Hapkido / Taekwondo Manual1
History of Hapkido As with most martial arts, the history of Hapkido, is shrouded in mystery and controversy. Lack of original records, hearsay, anecdotes, politics, egos, and ravages of time all but ensure sketchy and biased accounts of the origin of this martial art. Over the past 2000 years the Korean people have developed several fighting systems and martial disciplines, which have evolved into modern TaeKwonDo, Tang Soo Do, Hapkido, Kook Sook, Hwa Rang Do and others. Hundreds of years of trade, war, occupation and exchange between Korea and its neighbors, China and Japan, has resulted in cross-pollination, mutual influence and blending of styles and techniques. It is now virtually impossible to state with certainty which techniques are truly Korean, Chinese or Japanese in origin. Hapkido was founded by Choi Yong Sool (1904-1986). Reportedly he developed the system by combining native Korean fighting methods with Japanese Daito Ryu Aiki-Ju Jitsu. Choi had learned that system from its Headmaster Sokaku Takeda while living in Japan from 1915-1945. After his return to Korea, Choi started teaching Self Defense (Yawara) in TaeGue City. He initially called his system Yu Kwon Sool. One of Chois senior students, Ji Han-Jae, claims to have been the first to introduce the name Hapkido in Seoul in 1957. However, this is strongly disputed by Chois first student and mentor, Prof. Suh Bok Sup, who claims that he and Choi were already using the word Hapkido when they opened their first dojang (school) in 1951. Some traditional instructors claim that Hapkido contains over 3600 techniques, including as many as 120 different kicks. However, Prof. Suh Bok Sup, who was Chois first and employer, disputes this and asserts that the original Hapkido system as2
taught by Choi was comprised of only 100 self defense techniques. Nowadays there are many styles of Hapkido as well as over a dozen associations / governing bodies. Some styles have produced forms (Hyung) and require them for advancement; others emphasize high kicking (including jumping and flying kicks); still others, heavily influenced by Judo and Aikido, emphasize throwing skills. The word Hapkido is made up of three distinct words. As you will see, each word has a few different meanings. HAP, which means to coordinate, to combine, to unite, to join; KI, which means internal power, dynamic energy; DO, which means the way
The word Taekwondo is made up of three distinct words. As you will see, each word has a few different meanings. TAE, which means foot; KWON, which means fist; DO, which means the way
Universal Theories of Hapkido The three universal theories of Hapkido are: The Water Principle (Yu), which teaches the student to penetrate the defenses of the attacker by flowing in, over, around or under. The Circular Motion Principle (Won), which teaches the student how to gain and impart momentum by moving in a circular manner. By redirecting the attack in a circular direction the student controls the balance and the kinetic energy of the attacker. The Non-resistance (or Harmony) Principle (Hwa), which teaches the student to remain relaxed, flexible (not tense) and not to meet force with force.
The Founder of Combat Hapkido Grandmaster John Pellegrini is the Founder and President of the International Combat Hapkido Federation and the Independent Taekwondo Association. With over 35 years of Martial Arts study and research in Europe, the U.S. and Asia, he is recognized as one of the foremost experts and leading authority on Self Defense. His superior teaching skills and technical knowledge have earned him the highest reputation worldwide.
Combat Hapkido In 1990 Grandmaster Pellegrini officially named his style of Hapkido, Combat Hapkido (Chon-Tu Kwan Hapkido in Korean). The name clearly identifies it and sets it apart from other so called traditional styles of Hapkido. It is also referred to as the Science of Self-Defense. Combat Hapkido is an extremely realistic and versatile discipline of self protection that includes and extensive variety of joint locks, kicks, strikes, take downs, pressure points, grappling, and disarming techniques. The result is a comprehensive Self Defense system enjoyable to learn, safe to practice and most of all, totally effective. Combat Hapkidos dynamic concepts are based on scientific principles of anatomy and biomechanics as well as psychology and strategy. It is well suited for men and women of all ages and sizes because physical strength and athletic abilities are not essential. The emphasis is on redirecting the assailants aggression and power back toward them with little effort and minimum force on your part.
