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Lymphatic System Questions sports excess fluid away from tissues and re he bloodstream. help defend the body against infections. hatic capillaries containing lymph ic vessels odes ic trunks ing ducts ead to the subclavian vein

Lymphatic System Questions 1. Transports excess fluid away from tissues and return it to the bloodstream. Also help defend the body against infections

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Page 1: Lymphatic System Questions 1. Transports excess fluid away from tissues and return it to the bloodstream. Also help defend the body against infections

Lymphatic System Questions1. Transports excess fluid away from tissues and returnit to the bloodstream.• Also help defend the body against infections.

2. Lymphatic capillaries containing lymphLymphatic vesselsLymph nodesLymphatic trunksCollecting ductsDucts lead to the subclavian vein

Page 2: Lymphatic System Questions 1. Transports excess fluid away from tissues and return it to the bloodstream. Also help defend the body against infections
Page 3: Lymphatic System Questions 1. Transports excess fluid away from tissues and return it to the bloodstream. Also help defend the body against infections

3. Subclavian vein4. Thymus and Spleen5. Water6. Filtering potentially harmful particles from the lymph before returning it to the bloodstream.

Monitoring of body fluids (immune surveillance)is provided by lymphocytes and macrophages.Lymphocytes will attack viruses and bacteria orparastic cells. Macrophages will engulf and destroy foreign substances, damaged cells and cellular debris.

Page 4: Lymphatic System Questions 1. Transports excess fluid away from tissues and return it to the bloodstream. Also help defend the body against infections

7. Nonspecific defense (Innate)are general and protect against many types of pathogens. They function in the same way.Includes:Species resistance, Mechanical barriers (skin andMucous membranes), Chemical barriers (Enzymes, Interferons), natural killer cells, inflammation, phagocytosis and fever.

Interferons – hormone like substances produced In response to viruses or tumor cells. Binds to uninfectedCells to stimulate them to synthesize proteins that willblock the replication of viruses.

Page 5: Lymphatic System Questions 1. Transports excess fluid away from tissues and return it to the bloodstream. Also help defend the body against infections

Specific defenses – They are very precise, targeting specific pathogens with immunity.Molecules that provide immunity are called antigens.During fetal development, red bone marrow release unspecialized cells that will become lymphocytes.Some will reach thymus and become T cells to be releasedlater.Other will remain in the red bone marrow to becomeB cells.(See further discussion on T and B cells in notes)

Page 6: Lymphatic System Questions 1. Transports excess fluid away from tissues and return it to the bloodstream. Also help defend the body against infections

8. Species resistance (A species or specific organismdevelops diseases that are unique to that specific species.)Mechanical barriers (Skin, mucous membranes)Chemical barriers (Enzymes, Interferon)Natural killer cellsInflammationPhagocytosisFever

9. First line of defense will prevent the entrance of someinfectious agents.Second line of defense provides a barrier inside the body once the infectious agents have entered or fightAnd destroy the agents inside the body.

Page 7: Lymphatic System Questions 1. Transports excess fluid away from tissues and return it to the bloodstream. Also help defend the body against infections

10. Cells inventory the proteins and other large molecules in the body learning to identify them.The lymphatic system then only respond to foreignantigens, but not ‘self’ antigens.This prevents the body against destroying itself.

11. T cells – provide immune response in which the T cellsinteract directly with the antigens or antigen bearing agents to destroy them

B cells – Interact indirectly – produce antibodies that will destroy the antigens or antigen bearing agents.

Page 8: Lymphatic System Questions 1. Transports excess fluid away from tissues and return it to the bloodstream. Also help defend the body against infections

12. Primary immune response:When B and T cells become activated after first encounteringantigens. During such a response antibodies are released, transported by the blood throughout the body where theydestroy antigen- bearing agents.

Secondary immune response:Some of the B cells after the primary immune response become dormant and serve as memory cells. If an identicalantigen is encountered in the future, it is recognized by the memory B cells and more antibodies are produced.

Page 9: Lymphatic System Questions 1. Transports excess fluid away from tissues and return it to the bloodstream. Also help defend the body against infections

Acquired immunity: Naturally - It develops after primary immune response to exposure to a livepathogen and development of symptoms. A child usually only suffers an infection like measlesmumps once in their life time.Vaccines – cause a person to develop artificialacquired active immunity.

Autoimmunity: The immune system fails to distinguish self from non-self and then produce antibodies that attack and damage the body’s tissues and organs.