LIBRARY DEVELOPMENT AND FUTURE TRENDS IN ... DEVELOPMENT AND FUTURE TRENDS IN MALAYSIA - COUNTRY REPORT * by SHAHAR BANUN JAAFAR** ABSTRAK Kertas kerja ini membincangkan trend masa

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  • LIBRARY DEVELOPMENT AND FUTURETRENDS IN MALAYSIA - COUNTRY REPORT *

    by

    SHAHAR BANUN JAAFAR**

    ABSTRAK

    Kertas kerja ini membincangkan trend masa depan dan pembangunan perpustakaan diMalaysia. Ianya meninjau sejarah pertumbuhan dan peranan yang dimainkan oleh kelima-lima jenis perpustakaan yang ada di samping latihan untuk profesion perpustakaan.Menurut penulis, perkembangan semasa di peringkat antarabangsa dan kebangsaanmempunyai impak yang besar terhadap pembangunan perpustakaan di Malaysia. Diperingkat kebangsaan beberapa strategi telah disarankan oleh penulis dalam usahamemenuhi keperluan maklumat negara menjelang tahun 2020 dan seterusnya. Automasiserta pewujudan perkongsian dan rangkaian maklumat di antara perpustakaan membawaimplikasi yang mencabar kepada profesionalisma kepustakawanan, Di sinilah perlunyaPustakawan sentiasa sensitif dan responsif terhadap keperluan perkhidrnatan maklumatyang sentiasa berubah sejajar dengan keperluan persekitaran pada masa itu.

    INTRODUCTION

    alaysia consists of Peninsular Malaysiaand the states of Sabah and Sarawak on

    the Borneo Island. It is located at the heart ofSoutheast Asia, to the north is Thailand, to thesouth are Singapore and Indonesia, to the east isthe Philippines. Malaysia has a total area ofabout 330,434 sq. km. and a population of about18 million. Malaysia is a member of ASEAN(Association of South East Asia Nation). Someexamples of library cooperation among libraries

    Paper presented at Consal IX, Bangkok, 1-8 May 1993

    Deputy Director General, Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia

    in ASEAN countries are, ASEAN-COCI, JointCongress of Library Association of Singaporeand Library Association of Malaysia andConference of Southeast ASEAN Librarians(CONSAL). At the same time, many librariesespecially special libraries, have establishedbilateral linkages with their counterparts inSoutheast Asian countries based on mutualinterests.

    Hak Cipta Terpelihara 1994 Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia

    Hak Cipta Terpelihara 1994 Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia

  • LIBRARIES IN MALAYSIA

    1) The National LibraryThe National Library of Malaysia wasestablished in 1966 as a Unit within the NationalArchives and its primary function then was toimplement the Preservation of Books Act, 1966and to publish the Malaysian NationalBibliography, The National Library Act waspassed in 1972. Its Reference Division was firstopened to the public in the same year. ThePreservation of Books Act was repealed and anew act named the Deposit of Library MaterialsAct was enacted in 1986. This Act, named theNational library as the National DepositoryCenter for library materials published in thecountry. Library materials as defined in the Actincludes printed as well as non printed materials,such as cinematograph films, microforms,phonorecords, video and audio recordings andother electronic media. The Act requires allpublishers to deposit 5 copies of printedmaterials and 2 copies of non-printed materialsin the National Library,

    The National Library is one of the major librariesin Malaysia, which has its powers and rolesclearly defined in the National Library(Amendment) Act, 1987, Presently the NationalLibrary is managed by the Director General andassisted by the Deputy Director General. Thereorganization of the National Library'sorganizational structure was recently approvedby the government. The National Libraryconsists of 15 Divisions, headed by 9 Directorsand 6 Senior Librarians. The role of the NationalLibrary as the coordinator responsible for thestrengthening of information infrastructurewithin the nation is stipulated in the 1987 Act.The Act empowers the Director General of theNational Library "to advise the Minister onnational policy on all matters pertaining tolibraries and all other matters relating tolibraries" and "to advise and assist in the nationalplanning and development of libraries".

