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Lyme Disease

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  • 1. LYME DISEASE Ninfa Pe a-Purcell, PhD, CHES

2. Presentation Objectives

  • Define Lyme disease.
  • Describe what causes Lyme disease.
  • Describe symptoms and signs of Lyme disease.
  • Discuss ways to protect against Lyme disease.

3. What is Lyme disease?

  • Most common tick/insect-borne disease in the U.S.
  • A disease that can cause skin, joint, heart and nervous system problems.
  • Lyme disease can affect people of all ages.
  • Named after the town of Lyme, Connecticut where it was first described in 1976.

4. What causes Lyme disease?

  • Caused by a specialized type of bacteria called spirochete.
  • Transmitted by the bite of an infected tick or flea.Other insects that feed on animal blood may be involved.

5. Ticks that cause Lyme disease

  • Black-legged (or deer) tick: Transmits Lyme disease to humans.Found in north-central and northeastern U.S.
  • Lone star tick: Found in Texas and has been know to transmit Lyme disease.
  • Rocky Mountain tick:Can transmit Lyme disease as well as Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

6. Ticks that cause Lyme disease Black-legged Tick Lone Star Tick Rocky Mountain Tick 7.

  • Two stages of Lyme disease:
  • Stage 1 (Early stage) 3 to 30 days after bite.
    • Flu-like symptoms develop within 7 14 days.
    • Symptoms include fatigue, headache, fever and chills, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness and, a non-productive cough.
    • Skin lesion(s) may appear as a small red circular rash around the bite and expand.
    • Secondary skin rashes appear in nearly 80% of individuals with Lyme disease.

Lyme Disease: Signs and Symptoms 8. Lyme Disease Skin Rash

  • Multiple
  • Erythema
  • Migrans
  • (Skin rash)

9. Lyme Disease: Signs and Symptoms

  • Two stages of Lyme disease:
  • Stage II (Late) May occur weeks or months after the onset of Lyme disease.
    • Severe headache and neck pain or stiffness.
    • Arthritis will develop in 60% of patients weeks or months after infection (rarely more than 2 years).
    • Fifteen percent of people infected with Lyme disease develop neurological symptoms, including psychiatric problems.

10. Diagnosing Lyme Disease

  • Notify a doctor if you become ill after being bitten by a tick.
  • A diagnosis will be made based on clinical signs and symptoms and the results of a blood test.

11. Preventing Lyme Disease

  • Take protective measures when outdoors.
    • Wear light-colored clothing so that ticks can be easily seen.
    • Tuck pants into boots or socks.
    • Use a repellant containing DEET.
    • Walk in the center of trails, and avoid contact with high grass and brush at trail edges.
  • Keep pets free of ticks.

12. How to remove a tick

  • Use tweezers to grasp the tick at the surface of the skin.
  • If tweezers are not available, use a tissue toprotect your fingers. (Exposure to the ticks fluids may lead to transmission of the disease).
  • With a steady motion, pull the tick straight out.
  • After removing tick, disinfect the bite site, and wash hands with soap and water.

13. Other facts

  • Lyme disease cannot be transmitted person-to-person.
  • People being treated with antibiotics for Lyme disease should not donate blood. Scientists have found that the Lyme disease bacteria can live in blood stored for donation.
  • You cannot get Lyme disease from eating venison or squirrel meat.

14. Questions? 15. References

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2008). Lyme disease.Retrieved on March 18, 2008 from ncidod/dvbid/lyme/index.htm.
  • Texas Department of State Health Services (2005).Lyme disease.(No. 7-35). Austin, TX: Author.
  • Rawlings, J. (1999). Lyme Disease in Texas.Disease Prevention News 59(10) 1-4.