Losses in cassava and maize value chains in Nigeria and ... and their ecological footprint ... Value Chains and Challenges Cassava: ... The production of gari,

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    Losses in cassava and maize value chains in

    Nigeria and their ecological footprint

    Study in Kaduna State and Ondo State

    Presented by Dr. Heike Ostermann

    Food Security Center in Dialogue

    University of Hohenheim


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    Background on food losses and waste

    Growing concern about

    rising food prices,

    rising land rents and

    limited natural resources for food and non-food biomass production,

    overuse of natural resources.

    Significance of the losses and waste according to FAO:

    One third of the agricultural production, equivalent to 1.3 billion tons/year.

    Important environmental burden of food losses and waste on

    natural resources

    Political goal of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development

    (BMZ) laid down in Ten Points Program for Rural Development and Food Security :

    Promote better post-harvest protection of agricultural crops

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    FAO 2011

    Global food losses and food waste

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    Steps of the food value chain

    1) Agricultural production: losses due to mechanical damage and/or spillage during

    harvest operation, crops sorted out after harvest, etc.

    2) Postharvest handling and storage: including losses due to spillage and

    degradation during handling, storage and transportation between farm and


    3) Processing: including losses due to spillage and degradation during industrial or

    domestic processing, e.g. juice production, canning and bread baking. Losses may

    occur when crops are sorted out if not suitable to process or during washing, peeling,

    slicing and boiling or during process interruptions and accidental spillage.

    4) Distribution: including losses and waste in the market system, at e.g. wholesale

    markets, supermarkets, retailers and wet markets.

    5) Consumption: including losses and waste during consumption at the household


    Our study encompasses steps 1 - 4



  • Page 5 Sektorvorhaben Nachhalt ige Landwirtschaft 22.10.2013

    Sector Project Sustainable Agriculture - a short introduction -

  • Page 6 Sektorvorhaben Nachhalt ige Ressourcennutzung in der Landwirtschaft 22.10.2013

    Thematic priorities

    Sustainable production systems

    Genetical resources in agriculture

    Renewable raw materials

    Soil conservation

    Water in agriculture

    Post harvest losses

    Sustainable lifestock production

    Cross sectoral topics

    Agricultural extension and training

    Climate change


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    Stakeholder analysis

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    Value Chains and Challenges

    Cashews: inadequate harvest- and postharvest practices

    Fruits and cereals: losses during harvest, storage, transport, no access to


    Vegetables (tomatoes, onions ): seed quality, transport, no access to


    Rice: lack of drying-opportunities, postharvest losses during threshing and

    drying, rodent damage, outdated mills

    Sesame: high quality standard, lack of effective producer organisations,


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    Value Chains and Challenges

    Cassava: losses during post-harvest handling, no access to markets

    Maize: losses due to excess moisture and subsequent diseases (e.g.

    Aflatoxine), prostephanus trunctatus (larger grain borer), no access to


    Cacao: losses through bad fermentation and drying methods

    Natural rubber: quality problems due to inadequate and outdated harvest-

    techniques, lack of qualified labour

    Coffee: quality problems due to inadequate harvest- and postharvest

    techniques, high transport costs

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    Assessment of existing experience



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    Food losses study Study layout

    State Ondo Kaduna Total

    Local government area Ifedore Akure


    Lere Gema

    Maize farmers 50 50 50 50 200

    Cassava farmers 50 50 50 50 200

    Gari processors 10 10 5 5 30

    Maize grain marketers 2 2 10 10 24

    Fresh cassava tuber marketers 10 10 5 5 30

    Feed millers 6 2 8

    Cassava starch processors 15 10 25

    Total 517

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    Products considered


    cultivated in the forest, derived savannah and southern Guinea savannah

    zones of Nigeria

    cultivated either as a sole or mixed crop

    harvested either as green maize or maize grain

    major end-users of maize are feed for poultry and aquaculture industry and

    flour mills for human consumption

    the study focused on maize feed

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    cultivated either as a sole crop or mixed with other crops

    production of cassava is spread across all Nigerias agro-ecological zones

    mostly processed and sold as traditional food especially Gari

    Gari is a creamy white, partially gelatinised, roasted, free flowing granular flour

    with a slightly fermented and sour flavour.

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    Losses along the value chain of cassava

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    Losses along the value chain of maize

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    Monetary estimation of losses in

    cassava and maize

    cassava: 139,996,245,788 Naira (rd. 644 Mio. EUR) per year

    maize: 120,404,546,110 Naira (rd. 590 Mio. EUR) per year

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    Options for food loss reduction

    appropriate technology

    cassava: harvesting, peeling, storage, grading and milling

    maize: bagging, transportation and storage (hygiene)

    Organisation of farmers and the value chain

    access to credit

    out-grower schemes with harvesting, collection and transportation of

    fresh cassava tubers by processors,

    small-scale pre-processing centres located among clusters of cassava

    farmers and/or farming communities

    improved market infrastructure

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    Standards for handling and processing

    Detailed cost-benefit analysis to do the right investment decisions

    human capacity development on all levels: farmer, marketer, processor,


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    The ecological footprint

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    Agricultural data:

    Use of agricultural chemicals

    Complete modeling of field emissions

    Cropping system



    Energy use

    Water use

    Main indicators:

    Global warming potential

    Water footprint

    Land occupation


  • Page 21 Dr. Heike Ostermann, Sector Project Sustainable Agriculture

  • Page 22 Dr. Heike Ostermann, Sector Project Sustainable Agriculture

  • Page 23

    Water Deprivation














    Upstream supply + Processing













    Maize feed

    Upstream supply

  • Page 24 Dr. Heike Ostermann, Sector Project Sustainable Agriculture

  • Page 25 Dr. Heike Ostermann, Sector Project Sustainable Agriculture

  • Page 26 Dr. Heike Ostermann, Sector Project Sustainable Agriculture

  • Page 27 Dr. Heike Ostermann, Sector Project Sustainable Agriculture

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    The production of gari, cassava starch and maize feed has a significant

    environmental impact

    mainly caused by agricultural cultivation

    processing is relevant with regard to water consumption in starch processing

    and energy consumption

    The CF of cassava is still in range but higher than values for more

    industrialized cultivation in other regions. A reason for that has to be

    searched in the low yields reported in Oguntade 2012.

    Losses in cassava and maize value chains occur mostly at farm gate

    and during different phases of storage

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    These losses have a significant environmental footprint

    Emissions of 2.3 million tons of CO2 equivalents to the atmosphere (emissions

    of 4 million Nigerians) representing 3,3 % of the total GHG emissions in


    21% of cultivated land is wasted (area under cassava and maize cultivation)

    Water deprivation is not likely to be the environmental issue of most

    concern, since cassava is cultivated under a rainfed regime

    Nevertheless losses along the cassava and maize value chain potentially

    could serve the water needs of around 150000 people (UNESCO: 50l per

    person and day are needed to ensure their basic need)

    Reduction of biodiversity, which is linked to the above impacts

    Data insecurity about food losses remains a problem in many regions

    Further investigation, validation of the numbers generated so far and more

    details are needed

  • Page 30

    Excurs: FAO study on g