Littelfuse Startco Arc Flash Relay PGR-8800. Arc Faults: Costly and Dangerous. Dangers Fires Burns Injury Death Costs Collateral damage Equipment replacement Downtime Labour. Arc Flash / Blast Statistics. Over 1000 people die each year from electrical accidents* - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Littelfuse StartcoArc Flash RelayPGR-8800# LITTELFUSESTARTCOArc Faults: Costly and DangerousDangersFiresBurnsInjuryDeath
CostsCollateral damageEquipment replacementDowntimeLabour
# LITTELFUSESTARTCO2A substation goes up in flames. A single arc fault can be far more costly than the price of protection. Collateral damage, all new equipment and transformers, downtime, risk of burns, injury, or death.
Arc Flash / Blast StatisticsOver 1000 people die each year from electrical accidents*
Up to 10 Arc-Flash incidents occur each day in the US
Over 2000 workers are sent to burn centers each year with severe Arc-Flash burns.
OSHA states that 80% of electrically related accidents and fatalities among Qualified Workers are caused by Arc-Flash/Arc-Blast Incidents.* Source: National Safety Council# LITTELFUSESTARTCOCase Study Nov 12, 2009Chiller Easton Ice Rink, Columbus, Ohio
An electrician was working on a 480V power panel when the panel sparked and caught fire
The electrician was thrown to the floor and eventually transported to the OSU Burn Center with severe burns on face and hands.
Witnesses reported the panel was still sparking when the fire crews arrived.* Source: Dayton Daily News# LITTELFUSESTARTCOElectric Shock - trauma caused by the passage of electric current through the body.
Arc-Flash an unexpected sudden release of intense heat and light energy produced by electricity traveling through air, usually caused by accidental contact between live conductors.
Arc-Blast - a pressure wave created by heating, melting, vaporization, and expansion of conducting material and surrounding air during an Arc-Flash.
Types of Electrical Hazards# LITTELFUSESTARTCO
Types of Electrical HazardsArc-BlastGasesSoundArc-FlashLightFireShockPressure Wave# LITTELFUSESTARTCOSevere burnsVision damage or blindness Hearing lossBroken bones or internal organ damageWhiplashBrain injuriesLacerationsFatalityPhotos courtesy of OSHA
Effects of Electrical Hazards on Workers# LITTELFUSESTARTCOCostly Damage
Equipment replacement and need for capitalEquipment repair costsDowntimeProduction Loss (scrap)
and business interruption.
Image from IEEE Electrical Safety Workshop, Floyd, Doan, Barrios, Wellman
Image from IEEE Electrical Safety Workshop, H. Landis Floyd, IIEffects of Electrical Hazards on Business# LITTELFUSESTARTCOSystem Voltage
Arc CharacteristicsArc gap / Distance from arc
Fault CurrentAvailable fault currentArc current typically 38% of available fault current
TimeClearing timeImage from OSHA Office of Training & Education
What Determines Arc-Flash Severity?# LITTELFUSESTARTCOInitiators of these faultsIEEE Std 493-1997 (Gold Book) Recommended Practice for the Design of Reliable Industrial and Commercial Power Systems
# LITTELFUSESTARTCODevelopment of an Arc FaultVoltage difference between two conductors (250V) separated by air gap, high resistanceVoltage reaches breakdown point, rapid release of energy across gapShortest distance from bus bar corner to bolt cornerUsually phase-to-phase or phase-to-groundEnergy limited only by system resistance, air gap impedance
# LITTELFUSESTARTCOLifespan of an Arc Fault
6.# LITTELFUSESTARTCOLifespan of an Arc Fault
50 kA bolted fault between 480 Vac and ground
# LITTELFUSESTARTCO13Effects of an Arc FaultPlenty of Hazards to Choose From
# LITTELFUSESTARTCOExamples of Arc Faults
# LITTELFUSESTARTCOArc Flash RelayPGR-8800 Series1ms reaction time
Detects lightPoint sensors (A)Fiber optic sensor (B)
Detect over-currentsPhase CTs (3)Any CT with 5A sec.
Link upto (4) AF RelaysLarger systems
# LITTELFUSESTARTCO16Very fast detection of arc flash to minimize resulting damage. Eliminate welding/light-related nuisance trips by inhibiting trips if no overcurrent situation is detected. Up to 24 sensors in a single system mean the PGR-8800 can handle almost any size of application. Fibre-optic cables can be run which detect arc flash along their entire length or point sensors can be fitted and installed. The PGR-8800 including sensors are monitored to ensure fail-safe operation over the entire operating range. Unit can be configured without software or drivers via the USB port on the front. It is also PGR-8800Functions & Features
Six light sensorsBuilt-in front sensorAdjustable light sensitivity1000 event loggingDual inputs for switches or PLCFail-safe operationLocal USB interfaceNo drivers or s/w reqd# LITTELFUSESTARTCO17Very fast detection of arc flash to minimize resulting damage. Eliminate welding/light-related nuisance trips by inhibiting trips if no overcurrent situation is detected. Up to 24 sensors in a single system mean the PGR-8800 can handle almost any application. Fibre-optic cables can be run which detect arc flash along their entire length or point sensors can be fitted and installed. The PGR-8800 including sensors are monitored to ensure fail-safe operation over the entire operating range. Unit can be configured without software or drivers via the USB port on the front. It is also PGR-8800 Wiring Diagram
# LITTELFUSESTARTCOPGA-LS10 - Point SensorsRed LED forCircuit-check& Visual DiagnosticsMountingHoles(front / back)32 mm52 mm8 mmSensorLens3.5 mm10 mShieldSignalSupplyCircuit Check
The sensor can be also be mountedto see through the back of the cabinet.120%80%80%CoverageHalf-Circle100%100%100%Range is 2 to 2.5 meters360360Point Sensor
# LITTELFUSESTARTCO19PGA-LS20 - Fiber-Optic SensorsOne fiber-optic sensor can replace several point sensors26 ft flexible fiber360 detection angleLED for visual feedbackBuilt-in circuit checkElectrically extendablePlug-in connector
Multi-Unit Installation Example
Electrical cablesSensors Detecting ArcFiber-Optic SensorPoint SensorsTripL1L2L3LINKSwitchboardSupply2System can be expanded with up to four PGR-8800 Modules# LITTELFUSESTARTCOPGR-8800 Applications
Transformer primary 3 x 690 VTransformer secondary3 x 22 kVAir-cooled transformers are sensitive to contaminants, affecting the resistance of the air gap between electrical connections (phases, bolted connections etc.)
# LITTELFUSESTARTCO2222PGR-8800 Applications
# LITTELFUSESTARTCO2323Additional Informationwww.startco.ca/arcflashDatasheetProduct ManualBrochure
Arc Flash RelayBrochure PF136DatasheetLittelfuse Startco:306-373-5505# LITTELFUSESTARTCO