    At present the National Library has a totalcollection of approximately 900,000 items, anincrease of approximately 45,000 itemsannually. About 48,000 items of its totalcollection consist of multi media materials whichincludes video tapes, cassettes, microforms andCD-ROMs. Its new building which has a totalarea of about 22,700 sq. meters has modernfacilities, including a multimedia resourcecentre, a computer centre, a computer traininglaboratory for training of library personnel todevelop skills in managing informationtechnology, a Computer Assisted ReferenceService (CARS) Centre and a Computer AssistedInstruction (CAI) Centre for the public to learnto access its databases through its Online PublicAccess Catalogue (OPAC). Its children's librarywill be equipped with hypermedia services toenable children to learn within an ITenvironment. This Centre will be made possible,by the donation of Syarikat Esso (M) Bhd, whichis celebrating its 100 years anniversary this year.We believe that the children of today who willbe our future leaders, will be active users oflibrary and information services of the future,

    2) Academic LibrariesThere are 7 university libraries in Malaysianamely the Universiti Malaya (University ofMalaya), Universiti Sains Malaysia (Universityof Science), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia(National University of Malaysia), UniversitiPertanian Malaysia (University of AgricultureMalaysia), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia(University of Technology Malaysia), UniversitiIslam Antarabangsa (International IslamicUniversity) and most recent the UniversitiMalaysia, Sarawak, The university libraries'collections are of varying sizes ranging frommore than 1 million to less than 100,000 librarymaterials. The Universiti Malaysia Sarawak'slibrary is in a developmental stage. Except forthe two newer libraries, all university librarieshave their own network outside their main

    Hak Cipta Terpelihara 1994 Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia

    Hak Cipta Terpelihara 1994 Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia

  • campuses. Most of the major universities havecomputerized and have built up a number ofdatabases and have access to foreign databases.Coordination among university libraries and theNational Library is formalized through PERPUN(Conference of Chief Librarians of Universitylibraries and the Director General of the NationalLibrary) which meet 3 to 4 times a year. Otherforms of cooperation are in the area of documentdelivery services, microfilming activities SCOM(ie. Sub-Committee on Microfilming whichinvolves sharing responsibilities in microfilmingprojects), planning for bibliographic networks,organizing training and conferences.

    There are about 70 academic libraries in variousinstitutes of higher learning either as governmentowned or as a private organizations. In recentyears, there are a number of private colleges thathave been set up with twinning programmes withforeign universities. These colleges have theirmini libraries of various sizes, some are managedby professional librarians whilst others aremanaged by a non professional staff.

    3) Special LibrariesSpecial libraries were the earliest librariesestablished in Malaysia mainly to supportresearch in related areas. The oldest libraries inMalaysia are the Institute of Medical ResearchLibrary (1901), the Rubber Research Instituteof Malaysia (1925) and the Forest ResearchInstitute (1929). Today there are more than 300special libraries of varying sizes attached tovarious research institutions, Ministries,Government Departments and privatecorporations.

    Special libraries in the Ministries and the FederalGovernment Departments are administeredunder their respective Ministries and Heads ofDepartments, while special libraries in researchinstitutions and private corporations areadministered under their respective Directors of

    institutions or Chief Executives of Corporations.However, librarians and library assistantsworking in the Ministries and the FederalGovernment Departments fall under the purviewof the Common User Scheme for librariesadministered by the National Library ofMalaysia. Whilst there are 256 libraries underthe Scheme, only 45 libraries are headed byprofessional librarians. There are about 156special libraries in research institutions, privatecorporations and associations. Most speciallibraries in research institutions or semigovernment institutions such as in the Bankingsectors, are headed by professional librariansor information specialists.

    As head of the Common User Scheme forlibraries, the National Library is responsible forthe recruitment, placement, transfer,confirmation and promotion, training andprofessional development of all librarians andlibrary assistants in the Ministries and FederalGovernment departments. The National Libraryconducts regular training programmes as wellas examinations, for the purpose of confirmationof newly recruited librarians and libraryassistants in the scheme. However, trainings andseminars organised by the National Library,especially in the area of new disciplines, wherelocal and foreign experts are invited to conductthe training programmes or seminars, are openedto all library professionals in the country. TheNational Library provides advisory services toany institution intending to set up new librariesor to upgrade its library services.

    4) Public LibrariesAll State Public Libraries in Peninsular Malaysiaare under the administration of the State PublicLibrary Corporation Boards except for the SabahState Library which is a State Department underthe Ministry of Social Services, while theSarawak Public Library is under the Ministry ofEnvironment and Tourism. The Enactments of

    Hak Cipta Terpelihara 1994 Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia

    Hak Cipta Terpelihara 1994 Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia

  • State Public Library Corporations, were passedby their respective State Legislations, in the yearsbeginning from 1969 to late 1980s.

    The State Public Library of eac