LPG Caverns Storage

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LPG storage in Caverns is not a new concept.

Text of LPG Caverns Storage

LPG storing Methods

ROCK CAVERNS FOR LNGKamal Deshapriya

1

Going Underground 2270 yrs History.Up to second world war..First solution mined cavern in the Canada reportedly conceived in early 1940 3Underground Caverns in France

4Geogaz-Lavera- France

60000T storage facility for commercial propane -1971Storage facility for butane 85000T - 19845Geosel- Manosquesalt leached caverns

7.5 million m3 capacity- 19696Gas Caverns in US,48 regions7

LNG storage caverns in Ontario, Canada8

Sydney LPG Cavern

First natural underground storage facility in Australia135m under port botany in Sydney65000 MT of LPG storageCompleted in 1999

9Other CavernsYeosu Terminal-1983First Rock Cavern in KoreaIncheon LPG Cavern KoreaSarajeh in Iran- 2009, 16 billion tons of LNGShurijeh in Iran- 2009, 20 billion cubic meters of LNGQingdao facility China- 117000 T LPG capacity

10Other Caverns in South Asia11

Source: Report of Kim, Tae Moon, Advisor, The Korean Institute of Gas, Republic of KoreaVisakhapatnam -India

12Visakhapatnam -IndiaVisakhapatnam (Andra Pradesh)-200760000 MT LPG capacity for largest LPG terminal in indiaOwners are South Asia LPG company and Hindustan Petroleum CorporationDesign and consultancy by GEOSTOCK FranceProcessGeologicalHydro geologicalGeo mechanical designLARSEN & TOURBO Indian construction company

13Visakhapatnam IndiaSuitable sub soil stratum for cavernHard gneissic rock162 m below in sea levelTwo main caverns 19m in height , 20 m in width and 160 m in length connected with small galleriesReceive large tankersRe-exporting potential for south east Asia14Visakhapatnam IndiaConstruction stagesDiaphragm wall excavated from surface to 20m in sandy and unconsolidated rockShaft sinking in rock from -30m to -162mWater curtain gallery at boreholes at -147 mStorage cavern excavationInstallation of castings and tubing's in shaftsConstruction of concrete plug above the cavern

15Visakhapatnam IndiaAbove ground facilitiesTo receive largest size LPG vessels ( 40000T)LPG loading armsChilling and booster pumpsSeawater heat exchanger and pump houseMixing skid and a vapor ejector

1617Gas Cavern Storing Technology

Example of Rock Cavern constructed using road headers for top heading & blasting for benching followed by trimming by road headers. Cross section is 85 sq mSource : Geostock1818Flow of LPG Cavern Storage19

Cavern TechniquesMined CavernsLined Mined CavernsSalt-leached CavernPorous Media20Mined Caverns.21

Access Ramp (AR)Upper Connection (UC)Intermediate connection (IC)Upper Shaft Connection (USC)Access Shaft (AS)Operation Shaft (OS)Lower Shaft Connection (LSC)Water Gallery Operation Shaft Connection (WOC) Water Gallery Access Shaft Connection (WAC) Water Curtain Gallery (WCGSump which houses the submersible pumpsLower connection (LC)

The finished rock cavern for LPG at VisakhapatnamExample of an Underground Unlined Rock Cavern2222Salt DomeSalt Leached CavernsBoreholeWater injection Brine Several hundred metersTens of meters 2323AquifersImpermeable stratumPorous & Permeable Geological formationHydrocarbon Storage 2424Disused MinesWater table2525Caverns using vertical shafts for access26

Access Ramp (AR)Upper Connection (UC)Intermediate connection (IC)Upper Shaft Connection (USC)Access Shaft (AS)Operation Shaft (OS)Lower Shaft Connection (LSC)Water Gallery Operation Shaft Connection (WOC) Water Gallery Access Shaft Connection (WAC) Water Curtain Gallery (WCGSump which houses the submersible pumpsLower connection (LC)Source : Geostock

Example of cavern using a ramp for AccessInclined RampWater CurtainMain Storage Galleries Operation Shafts2727Rock CavernsDepth varies from 70m to 200m from ground..Size vary according to the geological conditionThere are two typesMined cavernsMined Lined cavernsFor Poor geological conditionPlastic or metal lining with concrete plaster mine surface

28Suitable Rocks for CavernsIgneous Granite, dioriteMetamorphicGneisisSchistshornfelsSedimentary rocksSandstoneLimestoneChalkshale29Tightness Principle30

Mined CavernsCavity created in rock using mining techniquesConsist one or more galleries excavated in rockUnlined Caverns, prevent product escape by hydraulic containment principleRock must be hard enough to cavern to be stable

