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LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY, LINGUISTIC DIV MINORITY ... Linguistic diversity, minority languages and sustainable development = Diversidad lingüística, lenguas minorizadas y desarrollo

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  • ITZIAR IDIAZABAL & MANEL PÉREZ-CAUREL (EDS.)

    Organización de las Naciones Unidas

    para la Educación,

    Hezkuntza, Zientzia eta Kulturarako

    Nazio Batuen Erakundea

    la Ciencia y la Cultura

    Munduko Hizkuntza Ondarearen UNESCO Katedra Cátedra UNESCO de Patrimonio Lingüístico Mundial UNESCO Chair on World Language Heritage

    LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY, LINGUISTIC DIV MINORITY LANGUAGES MINORITY LAN AND SUSTAINABLE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT DEVEL DIVERSIDAD LINGÜÍSTICA, DIVERSIDAD LENGUAS MINORIZADAS LENGUAS MIN Y DESARROLLO Y DESARROLLO Y DES SOSTENIBLE SOSTENIBLE SOSTENIBL DIVERSITÉ LINGUISTIQUE, DIVERSITÉ LANGUES MINORITAIRES LANGUES MI ET DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DÉVELOPPEM DURABLE DURABLE DURABLE DURAB

  • LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY, MINORITY LANGUAGES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    DIVERSIDAD LINGÜÍSTICA, LENGUAS MINORIZADAS Y DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE

    DIVERSITÉ LINGUISTIQUE, LANGUES MINORITAIRES ET DÉVELOPPEMENT DURABLE

    Edted by Editado por

    Itziar Idiazabal Manel Pérez- Caurel

    With the colaboration of Nora Etxaniz Con la colaboración de Nora Etxaniz

    UNESCO Chair on Wordl Language Heritage of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)

    Cátedra UNESCO de Patrimonio Lingüístico Mundial de la Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU)

    Euskal Herriko Unibertsitateko (UPV/EHU) Munduko Hizkuntza Ondarearen UNESCO Katedra

  • CIP. Biblioteca Universitaria

    Linguistic diversity, minority languages and sustainable development = Diversidad lingüística, lenguas minorizadas y desarrollo sostenible = Diversité linguistique, langues menacées et développement durable / Itziar Idiazabal & Manel Pérez-Caurel (eds.) ; [con la colaboración de = with the colaboration of, Nora Etxaniz]. – Datos. – Bilbao : Universidad del País Vasco / Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Argitalpen Zerbitzua = Servicio Editorial, [2019]. – 1 recurso en línea : PDF (262 p.)

    Textos en inglés, español y francés Modo de acceso: World Wide Web ISBN: 978-84-1319-070-9.

    1. Minorías lingüísticas. 2. Multilingüismo. 3. Lenguaje y lenguas - Revitalización. 4. Desarrollo sostenible. I. Idiazabal, Itziar, editor. II. Pérez-Caurel, Manel, editor. III. Etxaniz, Nora, colaborador.

    (0.034)81’282

    The edition of this volume has been made possible through financial Support of the Basque Government, Culture and Linguistic Policy Department and the Foundation AZKUE

    Esta edición se ha realizado gracias a la financiación del Gobierno Vasco /Eusko Jaurlaritza, Departamento de Cultura y Política Lingüística y de la Fundación AZKUE

    Portada y maquetación: Karina Senatore

    © Servicio Editorial de la Universidad del País Vasco Euskal Herriko Unibertsitateko Argitalpen Zerbitzua

    ISBN: 978-84-1319-070-9

  • INTRODUCTION INTRODUCCIÓN Itziar Idiazabal..............................................................................

    LANGUAGE DIVERSITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT DIVERSIDAD LINGÜÍSTICA Y DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE

    Linguistic diversity, sustainability and multilingualism: global language justice inside the doughnut hole Suzanne Romaine...........................................................................

    The UNESCO World Atlas of Languages and its response to sustainable development Christopher Moseley and Kristen Tcherneshoff....................................

    Plurality and diversity of languages in Africa: asset for sustainable development H. Ekkehard Wolff..........................................................................

    Languages and communication observed from spiritual traditions. Some underestimated elements of linguistic diversity and cultural sustainability Alicia Fuentes-Calle........................................................................

