Division B.M.A., Mem- Davies. bers per A. W. Forrest. Subscribers of Three Pounds Fifteen Shillings. Dumbarton and Argyll Division of the British Medical Association, per J. Ewing Hunter. Subscribers of Three Pounds Five Shillings and Sixpence. North Suffolk Division of the British Medical Association, per Wilson Tyson, the subscribers being:- Subscriber of Two Guineas. W. Ll. Rhys, Aberdare. Subscribers of One and a Balf Guineas. Cleveland Division of the British Medical Association, per W. S. Dickie. The subscribers a.re :&mdash; One G2inea from- James Donaldson, Middlesbrough. .S<t(/a a Guinea from- H. Stonehouse, Middlesbrough. Sicbscribers of One Pound Six Shillings. Walthamstow Division of the British Medical Association, per A. P. Eldred. The subscribers are :- Half-a-Gztinea from- A. Pollinger Eldred, Waltham- Trevor Fowler, Epping. stow. ) Five Shillings frona- K. Douglas, Walthamstow. Subscriber of One Guinea. H. Meredith Richards, Croydon. Subscribers of Half-a-Gttinea. Charles R. Watson, Tunbridge L. G. Davies, Histon, Cambridge. Wells. I Subscriber of Ten Shillings. Eldon Pratt, lienfield, Sussex. Subscriber of Seven Shillings. D. S. Ollenbach, Arnvankad, Nilgiri Hills, India. Subscribers of Five Shillings. Charles J. Hill Aitken, Barkley W. Stewart, Leith. West, Cape Colony. Warrington Infirmary. Subscriber of Half-a-Grown. Glasgow Southern Division of the British Medical Association, per John Stewart (additional subscription). Public Health and Poor Law. LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD. REPORTS OF MEDICAL OFFICERS OF SANITARY AND EDUCA- TION AUTHORITIES. The City of Yestnzinster.-Dr. F. J. Allan reports that for 1907 the birth-rate of Westminster, duly corrected as regards births occurring in lying-in and other hospitals and calcu- lated on the number of births per 1000 married, was the lowest in London, Hampstead being next. He refers to what appears to be a very useful arrangement made by the City of Westminster Health Society by means of which the society is furnished from time to time by the general and lying-in hospitals with a list of impending maternity cases. As the result of this information the visitors of the society have tendered advice at 401 houses prior to the commencement of the confinement and subsequently paid visits fortnightly, monthly, or quarterly, according to circumstances. These pre-natal visits are much to be commended and there can be no question that this plan of preventive medicine will undergo material development. In course of their work the visitors are brought in contact with mothers of different nation- alities and with reference to the Italian element which, as all Londoners are aware, is especially predominant in Soho, it is stated that the members of that community are usually of a respectable class and come from Piedmont ; they hope eventually to return to Italy. In London they live economically and, as a general rule, take in lodgers. The mothers keep their babies well and are an example to our- selves in the matter of pre-natal preparation. Cradles are always provided and breast-feeding is general. As regards the Soho Jews we are told that they come in the main from Poland and that their standard of living is a low one. They live in overcrowded conditions and keep their children in very hot rooms. Contrary to the viewpoint of the Italians, who hope to return to their native land, the Jews come to stay, their ambition being to rise to a better position. The children of the Jews are, we are told, spoiled by their parents who are devoted to them and they suffer more from too rich and highly spiced food than from actual want; suckling takes place for a longer period than is the case with English mothers. These comments on the part of the visitors are very interesting, but we should be glad to have the con- clusions commented upon by Dr. Allan, more especially those relating to the Jews. Some instructive statistics concerning dwellers in block buildings in Westminster are furnished by Dr. Allan. The total population referred to is about 1150, the birth-rate for the last three years having been no less than 52 1, the death-rate 16 5 per 1000, and the infantile mortality- rate 127 per 1000 births. Probably the age-constitution of the population, as Dr. Allan suggests, accounts for the high birth-rate-perhaps the buildings being new ones and under the control of the council have attracted the young and recently married. The figures are, indeed, useful as an illustration of statistical fallacies. Curiously, the next paragraph in the report illustrates what may be regarded as, in fact, another statistical fallacy. There were 96 deaths during 1907 among the inmates of common lodging-houses and shelters in Westminster. Of these deaths 31 were from pulmonary tuberculosis and 31 from other respiratory diseases. It might be inferred from this that common lodging-houses are a cause of consumption, but the real explanation is probably that the tuberculous become inmates because they are already tuberculous. Good results have followed the prosecutions in the case of the use of boric

LYNN THOMAS AND SKYRME FUND

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1793LYNN THOMAS AND SKYRME FUND.-PUBLIC HEALTH AND POOR LAW.

as to the desirability of such a directory or of the terms ofthe circular issued to medical practitioners he had no realground for complaint. Information concerning this societycan be obtained from the general secretary, Dr. Hugh Woods,31, Craven-street, Strand, W.C.

LYNN THOMAS AND SKYRME FUND.

