Upload
vuongdang
View
222
Download
2
Embed Size (px)
LONDON MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY STUDENT TEXTS
Managing Editor: Professor D. Benson,Department of Mathematics, University of Aberdeen, UK
42 Equilibrium states in ergodic theory, GERHARD KELLER43 Fourier analysis on finite groups and applications, AUDREY TERRAS44 Classical invariant theory, PETER J. OLVER45 Permutation groups, PETER J. CAMERON47 Introductory lectures on rings and modules. JOHN A. BEACHY48 Set theory, ANDRÁS HAJNAL & PETER HAMBURGER. Translated by ATTILA MATE49 An introduction to K-theory for C*-algebras, M. RØRDAM, F. LARSEN & N. J.
LAUSTSEN50 A brief guide to algebraic number theory, H. P. F. SWINNERTON-DYER51 Steps in commutative algebra: Second edition, R. Y. SHARP52 Finite Markov chains and algorithmic applications, OLLE HÄGGSTRÖM53 The prime number theorem, G. J. O. JAMESON54 Topics in graph automorphisms and reconstruction, JOSEF LAURI & RAFFAELE
SCAPELLATO55 Elementary number theory, group theory and Ramanujan graphs, GIULIANA DAVIDOFF,
PETER SARNAK & ALAIN VALETTE56 Logic, induction and sets, THOMAS FORSTER57 Introduction to Banach algebras, operators and harmonic analysis, GARTH DALES et al.58 Computational algebraic geometry, HAL SCHENCK59 Frobenius algebras and 2-D topological quantum field theories, JOACHIM KOCK60 Linear operators and linear systems, JONATHAN R. PARTINGTON61 An introduction to noncommutative Noetherian rings: Second edition, K. R. GOODEARL &
R. B. WARFIELD, JR62 Topics from one-dimensional dynamics, KAREN M. BRUCKS & HENK BRUIN63 Singular points of plane curves, C. T. C. WALL64 A short course on Banach space theory, N. L. CAROTHERS65 Elements of the representation theory of associative algebras I, IBRAHIM ASSEM, DANIEL
SIMSON & ANDRZEJ SKOWRONSKI66 An introduction to sieve methods and their applications, ALINA CARMEN COJOCARU &
M. RAM MURTY67 Elliptic functions, J. V. ARMITAGE & W. F. EBERLEIN68 Hyperbolic geometry from a local viewpoint, LINDA KEEN & NIKOLA LAKIC69 Lectures on Kähler geometry, ANDREI MOROIANU70 Dependence logic, JOUKU VÄÄNÄNEN71 Elements of the representation theory of associative algebras II, DANIEL SIMSON &
ANDRZEJ SKOWRONSKI72 Elements of the representation theory of associative algebras III, DANIEL SIMSON &
ANDRZEJ SKOWRONSKI73 Groups, graphs and trees, JOHN MEIER74 Representation theorems in Hardy spaces, JAVAD MASHREGHI75 An introduction to the theory of graph spectra, DRAGOŠ CVETKOVIC, PETER
ROWLINSON & SLOBODAN SIMIC76 Number theory in the spirit of Liouville, KENNETH S. WILLIAMS77 Lectures on profinite topics in group theory, BENJAMIN KLOPSCH, NIKOLAY NIKOLOV
& CHRISTOPHER VOLL78 Clifford algebras: an introduction, D. J. H. GARLING79 Introduction to compact Riemann surfaces and dessins d’enfants, ERNESTO GIRONDO &
GABINO GONZÁLEZ-DIEZ80 The Riemann hypothesis for function fields, MACHIEL VAN FRANKENHUIJSEN81 Number theory, Fourier analysis and geometric discrepancy, GIANCARLO TRAVAGLINI
www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-10799-1 - Finite Geometry and Combinatorial ApplicationsSimeon BallFrontmatterMore information
www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-10799-1 - Finite Geometry and Combinatorial ApplicationsSimeon BallFrontmatterMore information
London Mathematical Society Student Texts 82
Finite Geometry and CombinatorialApplications
SIMEON BALLUniversitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona
www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-10799-1 - Finite Geometry and Combinatorial ApplicationsSimeon BallFrontmatterMore information
University Printing House, Cambridge CB2 8BS, United Kingdom
Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge.
It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit ofeducation, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence.
www.cambridge.orgInformation on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107107991
© Simeon Ball 2015
This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exceptionand to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,no reproduction of any part may take place without the written
permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published 2015
Printed in the United States of America by Sheridan Books, Inc.
