Libraries and Copyright in the Digital Age Section 108 exceptions for preservation & ILL

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Libraries and Copyright in the Digital Age Section 108 exceptions for preservation & ILL Slide 2 Program Agenda Careful reading of section 108 Conditions for reproduction & distribution of library materials: Preservation Interlibrary Loan Restrictions on digital copies Options for required notice to users CONTU guidelines for ILL Alternatives and recommendations Slide 3 Section 108(a) Is an exception to the exclusive rights of reproduction and distribution. Allows one copy, or more as described in subsections (b) & (c). Applies to libraries, archives and their employees who act within the scope of their employment Slide 4 The reproduction & distribution is made without direct or indirect commercial advantage. The collection is either open to the public or to researchers doing research in same or similar field. The copy made & distributed contains the notice of copyright from the item or a legend stating that the work may be protected by copyright if the work has no such notice. Slide 5 Section 108 Study Group Reviewed 108 & its application in digital age Made several recommendations Most re. preservation No action yet One major recommendation re. eligibility: Add non-profit museum. Slide 6 108(b) preservation of unpublished material Up to three copies can be made and distributed IF Purpose is preservation, security or deposit in another library for research of unpublished work. Original is owned by the library Restriction -- If copy is digital, it cannot be distributed or made available to the public outside premises of the library Slide 7 Issues for the digital age Right of first publication What about born digital works? Does digital copy restriction apply? Study group said physical digital media should be able to be loaned off-site. No recommendation re. remote access. Three copy limit impractical for digital Study Group recommended a limitation to number reasonably necessary. Slide 8 108(c) Preservative of published material Up to three copies can be made & distributed IF The purpose is to replace a published work that is damaged, deteriorating, lost, stolen or obsolete. Library is unable to find unused replacement at a fair price after reasonable effort. Restriction -- If copy is digital, it cannot be distributed or made available to the public outside premises of the library. Slide 9 When is a format obsolete? When the machine or device necessary to render perceptible a work stored in that format is no longer manufacture or no longer reasonably available in commercial marketplace Slide 10 What is reasonable effort? will vary according to circumstances of a particular situation. Usually requires Recourse to commonly-known trade sources, wholesale and/or retail. Contact holder or publisher, if known. Use authorized reproduction service Slide 11 What is a fair price? AAP Suggested retail price from publisher Prevailing retail price Normal price charged by authorized reproduction service ALA Latest suggested retail price Manufacturing costs plus royalty payments Issue of multi-volume set If single volumes not available, could argue that full set price is not a fair price for a single volume. Slide 12 Study group recommended That a trigger condition be added for fragile or at-risk works. That born digital works be included Website preservation be permitted, With opt-out for commercial sites. That published/unpublished distinction be changed to publicly disseminated v. not. Slide 13 So far We have talked about copying for preservation. Slide 14 108(d) ILL articles for users Right or reproduction & distribution from 108(a) applies IF User requests no more than one article or other contribution to collected work or periodical issue, either from owning library or another (i.e. ILL) Copy becomes property of the user Library has no notice that use will be beyond fair use Library prominently displays copyright warning where orders are placed & on forms. Slide 15 NOTICE: WARNING CONCERNING COPYRIGHT RESTRICTIONS The copyright law of the United States (Title 17, United States Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyrighted material. Under certain conditions specified in the law, libraries and archives are authorized to furnish a photocopy or other reproduction. One of these specific conditions is that the photocopy or reproduction is not to be "used for any purpose other than private study, scholarship, or research." If a user makes a request for, or later uses, a photocopy or reproduction for purposes in excess of "fair use," that user may be liable for copyright infringement. This institution reserves the right to refuse to accept a copying order if, in its judgment, fulfillment of the order would involve violation of copyright law. Slide 16 Restrictions on digital ILL? Copyright Act intended to be technologically neutral Section 108 says reproduce, not