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<ul><li><p>Linking Pre-service Teacher Education </p><p>and In-service Teacher Training for </p><p>Effective Results in Indonesia </p><p>Feiny Sentosa and Rina Arlianti </p></li><li><p>2 </p><p>Linking Pre-service Teacher Education and In-service Teacher </p><p>Training for Effective Results in Indonesia </p><p>Feiny Sentosa and Rina Arlianti </p><p>Abstract </p><p>Teachers need ongoing professional development in order to ensure they provide good </p><p>quality education using teaching strategies appropriate with the changing needs of the </p><p>students. They also need to ensure that they are implementing the curriculum in alignment </p><p>with government policy. This paper touches upon three main areas in relation to teacher </p><p>education and continuing professional development that are important areas of focus of </p><p>PRIORITAS, a USAID funded basic education project in Indonesia (2012-2017). First, </p><p>the paper looks at how the project ensures a whole school approach to in-service </p><p>teacher professional development through training and regular school cluster meetings. </p><p>This approach to training offers practical strategies to putting in place student centered </p><p>teaching and learning which is meaningful and educationally enjoyable. The paper also </p><p>examines how the pre-service education programs can be linked with in-service </p><p>professional development that emphasizes practice. This is to ensure that the programs </p><p>provided by teacher training institutes can equip future teachers to teach effectively </p><p>immediately after graduation. Lastly, good practices resulting from this teacher training </p><p>need to be scaled up to be sustainable. This can be achieved through commitment and </p><p>improved management and governance at the school and district levels. </p><p>1. Introduction </p><p>This paper elaborates the main approach implemented in relation to teacher education and </p><p>continuing professional development for teachers of basic education, based on our </p><p>experiences working with the USAID PRIORITAS1 program in Indonesia. The thrust of </p><p>the paper is that a closer link between pre-service and in-service training can have mutual </p><p>benefits both for schools and for teacher training institutes in universities or elsewhere (in </p><p>this paper, referred to as Teacher Training Institutes or TTIs). Schools gain better teaching </p><p>methodology and better school management that supports teaching and learning through </p><p>the whole school approach developed by the project. On the other hand, Teacher Training </p><p>Institutes gain real practical experience from the classroom through the implementation of </p><p>the whole school development activities and other programs such as teacher practicum, </p><p>classroom action research and curriculum improvement. The paper first describes the </p><p>whole school approach which the program is implementing in pre-service and in-service </p><p>teacher training. Then the paper describes how the partner schools and partner TTIs work </p><p>in a two way learning partnership to achieve better results. Lastly, as PRIORITAS only </p><p>works directly with a small number of schools, dissemination of the programs </p><p>implemented by PRIORITAS is a key component to ensure that non-partner schools can </p><p>benefit from these good practices. This can be achieved through increased commitment of </p><p>the local government and improved planning. The programs and activities implemented by </p><p>PRIORITAS go beyond the three main areas described in the paper. The paper provides a </p><p> 1 PRIORITAS is the acronym derived from Prioritizing Reform, Innovation, and Opportunities for Reaching Indonesias Teachers, Administrators and Students. </p></li><li><p>3 </p><p>brief overview of the PRIORITAS program to set the context within which the discussion </p><p>of the three main topics take place. </p><p>2. Overview of USAID PRIORITAS </p><p>PRIORITAS is a five year USAID funded project designed to improve access to quality </p><p>basic education for children in Indonesia, in line with the Ministry of Education and </p><p>Culture's Strategic Plan (2010-2014). The program started in May 2012 and is currently </p><p>working in almost 100 partner districts in eight provinces, namely Aceh, North Sumatera, </p><p>Banten, West Java, Central Java, East Java, South Sulawesi, and Papua. </p><p>The PRIORITAS program design was built on lessons learned from an earlier USAID </p><p>funded program, Decentralized Basic Education (DBE, 2005-2011)2, USAIDs initial </p><p>basic education program in Indonesia, Managing Basic Education (MBE, 2003-2007) and </p><p>other similar programs. To support dissemination of previously implemented good </p><p>practices in former DBE districts, low-level support has been provided to most of these </p><p>districts. The below figure illustrates the roll-out strategy for five years. </p><p>Figure 1: Five-Year Implementation Plan </p><p>Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 </p><p>2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 </p><p>Former DBE Districts (46) 40 districts </p><p> Cohort 1 PRIORITAS Districts (23) + 16 Teacher Training Institutes </p><p> Cohort 2 PRIORITAS