A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication dataBall, Simeon (Simeon Michael)
Finite geometry and combinatorial applications / Simeon Ball,Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona.
pages cm. – (London Mathematical Society student texts ; 82)Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-107-10799-1 (Hardback : alk. paper) –ISBN 978-1-107-51843-8 (Paperback : alk. paper)
1. Finite geometries. 2. Combinatorial analysis. I. Title.QA167.2.B35 2015
516′.11–dc23 2015009563
ISBN 978-1-107-10799-1 HardbackISBN 978-1-107-51843-8 Paperback
Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy ofURLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication,
and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain,accurate or appropriate.
www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-10799-1 - Finite Geometry and Combinatorial ApplicationsSimeon BallFrontmatterMore information
Contents
Preface page ixNotation xi
1 Fields 11.1 Rings and fields 11.2 Field automorphisms 61.3 The multiplicative group of a finite field 91.4 Exercises 10
2 Vector spaces 152.1 Vector spaces and subspaces 152.2 Linear maps and linear forms 172.3 Determinants 192.4 Quotient spaces 202.5 Exercises 21
3 Forms 253.1 σ -Sesquilinear forms 253.2 Classification of reflexive forms 273.3 Alternating forms 303.4 Hermitian forms 343.5 Symmetric forms 383.6 Quadratic forms 403.7 Exercises 47
4 Geometries 514.1 Projective spaces 514.2 Polar spaces 544.3 Quotient geometries 60
v
www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-10799-1 - Finite Geometry and Combinatorial ApplicationsSimeon BallFrontmatterMore information
vi Contents
4.4 Counting subspaces 614.5 Generalised polygons 654.6 Plücker coordinates 714.7 Polarities 744.8 Ovoids 764.9 Exercises 83
5 Combinatorial applications 935.1 Groups 935.2 Finite analogues of structures in real space 995.3 Codes 1055.4 Graphs 1095.5 Designs 1145.6 Permutation polynomials 1175.7 Exercises 120
6 The forbidden subgraph problem 1246.1 The Erdos–Stone theorem 1246.2 Even cycles 1256.3 Complete bipartite graphs 1306.4 Graphs containing no K2,s 1326.5 A probabilistic construction of graphs containing no Kt,s 1346.6 Graphs containing no K3,3 1356.7 The norm graph 1376.8 Graphs containing no K5,5 1406.9 Exercises 144
7 MDS codes 1477.1 Singleton bound 1477.2 Linear MDS codes 1487.3 Dual MDS codes 1517.4 The MDS conjecture 1527.5 Polynomial interpolation 1547.6 The A-functions 1557.7 Lemma of tangents 1577.8 Combining interpolation with the lemma of tangents 1627.9 A proof of the MDS conjecture for k � p 1647.10 More examples of MDS codes of length q + 1 1657.11 Classification of linear MDS codes of length q + 1 for
k � p 1677.12 The set of linear forms associated with a linear MDS code 172
www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-10799-1 - Finite Geometry and Combinatorial ApplicationsSimeon BallFrontmatterMore information
Contents vii
7.13 Lemma of tangents in the dual space 1747.14 The algebraic hypersurface associated with a linear
MDS code 1777.15 Extendability of linear MDS codes 1827.16 Classification of linear MDS codes of length q + 1 for
k < c√
q 1847.17 A proof of the MDS conjecture for k < c
√q 189
7.18 Exercises 189
Appendix A Solutions to the exercises 191A.1 Fields 191A.2 Vector spaces 200A.3 Forms 206A.4 Geometries 213A.5 Combinatorial applications 229A.6 The forbidden subgraph problem 233A.7 MDS codes 238
Appendix B Additional proofs 242B.1 Probability 242B.2 Fields 243B.3 Commutative algebra 247
Appendix C Notes and references 263C.1 Fields 263C.2 Vector spaces 264C.3 Forms 264C.4 Geometries 264C.5 Combinatorial applications 266C.6 The forbidden subgraph problem 269C.7 MDS codes 270C.8 Appendices 271
References 272Index 282
www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-10799-1 - Finite Geometry and Combinatorial ApplicationsSimeon BallFrontmatterMore information
www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-10799-1 - Finite Geometry and Combinatorial ApplicationsSimeon BallFrontmatterMore information
Preface
This book is essentially a text book that introduces the geometrical objectswhich arise in the study of vector spaces over finite fields. It advances rapidlythrough the basic material, enabling the reader to consider the more interestingaspects of the subject without having to labour excessively. There are over ahundred exercises which contain a lot of content not included in the text. Thisshould be taken into consideration and even though one may not wish to try tosolve the exercises themselves, they should not be ignored. There are detailedsolutions provided to all the exercises.
The first four chapters treat the algebraic and geometric aspects of finite vec-tor spaces. The following three chapters consist of combinatorial applications.There is a chapter containing a brief treatment of applications to groups, realgeometry, codes, graphs, designs and permutation polynomials. Then there is achapter that gives a more in-depth treatment of applications to extremal graphtheory, specifically the forbidden subgraph problem, and then a chapter onmaximum distance separable codes.