photocopy Required notice says libraries are authorized to furnish a photocopy or other reproduction. Section 101 definition of copies broad enough to include digital. Slide 17 More on digital copies Is the designation of one copy a problem? Study group recommended revision Note 108(d)(1) copy must become property of users. If digital files are deleted, we can argue that only one (persistent) copy was made. Study group recommended explicit rule that lending library could not retain scanned image for reuse without permission Slide 18 108 (e) ILL copies for users Right of reproduction & distribution from 108(a) applies to a copy of an entire work, or substantial part thereof, IF User requests either from owning library or another library Library first determines by reasonable investigation that copy cannot be obtained at fair price. Slide 19 More from 108(e) Copy must become property of user. Library cannot have notice that the user has a purpose beyond those permitted as fair use (107) Library displays copyright warning (from Copyright Office regulations) on order form & where orders are placed. Study group made same recommendations re digital copies as for 108(d). Flexible standard re. number, no retention by lender, security measures to deter unauthorized copying. Slide 20 108(f)(1) Unsupervised copiers No liability on library or employees for unsupervised use of reproduction equipment. Provided: Such equipment displays a notice that making a copy may be subject to copyright law. Slide 21 Options for notice The Copyright Office warning Notice Making a copy may be subject to the copyright law (from 108(f)(1)) Notice: The copyright law of the United States (Title 17, U.S. Code) governs the making of photocopies or reproductions of copyrighted material; the person using this equipment is liable for any infringement. Any wording the library chooses. Slide 22 108(f)(2) the flip side Nothing in section 108 Excuses from liability User of unsupervised equipment or person who requests a copy under 108(d) from liability if they exceed section 107 fair use. Slide 23 Other provisions of 108(F) Nothing in this section Limits the reproduction & distribution rights by lending a limited number of copies of an audiovisual news program (108(f)(3)) Affects the right of fair use under 107, or any contractual obligations assumed at any time by the library when it obtained a copy of a work in its collection. VERY important in digital age License agreements govern!! Slide 24 108(g)(1) general limitation 108 rights extend to isolated and unrelated reproduction & distribution of a single copy of the same material on separate occasions, but not to cases where: Library or employee is aware or has substantial reason to believe it is engaged in concerted reproduction of multiple copies OR Is engaged in systematic reproduction & distribution of single or multiple copies of materials described in subsection (d) Slide 25 108(g)(2) Proviso to that limit Nothing in this clause prevents a library or archives from participating in Interlibrary arrangements that do not have, as their purpose or effect, receipt of copies in such aggregate quantities as to substitute for a subscription to or purchase of a work. This permits consortia, but borrowing must not be concerted or replace purchase Role of CONTU guidelines! Slide 26 CONTU Guidelines for ILL (H. Rept. 94-1733) ILL Suggestion of Five Each year, a borrowing library may make five requests from a periodical title going back five years. Current year = 2009 Five articles per year from most recent 60 months of one title (since July 2004). Slide 27 Other CONTU provisions Do not count in Suggestion of Five if Title is owned but missing Title is on order Non-periodical material Five requests per year (for copies!) during entire term of copyright Slide 28 Other CONTU provisions (cont.) Borrowing library must maintain records for three calendar years. Lending libraries must require a representation from the borrowing library that the request conforms to the guidelines NOTE the guidelines take no position regarding periodical materials older than five years. Systematic copying still not allowed, but definition is open. Slide 29 Now we have discussed the rules for ILL Slide 30 Some alternatives & recommendations What to do with the 6 th request Tell user no, come back on Jan. 1. Order copy from authorized document delivery service Pay royalties to publisher, directly or through CCC Enter a subscription for the title Once in a blue moon, make an exception. Slide 31 Copyright Clearance Center Non-profit corporation that collects royalties for use in excess of fair use and distributes that $$$ to copyright holders. CCC members are Publishers, who establish per page or per article royalties. CCC can only license works owned by member publishers Business & libraries that pay royalties for non-fair use copying. Slide 32 Paying the CCC Pay per use Relatively easy search & order function Can use