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LPI Linux Certification in a Nutshell - · PDF file LPI LINUX CERTIFICATION IN A NUTSHELL Third Edition Adam Haeder, Stephen Addison Schneiter, Bruno Gomes Pessanha, and James Stanger

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  • LPI LINUX CERTIFICATION

    IN A NUTSHELL

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  • LPI LINUX CERTIFICATION

    IN A NUTSHELL

    Third Edition

    Adam Haeder, Stephen Addison Schneiter, Bruno Gomes Pessanha, and James Stanger

    Beijing • Cambridge • Farnham • Köln • Sebastopol • Taipei • Tokyo

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  • LPI Linux Certification in a Nutshell, Third Edition by Adam Haeder, Stephen Addison Schneiter, Bruno Gomes Pessanha, and James Stanger

    Copyright © 2010 Adam Haeder, Stephen Addison Schneiter, Bruno Gomes Pessanha, and James Stanger. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

    Published by O’Reilly Media, Inc., 1005 Gravenstein Highway North, Sebastopol, CA 95472.

    O’Reilly books may be purchased for educational, business, or sales promotional use. Online editions are also available for most titles (http://my.safaribooksonline.com). For more infor- mation, contact our corporate/institutional sales department: 800-998-9938 or [email protected]

    Editor: Andy Oram Production Editor: Adam Zaremba Copyeditor: Genevieve d’Entremont Proofreader: Jennifer Knight

    Indexer: Jay Marchand Cover Designer: Karen Montgomery Interior Designer: David Futato Illustrator: Robert Romano

    Printing History: May 2001: First Edition. July 2006: Second Edition. June 2010: Third Edition.

    Nutshell Handbook, the Nutshell Handbook logo, and the O’Reilly logo are registered trade- marks of O’Reilly Media, Inc. LPI Linux Certification in a Nutshell, the image of a bull, and related trade dress are trademarks of O’Reilly Media, Inc.

    Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and O’Reilly Media, Inc. was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in caps or initial caps.

    While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and authors assume no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.

    TM

    This book uses RepKover™, a durable and flexible lay-flat binding.

    ISBN: 978-0-596-80487-9

    [M]

    1276182761

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  • Table of Contents

    Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

    1. LPI Exams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    2. Exam 101 Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Exam Preparation 5

    3. System Architecture (Topic 101.1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Objective 1: Determine and Configure Hardware Settings 7

    BIOS 7 USB Topology 10 USB Controllers 10 USB Devices 11 USB Drivers 11 USB Hotplug 12 Reporting Your Hardware 12 Manipulating Modules 14 Device Management Definitions 20

    4. Change Runlevels and Shut Down or Reboot System (Topics 101.2 and 101.3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Objective 2: Boot the System 21

    Boot-time Kernel Parameters 21 Introduction to Kernel Module Configuration 22

    Objective 3: Change Runlevels and Shut Down or Reboot System 24 Single-User Mode 25 Overview of the /etc Directory Tree and the init Process 26

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  • Setting the Default Runlevel 28 Determining Your System’s Runlevel 28

    5. Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Objective 1: Design a Hard Disk Layout 34

    System Considerations 34 Swap Space 37 General Guidelines 38

    Objective 2: Install a Boot Manager 38 LILO 39 GRUB 41

    Objective 3: Manage Shared Libraries 44 Shared Library Dependencies 44 Linking Shared Libraries 45

    Objective 4: Use Debian Package Management 46 Debian Package Management Overview 46 Managing Debian Packages 47

    Objective 5: Use Red Hat Package Manager (RPM) 52 RPM Overview 52 Running rpm 53 YUM Overview 58

    6. GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 103) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Objective 1: Work on the Command Line 64

    The Interactive Shell 65 Command History and Editing 71 Manpages 75

    Objective 2: Process Text Streams Using Filters 77 Objective 3: Perform Basic File Management 91

    Filesystem Objects 91 File-Naming Wildcards (File Globbing) 100

    Objective 4: Use Streams, Pipes, and Redirects 102 Standard I/O and Default File Descriptors 102 Pipes 103 Redirection 104 Using the tee Command 106 The xargs Command 106

    Objective 5: Create, Monitor, and Kill Processes 107 Processes 107 Process Monitoring 108 Signaling Active Processes 115 Terminating Processes 117 Shell Job Control 118

    Objective 6: Modify Process Execution Priorities 120 nice 120

    Objective 7: Search Text Files Using Regular Expressions 123

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  • Regular Expression Syntax 123 Using grep 125 Using sed 127 Examples 130

    Objective 8: Perform Basic File Editing Operations Using vi 135 Invoking vi 135 vi Basics 135

    7. Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 104) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Objective 1: Create Partitions and Filesystems 140

    Disk Drives Under Linux 140 Objective 2: Maintain the Integrity of Filesystems 151

    Monitoring Free Disk Space and Inodes 151 Monitoring Disk Usage 153 Modifying a Filesystem 154 Checking and Repairing Filesystems 157

    Objective 3: Control Filesystem Mounting and Unmounting 161 Managing the Filesystem Table 161 Mounting Filesystems 163 Unmounting Filesystems 166

    Objective 4: Set and View Disk Quotas 167 Quota Limits 168 Quota Commands 169 Enabling Quotas 175

    Objective 5: Manage File Permissions and Ownership 176 Linux Access Control 176 Setting Access Modes 181 Setting Up a Workgroup Directory 186

    Objective 6: Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Links 187 Why Links? 188

    Objective 7: Find System Files and Place Files in the Correct Location 192 Datatypes 193 The root Filesystem 194 Locating Files 200

    8. Exam 101 Review Questions and Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 System Architecture (Topic 101) 205

    Review Questions 205 Exercises 206

    Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102) 206 Review Questions 206 Exercises 207

    GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 103) 208 Review Questions 208 Exercises 208

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  • Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 104) 211

    Review Questions 211 Exercises 212

    9. Exam 101 Practice Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Questions 215 Answers 226

    10. Exam 101 Highlighter’s Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 System Architecture 229

    Objective 101.1: Determine and Configure Hardware Settings 229 Objective 101.2: Boot the System 230 Objective 101.3: Change Runlevels and Shut Down or Reboot System 230

    Linux Installation and Package Management 230 Objective 102.1: Design Hard Disk Layout 230 Objective 102.2: Install a Boot Manager 231 Objective 102.3: Manage Shared Libraries 231 Objective 102.4: Use Debian Package Management 232 Objective 102.5: Use Red Hat Package Manager (RPM) 232

    GNU and Unix Commands 232 Objective 103.1: Work on the Command Line 232 Objective 103.2: Process Text Streams Using Filters 233 Objective 103.3: Perform Basic File Management 235 Objective 103.4: Use Streams, Pipes, and Redirects 237 Objective 103.5: Create, Monitor, and Kill Processes 238 Objective 103.6: Modify Process Execution Priorities 239 Objective 103.7: Search Text Files Using Regular Expressions 239 Objective 103.8: Perform Basic File Editing Operations Using vi 241

    Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard 243 Objective 104.1: Create Partitions and Filesystems 243 Objective 104.2: Maintain the Integrity of Filesystems 244 Objective 104.3: Control Filesystem Mounting and Unmounting 244 Objective 104.4: Set and View Disk Quotas 246 Objective 104.5: Manage File Permissions and Ownership 246 Objective 104.6: Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Links 248 Objective 104.7: Find System Files and Place Files in the Correct Location 248

    11. Exam 102 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

    12. Exam 102 Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Exam Preparation 253

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  • 13. Shells, Scripting, and Data Management (Topic 105) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

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