Combat Hapkido Accreditation Grandmaster Pellegrini first received unofficial approval for Combat Hapkido by Grandmaster In Sun Seo while training with him in Pusan, Korea in 1993. After six years of monitoring and supervision, Grandmaster In Sun Seo granted Combat Hapkido official recognition and Kwan accreditation in March of 1999. This unprecedented act established Combat Hapkido as a legitimate style of Hapkido, registered with the World Ki-Do Federation and recognized by the Korean Government. The official Korean name for the system is Chon-Tu Kwan Hapkido. The ceremony of official recognition was held in Boca Raton, Florida on March 27th of 1999. Grandmaster Pellegrini was presented with the official certificate of approval by the World KiDo Federation / Korea Ki-Do Association.
The ICHF Logo The ICHF logo reflects the philosophy of the ICHF by bringing together the rich heritage of the Orient with that of Western civilization. The red and blue symbol (commonly referred to as the Ying / Yang) is the Korean Taeguek (Um / Yang) and it represents the foundation of Oriental thought, wisdom and philosophy. In the ICHF logo it acknowledges our roots and connection to Korean martial arts. For many centuries, in Western culture, the lion has been used as a majestic symbol of strength, courage, freedom and leadership. These attributes are at the core of everything the ICHF embodies and represents. The Oriental symbol at the bottom of the logo is the Korean character for Ki which symbolizes life energy, an indispensable element for understanding Hapkido.
The ITA Logo The red and blue symbol (commonly referred to as the Ying / Yang) is the Korean Taeguek (Um / Yang) and it represents the foundation of Oriental thought, wisdom and philosophy. In the ITA logo it acknowledges our roots and connection to Korean martial arts. The Oriental symbols in the middle of the logo is the Korean characters for Tae Kwon Do.
The Liberty Martial Arts Logo The red and blue symbol in the center symbolizes our schools practice and heritage of the Korean martial arts. The lion head represents the Lion of Judah.
The Korean National Flag
The Korean National Flag, the symbol of the Republic of Korea South Korea, is named "T'aegukki." The name was derived from the taeguk circle in the center. The circle is divided equally and in perfect balance. The red upper section represents the yang and the blue lower section stands for the yin. According to traditional Oriental Philosophy, the two symbolize the great cosmic forces, which oppose each other but achieve perfect harmony and balance. The taeguek circle stands for the eternal principle that everything in the universe is created and develops through the interaction between yin and yang; thus it symbolizes creation and development. The four trigrams surrounding the circle denote the process of yin and yang going through a spiral of change and growth. The three unbroken lines at the upper left represent heaven (kun), the three broken lines at the lower right represent earth (kon), the two broken lines with an unbroken line in the middle at the upper right represent water (kam), and the two unbroken lines with an broken line in the middle at the lower left represent fire (yi).11
The white background of the flag symbolizes the purity of the Korean people and their peace-loving spirit. The flag as a whole is symbolic of the ideal of the Korean people to develop forever together with the universe.
The American Flag
The American flag is the symbol of the United States of America. The blue in the flag represents LIBERTY. The red in the flag represents BLOOD. The white in the flag represents COURGE. The 13 stripes on the flag represent THE FIRST 13 COLONIES. The 50 stars represent THE STATES IN THE UNITED STATES.
The Taeguek Forms (poomse)
Taeguek Il Jang - Symbolizes Heaven This form represents the source of creation by presenting the most basic techniques. It, therefore, is the foundation from which the other forms build. Taeguek Ee Jang - Symbolizes Joyfulness This form represents a frame of mind which is serene and gentle, yet, firm within, the state from which true virtue smiles. This form consists of movements that are made softly yet firmly with control. Taeguek Sam Jang - Symbolizes Fire This form represents fire and sun, and their characteristics of warmth, enthusiasm, and hope. Like fire, this form is filled with changing bursts of power connected with a continuous flow of motion. Taeguek Sa Jang - Symbolizes Thunder Thunder, combined with lightning, evokes fear and trembling but reminds us that danger, like a thunderstorm, passes as
suddenly as it comes, leaving blue sky, sunshine, and rain freshened air in its wake. It teaches to act calmly and bravely in the face of loud and terrifying dangers, real or imagined, knowing that they, too, shall pass. Taeguek Oh Jang - Symbolizes Wind Although there are horrible and destructive winds, such as the typhoon, hurricane, and tornado, the wind's true nature is gent