Districts (22) </p><p> Cohort 3 PRIORITAS Districts (7) </p><p>The program is working closely with national and local partners to (i) improve the quality </p><p>and relevance of teaching and learning in schools through pre and in-service training; (ii) </p><p>develop better management and governance in schools and districts so that teachers are </p><p>receiving support from school administrations to teach better; and (iii) support better </p><p>coordination within and between schools, teacher training institutions and government at </p><p>all levels. </p><p>A core strategy of the program is to work with the selected partner TTIs to develop their </p><p>capacity to design and provide effective pre and in-service teacher training programs </p><p>based on good practice principles. The aim is to strengthen linkages between schools, </p><p>districts, provinces and TTIs to improve the delivery of teacher in-service training and </p><p>support for better governance and management at schools and district levels. In the past, </p><p>donor efforts have focused more on in-service education for already practicing teachers, </p><p>which has meant that graduates emerging from TTIs have not necessarily been exposed to </p><p>innovations in teaching and management, which they may encounter for the first time </p><p>when practice teaching in schools. PRIORITAS seeks to rectify that by ensuring that the </p><p>lecturers of TTIs are also trained in participative and accountable school management and </p><p>community participation, as well as modern and innovative teaching and learning </p><p> 2 Decentralized Basic Education program was the cornerstone of the United States assistance to education in </p><p>Indonesia and was designed to directly respond to the Government of Indonesias priorities to decentralize </p><p>and revitalize the education sector. It focused on improving school management and governance and the </p><p>quality and relevance of education in primary and junior secondary schools. </p></li><li><p>4 </p><p>approaches and are able to communicate, and more importantly, to model these to their </p><p>students. </p><p>For in-service teachers, PRIORITAS is working with 16 primary and eight junior </p><p>secondary schools in each of the program partner districts through a series of teacher </p><p>training activities. For pre-service teacher training, the program is working with 16 teacher </p><p>training institutes (TTIs) and an additional 31 through TTI consortia. Each partner TTI is </p><p>working with six primary and three junior secondary schools as their laboratory and </p><p>partner schools. In total, the program is working directly with 788 primary schools and </p><p>393 junior secondary schools3. </p><p>3. Linking Pre-service and In-service Teacher Training through the </p><p>Whole School Development Approach and Classroom Experience </p><p>Pre-service teacher education in Indonesia is conducted by Teacher Training Institutes </p><p>(TTIs) and requires four years of post secondary education. TTI Programs consist of </p><p>teacher training for primary school teachers and subject specific training for teachers for </p><p>secondary schools. A number of TTIs are also tasked to provide in-service professional </p><p>teacher training for teachers before they are awarded certification. By default, TTIs are </p><p>also one of the service providers for on-going teachers professional development. </p><p>In Indonesia, the pre-service teacher training program tends to be very theoretical and </p><p>lecturers rarely model active learning methodology during microteaching sessions and </p><p>practice teachers are poorly monitored. Recognizing these problems, and the crucial role </p><p>of TTIs in preparing future teachers, PRIORITAS is working to improve the TTIs </p><p>capacity in providing pre-service and in-service training programs that emphasize practice </p><p>using TTI laboratory and partner schools. Therefore, schools and TTIs, as mutual </p><p>beneficiaries, should be working as partners to define the way that can shape the teaching </p><p>profession and the quality of teaching and learning in the classroom. PRIORITAS brings </p><p>the partner TTIs closer to the classroom through providing a network of good practice </p><p>teaching schools across districts and provinces in which TTIs can place their students for </p><p>practicums and use for other development activities such as classroom action research </p><p>(CAR). The classroom also provides ongoing feedback to TTIs to continue the </p><p>development of more effective and practical teacher training programs. </p><p>3.1 The Whole School Development Program </p><p>The PRIORITAS whole school development program focuses on developing the school, in </p><p>all its aspects as an institution, which includes three broad components: teaching and </p><p>learning, community participation and school management. These components are </p><p>interrelated and work together to achieve the ultimate goal of providing better quality </p><p>instruction to children. </p><p>The whole school development approach adopted by PRIORITAS involves all members </p><p>of the school community, including teachers, the school principal, school committee </p><p>members, the community, school supervisors and district office administrators. This </p><p>approach is based on lessons learned from projects implemented much earlier on, in which </p><p>only partial success was achieved when training and capacity development was separated </p><p> 3 Compared to 171,074 primary schools and 51,361 junior secondary schools in Indonesia nationwide. All </p><p>MOEC data was taken from, accessed 16 October 2014. All MORA </p><p>data was taken from, accessed 18 October 2014. </p></li><li><p>5 </p><p>between teachers for teaching and learning and school principals for school management. </p><p>Success in teaching and learning requires full support of school management. Therefore, it </p><p>is important to include school managers in the teachers training so that they can better </p><p>support teachers needs through school improvement plans which prioritize quality of </p><p>learning. Likewise, training for school management also includes supervisors, teachers and </p><p>school committee members in order to promote participative, accountable and transparent </p><p>management. </p><p>The whole school development delivered to all the partner schools consists of a series of </p><p>activities following a certain sequence as follows: 1) introduction of the program to all </p><p>education stakeholders at the beginning of the intervention; 2) study visits to good practice </p><p>schools for participants to view, at first hand, how whole school development can be </p><p>implemented; 3) school training that is conducted through a cascade model. The provincial </p><p>training facilitators, including from TTI, support the district facilitators in preparing and </p><p>delivering training in order to reduce dilution of the impact of the training. The training </p><p>facilitators consist of teachers, principals, school supervisors, and TTI lecturers. Including </p><p>lecturers as regular training team facilitators enables them to link pre-service training to </p><p>school and classroom realities and provides a channel for innovations to reach schools, as </p><p>well as enabling lecturers to translate their experience into improved pre-service content; </p><p>4) structured on site mentoring that is provided by district and TTI facilitators to assist </p><p>schools in the implementation of good practices. These mentoring activities are crucial in </p><p>achieving real impact at the school level and are training teachers and principals to think </p><p>critically about what they are doing rather than blindly implementing what an expert tells </p><p>them to do; and finally; 5) district as well as provincial showcases, which are the </p><p>culmination of school achievements. More about showcases is explained in the </p><p>Dissemination section of the paper. </p><p>3.1.1 Whole School Development Training Modules </p><p>PRIORITAS whole school development training modules support the national education </p><p>quality improvement program and are in line with the current 2013 national curriculum. </p><p>The modules are developed following a series of consultations and reviews involving </p><p>specialists, education technical stakeholders from various institutions, including TTIs, </p><p>MOEC and MORA. </p><p>Many in-service teachers do not necessarily have the required knowledge and skills to </p><p>teach effectively. Many teachers still apply the traditional method of teaching they are </p><p>familiar with. The training modules developed by the program provide practical </p><p>approaches to teaching both for in-service teachers and TTI lecturers. The topics cover the </p><p>basic principles of active teaching and learning methodologies, effective classroom </p><p>management, school management, community participation, and practical strategies to </p><p>implement the new 2013 national curriculum. All training modules are accompanied by </p><p>videos. The videos have greatly enhanced the programs training activities because they </p><p>enable participants in training to directly witness good practices and hear from other </p><p>practitioners. </p><p>3.1.2 Whole School Development in TTIs </p><p>The same training modules developed for use in in-service training with the program </p><p>partner schools are also implemented in in-service delivery with TTI laboratory and </p><p>partner schools. Furthermore, these modules are adapted for use in TTI pre-service </p></li><li><p>6 </p><p>programs. The pedagogy lecturers from the partner TTIs and selected TTI consortia </p><p>partner members are trained to use the modules for pre-service program. The TTI lecturers </p><p>who are involved in the adaptation and in-service teacher training conduct the training. </p><p>The training focuses on developing the teaching methodologies to be used by the lecturers </p><p>themselves, which should mirror those which they will be teaching to their students, since </p><p>students educated using active and participative learning are much more likely to use it in </p><p>their own teaching. Lecturers themselves have found the training in the active teaching </p><p>methodology very useful as many of them have not previously taught in schools. Through </p><p>the practice teaching component of the training, lecturers, working alongside district </p><p>facilitators, are able to gain better understanding o...</p></li></ul>


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