    The importance of learners’ own languages in achieving Sustainable Development Goal Four (Ethiopia and Cambodia) Carol Benson...............................................................................

    SUMMARY ÍNDICE

    7

    40

    62

    74

    99

    116

  • Las lenguas alóctonas como factor de conocimiento y cohesión M. Carme Junyent..........................................................................

    STUDIES ON LINGUISTIC PARTICULAR SITUATIONS ESTUDIOS DE SITUACIONES LINGÜÍSTICAS DETERMINADAS

    Revitalisation of minority African languages, community response and sustainable development Etienne Sadembouo & Gabriel D. Djomeni.........................................

    Las artes y los medios en los procesos de revitalización lingüística y cultural José Antonio Flores Farfán..............................................................

    Crianza bilingüe de niños indígenas urbanos: cuando los hablantes asumen su agencia de revitalizadores lingüísticos Inge Sichra...................................................................................

    Can amazigh be saved? The implications of the revitalization of an indigenous language. Yamina EL Kirat El Allame & Yassine Boussagui..................................

    Langues minorées et langues importantes : à la fois riches et pauvres les unes par rapport aux autres (Madagascar) Irène Rabenoro..............................................................................

    El modelo vasco de revitalización lingüística y desarrollo sostenible Patxi Baztarrika.............................................................................

    ÍNDICE

    134

    141

    162

    181

    204

    217

    239

  • INTRODUCTION

    Itziar Idiazabal

    Adopted by the United Nations in 2015, the 2030 Agenda has become a universal action plan in pursuit of sustainable development. However, there is no mention of languages in this Agenda and the way in which it deals with culture is very limited. These are both key components of sustainable development. Languages are not even given a mention in the fourth goal, which champions a quality education. This is in spite of the fact that we know that the very languages we use in our education systems, the way we handle minoritised first languages or multilingualism, are one of the factors that have the greatest bearing on its quality. Teaching and experience have shown us time and time again that languages are a driving force behind development, a key factor in achieving peace and social cohesion, and ultimately a human rights issue. As Marinotti (2017) mentions, languages, and particularly minoritised ones, are a decisive factor in giving the most vulnerable groups in society (migrants, indigenous and stateless communities) access to sustainable development.

    We know that the areas of the world hit hardest by poverty and the effects of climate change are very culturally and linguistically diverse regions. In these parts of the world we often witness an application of “development” models that are based on exploitation by multinationals. This in turn has an effect on the levels of violence produced by such models, especially violence against women. Furthermore, knowledge which has been built up over centuries by local/indigenous communities and passed on through their languages, which allows them to relate to each other and with their surrounding environment, is being lost forever. If, as the 2030 Agenda asserts, poverty is indeed the most serious problem that we face today, we cannot eradicate it effectively if we do not take local languages and cultures into consideration. It is crucial

  • 8 INTRODUCTION

    to recognise the importance people attach to their language in order to curb poverty and hunger (see UNESCO Bangkok, 2012).

    We want to take up the task of defending linguistic diversity in a positive way this year, 2019, which has been declared the year of indigenous languages by the UN. It is crucial to take notice of the loss and disappearance of so many languages, one after another, and at never-before-seen rates. We know that the general trend has not changed. However, our conviction and experience tell us that it is possible to reverse the decline when a linguistic community takes charge of the revitalisation of their language. Likewise, we are ever more conscious that this revitalisation, which involves all kinds of social, cultural, identity and economic factors, drives up living standards and also makes an original contribution (each language offers and constructs a special view of the world) to making the world a more interesting and attractive place.

    Different experiences of normalising minoritised languages, where they have at least achieved one of the set objectives, bring about an improvement not only in the use, prestige and presence of the language but also in the service relevant to that intervention. For example, the mere establishment of bilingual signage in any area or village improves the information service provided. Where before there was no information, there is now not only some available, but it is even bilingual. Furthermore, the minoritised languages themselves are legitimised, they are given visibility and value, especially in the eyes of the community in question, but also in those of visitors.

    The UNESCO Chair on World Language Heritage at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), hereafter referred to as “the Chair”, has carried out different linguistic cooperation activities which have shown that the effort made, particularly by the local community itself, always has a

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