THE following subscriptions have been received betweenJune 6th and 12th by Mr. William Sheen, M.S. Lond.,F.R.O.S. Eng. (2, St. Andrew’s-crescent, Oardiff), honorarysecretary to the fund..617 13.<. 6d. were received from theWestminster Division of the British Medical Association (perMr. Harvey Hilliard). The subscribers are :-

Subscribers of Five G1tineas.Cardiff Medical Society, per W. S. Sheffield Division B.M.A., Mem-Davies. bers per A. W. Forrest.

Subscribers of Three Pounds Fifteen Shillings.Dumbarton and Argyll Division of the British Medical Association,

per J. Ewing Hunter.Subscribers of Three Pounds Five Shillings and Sixpence.

North Suffolk Division of the British Medical Association, perWilson Tyson, the subscribers being:-

Subscriber of Two Guineas.W. Ll. Rhys, Aberdare.

Subscribers of One and a Balf Guineas.Cleveland Division of the British Medical Association, per

W. S. Dickie. The subscribers a.re :&mdash;

One G2inea from-James Donaldson, Middlesbrough.

.S<t(/a a Guinea from-H. Stonehouse, Middlesbrough.

Sicbscribers of One Pound Six Shillings.Walthamstow Division of the British Medical Association, per

A. P. Eldred. The subscribers are :-

Half-a-Gztinea from-A. Pollinger Eldred, Waltham- Trevor Fowler, Epping.stow. )

Five Shillings frona-K. Douglas, Walthamstow.Subscriber of One Guinea.

H. Meredith Richards, Croydon.

Subscribers of Half-a-Gttinea.Charles R. Watson, Tunbridge L. G. Davies, Histon, Cambridge.Wells. I

Subscriber of Ten Shillings.Eldon Pratt, lienfield, Sussex.

Subscriber of Seven Shillings.D. S. Ollenbach, Arnvankad, Nilgiri Hills, India.

Subscribers of Five Shillings.Charles J. Hill Aitken, Barkley W. Stewart, Leith.West, Cape Colony. Warrington Infirmary.

Subscriber of Half-a-Grown.Glasgow Southern Division of the British Medical Association, per

John Stewart (additional subscription).

Public Health and Poor Law.LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD.

REPORTS OF MEDICAL OFFICERS OF SANITARY AND EDUCA-TION AUTHORITIES.

The City of Yestnzinster.-Dr. F. J. Allan reports that for1907 the birth-rate of Westminster, duly corrected as regardsbirths occurring in lying-in and other hospitals and calcu-lated on the number of births per 1000 married, was thelowest in London, Hampstead being next. He refers to whatappears to be a very useful arrangement made by the City ofWestminster Health Society by means of which the societyis furnished from time to time by the general and lying-inhospitals with a list of impending maternity cases. As theresult of this information the visitors of the society havetendered advice at 401 houses prior to the commencement ofthe confinement and subsequently paid visits fortnightly,monthly, or quarterly, according to circumstances. These

pre-natal visits are much to be commended and there can beno question that this plan of preventive medicine will undergomaterial development. In course of their work the visitorsare brought in contact with mothers of different nation-alities and with reference to the Italian element which, asall Londoners are aware, is especially predominant in Soho,it is stated that the members of that community are usuallyof a respectable class and come from Piedmont ; they hopeeventually to return to Italy. In London they live

economically and, as a general rule, take in lodgers. Themothers keep their babies well and are an example to our-selves in the matter of pre-natal preparation. Cradles arealways provided and breast-feeding is general. As regardsthe Soho Jews we are told that they come in the main fromPoland and that their standard of living is a low one. Theylive in overcrowded conditions and keep their children in

very hot rooms. Contrary to the viewpoint of the Italians,who hope to return to their native land, the Jews come tostay, their ambition being to rise to a better position. Thechildren of the Jews are, we are told, spoiled by their parentswho are devoted to them and they suffer more from too richand highly spiced food than from actual want; sucklingtakes place for a longer period than is the case with Englishmothers. These comments on the part of the visitors are

very interesting, but we should be glad to have the con-clusions commented upon by Dr. Allan, more especially thoserelating to the Jews. Some instructive statistics concerningdwellers in block buildings in Westminster are furnished byDr. Allan. The total population referred to is about 1150, thebirth-rate for the last three years having been no less than52 1, the death-rate 16 5 per 1000, and the infantile mortality-rate 127 per 1000 births. Probably the age-constitution ofthe population, as Dr. Allan suggests, accounts for the highbirth-rate-perhaps the buildings being new ones and underthe control of the council have attracted the youngand recently married. The figures are, indeed, usefulas an illustration of statistical fallacies. Curiously, thenext paragraph in the report illustrates what may be

regarded as, in fact, another statistical fallacy. Therewere 96 deaths during 1907 among the inmates of commonlodging-houses and shelters in Westminster. Of thesedeaths 31 were from pulmonary tuberculosis and 31 fromother respiratory diseases. It might be inferred from thisthat common lodging-houses are a cause of consumption, butthe real explanation is probably that the tuberculous becomeinmates because they are already tuberculous. Good resultshave followed the prosecutions in the case of the use of boric