This book is self-contained in the sense that any theorem or lemma whichis subsequently used is proven. The only exceptions to this are Bombieri’s the-orem and the Huxely–Iwaniec theorem concerning the distribution of primes,which are used in the chapter on the forbidden subgraph problem, the Hasse–Weil theorem, which is used to bound the number of points on a plane algebraiccurve at the end of the chapter on maximum distance separable codes, andHilbert’s Nullstellensatz, which is used in the appendix on commutative alge-bra. Although there are almost no prerequisites, it would be helpful to havestudied previously some basic algebra and linear algebra, since otherwise thefirst couple of chapters may appear somewhat brief. There are some theoremsthat are quoted without proof, but in all cases these appear at the end of somebranch and are not built upon. There are some theorems whose proof appears
ix
www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-10799-1 - Finite Geometry and Combinatorial ApplicationsSimeon BallFrontmatterMore information
x Preface
in Appendix B. This is done when the proof of some particular theorem mayinterrupt the flow of the book.
How to use this book if . . .. . . you are not teaching a course. For many readers a lot of the material in
Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 will be familiar. However, some of the exercises, thoserelating to latin squares, semifields and spreads, may not be and are, althoughnot generally essential, at least relevant to what appears in later chapters. Forthis reason they should not be overlooked. There is no need to read all thedetails of Chapter 3. It is enough to read as far as Theorem 3.6, choose one ofthe σ -sesquilinear forms to consider in more detail and Section 3.6. The centralchapters of the book are Chapter 4 and Chapter 5.
. . . you are teaching a course. This book is not structured as lecture notes.However, there is plenty of material to plan a course, even within a pre-established syllabus. Note that a lot of the material is contained in exercisesthat, since the solutions are provided, can be explained as theorems in class.One could teach the following course.
(1) Latin squares. Definition and exercises from Chapter 1 and use these lec-tures to (re-)introduce the student to finite fields.
(2) Affine planes. Exercises in Chapter 4, use some as theorems and leave therest as exercises.
(3) Projective planes. Text and exercises in Chapter 4, introducing example ofPG2(Fq) and Desargues’ theorem.
(4) Projective spaces. Use Chapter 4.(5) Polar spaces. Sketch classification of σ -sesquilinear forms, i.e. Chapter 3
as far as Theorem 3.6 and sketch Section 3.6. Then Theorem 4.3.(6) Quotient spaces. Section 4.3 and Section 4.4.(7) Generalised polygons. Section 4.5.(8) Ovals and ovoids. Section 4.8 and include Segre’s theorem, Theorem 4.38.
One could then pick and choose from Chapter 5 and maybe Chapter 6.Although it may be disheartening to see a full set of solutions, many of theexercises can be easily adapted so that exercise sheets, which do not havesolutions, can be compiled if necessary.
By no means do I consider the contents of this book to be an unbiased viewof what finite geometry is. There are aspects of the subject that I have barelytouched upon and some I have not mentioned at all. I have stuck, in the mainpart, to that which is of interest to me and that I feel confident enough to writeabout.
www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-10799-1 - Finite Geometry and Combinatorial ApplicationsSimeon BallFrontmatterMore information
Notation
C the complex numbers.char(F) the characteristic of the field F.det(u1, . . . , uk) the determinant of the matrix whose ijth entry is the
jth coordinate of ui with respect to a canonical basis.ex(n, H) the maximum number of edges a graph G with n vertices
can have that contains no H as a subgraph.E(X) the expectation of a random variable X.Fq the finite field with q elements.Fix(σ ) the subfield fixed by the automorphism σ of a field.gcd(a, b) the greatest common divisor of two positive integers a
and b.In the n × n identity matrix.im(α) the image of the linear map α.ker(α) the kernel of the linear map α.Hk−1(F) the hermitian polar space of rank r, where k = 2r or
k = 2r + 1.N the set of positive integers.Normσ the norm map from a field to the subfield Fix(σ ).PGk−1(F) the (k − 1)-dimensional projective space over F.Q+
k−1(F) the hyperbolic polar space of rank r, where k = 2r.Qk−1(F) the parabolic polar space of rank r, where k = 2r + 1.Q−
k−1(F) the elliptic polar space of rank r, where k = 2r + 2.R the real numbers.Sym(n) the symmetric group of permutations on the set {1, . . . , n}.Trσ the trace map from a field to the subfield Fix(σ ).〈u1, . . . , ur〉 the subspace spanned by the vectors u1, . . . , ur.U1 + · · · + Ur the sum of subspaces U1, . . . , Ur.
xi
www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-10799-1 - Finite Geometry and Combinatorial ApplicationsSimeon BallFrontmatterMore information
xii Notation
U1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Ur the direct sum of subspaces U1, . . . , Ur.U⊥ the orthogonal subspace of a subspace U, defined with
respect to some σ -sesquilinear form.V( f ) the algebraic variety defined by the polynomial f .Vk(F) the k-dimensional vector space over F.Wk−1(F) the symplectic polar space of rank r, where k = 2r.Z the set of integers.
www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-10799-1 - Finite Geometry and Combinatorial ApplicationsSimeon BallFrontmatterMore information