31Cavern StabilityGood geology

Medium to bad geology32

Lined Rock CavernsThese types of storage facilities can be used for small or medium sized caverns. The lining can be steel or plastics. In the depths are large the linings have to be designed to counter the hydrostatic pressure or the can get Steel or plastic lining3333Over breaks and rock fallsOver breaks as shown can slow down progress to a large extent. Also a major safety issue.34Method of addressing poor rock conditionsTo ensure there is good stability of the cavern, rock bolts need to be installed and shortcrete applied. Poorer the rock strata, larger is the support requirement.Rock boltsShotcrete35Example of Poor Rock ConditionsLarge number of cracks and fissures in the rock could lead to large over breaks .and excessive supports36Example of a water bearing zone Water bearing zones could result in large water ingress if pre-grouting is not resorted to. The time taken up by grouting could delay excavation.37Pre-Grouting in excessive water bearing zonesPre-Grouting involves drilling a number of holes on the face and pumping cement paste under pressure into them till sealing is achieved. High permeability and water bearing strata could result in higher grouting and slow excavation progress.3838Mined Lined Caverns.39

40Gas Cavern ConstructionLPG Caverns to be constructed.41

Access Ramp (AR)Upper Connection (UC)Intermediate connection (IC)Upper Shaft Connection (USC)Access Shaft (AS)Operation Shaft (OS)Lower Shaft Connection (LSC)Water Gallery Operation Shaft Connection (WOC) Water Gallery Access Shaft Connection (WAC) Water Curtain Gallery (WCGSump which houses the submersible pumpsLower connection (LC)Process StepsPre- FeasibilityFeasibility study and site investigationProject decisionComplimentary site investigationBasic engineering DesignPermitting, Project financingContract awardConstructionFirst LPG import

42Codes of PracticesCAN/CSA Z341 Series -98 Storage of Hydrocarbons in Underground Formations43View of Construction Site- VishakaPatnam

44

44Shaft excavation

45Excavation Using Drill & Blast (For Hard Rock) Two Boom Jumbo (Used for drilling in hard rock)

46Excavation using Road Headers (For Soft Rock)

Road Headers (Used in case of soft to medium hard rock Limestone, Chalk etc)47

Equipment lowering through Shaft48Drilling & Blasting Method of Excavation

Holes are charged with explosives after drilling and controlled blasting carried outJumbo used for drilling holes in rock4949

PullDrilling & Blasting Method of Excavation

5050Drilling in water gallery

51Drilling of bench 1

52Drilling of top Heading

53

Example of Rock Cavern constructed using road headers for top heading & blasting for benching followed by trimming by road headers. Cross section is 85 sq mSource : Geostock5454Operating Shaft55

Concrete plug in operation shaft

56Surface InstallationsProduct injection and withdrawalGas recirculation compressorSeepage water degassing before disposal (Water treatment plant)Refrigeration systemGas heating system

57

Surface Installations58Sea Water Heat Exchanger59

Sea Water Intake60

Caverns on Surface Storages..61

61Storage capacityCost/ m3 of storage Caverns in less favorable geological conditionsCaverns in favorable geological conditionsLower Marginal Costs For larger volumes 6262Caverns Vs. Others in 2000VolumeCost in USD/ Cu.mLeached Salt Caverns100-200Rock Mined Caverns10, 000800-120050,000340-580100,000300-500500,000180-280Mounded Storage2000-4000800-1600Pressurized Spheres600-800Refrigerated Tanks600-80063Source: Report of Kim, Tae Moon, Advisor, The Korean Institute of Gas, Republic of KoreaFor All VolumesFor All VolumesFor All VolumesAdvantages of going underground

Beyond certain capacities, the capital cost per ton of storage is low.Product is located at a depth and is fully isolated.External Fires will not affect StorageMaximum security. Safety hazards on account of sabotage, storms, earthquakes and explosions are minimized.Surface land requirement is lowCaverns by their very nature require very low maintenance.Environment benefits. The rock debris generated can be used for infrastructure development.Longer life64DisadvantagesTime consuming constructionContinuous monitoring required with sufficient staff for operationMoisture contaminationCritical, expensive temperature controlInefficient heating and coolingGas Cushion and working volume65LPG Caverns for Hambanthota.66

Tips from Geology Of Sri Lanka..Sri Lanka is Part of a Shield area which includes Peninsular IndiaIland along with peninsular India is part of a segment of the earth crust made up of an ancient crystalline complex sufficiently rigid to withstand crustal movements and thus has remained in inflexible land mass.67Source: Science Education Series, No 17, by L.J.D. Fernando. NERD, 198668

Special Credits for Geostock, France