LGC Annotated

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    BASIC PRINCIPLES . . 17(e) In the resolution ?f. o n t r o v e r _ s i ~ arising under this ..

    code where no legal prov1s10n_or jurisprudence_applies, re- _. sort .may be had to ..the c u s t o ~ s and traditions in the placewhere the _controversies t a k ~ place. . - ANNOTATIONS

    How Local G o v e r n m e ~ f Code of 1991 should be_ nterpreted .- . . . ._ ..-_ The liberal interpretation in favor of g r a ~ t of. powers . ~ LGU's . : .

    pars. (a). n d ( c_) a b o v ~ gOes against . h ~ prh1dple e n ~ n c i a t e d by . O&Jion (Mun1c1pal Corporataons, Vol. 1, p. 145) that if there is-doubt

    . that a power _s granted 'to a IJ1Unic.ipal corporation1 the .rule is to . : . .. . consider_ h_t t ~ e power has not. been granted. T ~ i s Dillon o p i ~ i o n : . .. .has been superseded by the principle of decentralization whic:h looks . .- :-towards reasonable s e l f - r u l ~ . . . - , ,I . . P a r ~ (b)'_ .above .merely r e i t ~ r a .two- basic p ~ ; n c i p l e s in taxation, thaf a tax b e ~ n g a b u r d E m ~ i m p ~ s i t is not p r ~ s u m e d incase of doubt and . hat . the law does not .favor a tax .exemption,

    , . ' ' . , . . , , taxes being t_he lifeblood .of the nation or. any territorial part ther'e7of. . - .. . . _, -- .. . . : P a r ~ { r ~ ~ p e vested rig.hts ~ n d r e s p e c t s c o ~ s t i t ~ t i o ~ a l . . , . _. __ .:.

    rule 'that the obligations o{ contracts cannot be impaired. : ... ' .. . .- .. . '.

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    ~ ~ . , . . - ~ - -

    ., . I ' , . '16 -. . ~ O C A L GOVERNMENT .CODE, o'F. 199l ; .

    ., j

    titularly .in. c a ~ ~ s where ~ e r t a i n powers p ~ r t a i r i i n g to national. Government are devolved unto the LGU's); . . ,: .: . :In S e c t i ~ n S26 .of- this o it . r o v i ~ e d : . ~ T h i s . ~ o d e shall

    . a p p l y to -all provinces, Cities, municipalities and, barangays in thea ~ t o n o m o u s regions until .such time_ s th e ~ e g i o n ~ l g o v e r ~ ~ e n t con._ .cerned shall have enacted its own . ccal government; code. In Sec.tion 529 hereof. UAIJ .existlng.t_x ordinances ' ~ r r e v e ~ u e measures_of local government units . shall ' continue b e in force and effect .after the effeetivity of this Code (on January 1, 1992) .unless amended by the sanggunian concerned, .or . inconsistent 'with, _or in . i o l a t i o nof , the . provisions of this C o d e . ' ~ _ ; -.. . . . : .. .. : ' .-. As to existing cities, it e e r i , ~ c l ~ a r that th-ey _are still governed : . .by their respe

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    . ' .18 . LOCAL . GOVERN?.IENT CODE__OF . 1991 .

    ANNOTATIONS. ..

    . . . , .. ;, . . I

    C r e a t i ~ n , '.div.fslo.ri,merger, a b o l i t i o ~ .'or :,.:. . ..< :. _: ) : _": . : .alteration .of boundaries of LGU's -7-- . . ..

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    '20 LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE OF 1991th e original local government unit or units shall no t fall beloitA currtnt ineome classification prjor to such division. "

    The income dassifiution of . ocal government units shanbe updated within Bix (6) months from the effectivity of thiCode to reflect the c b a n ~ e s in their financial position resultsin g from tb e inerea!!ed reve11ueg as prGvided herein.

    ANNOTATIONSMinimal r e q u i r ~ n t s for divisionand merger-

    Whne the factors in Section 7 are 1ibwi$e considered In divlsi611 or merger of LGU's, the above saction: enjoins compliance withmil\imal t ~ u l r e m e n t s on income, population and land area as a t a t ~by this Cod., (Refer to Stions 38$, lU , -442, 450 and 4&1 ofth cocs.).logically, two local units are m e r ~ (they being contiguo\ls}be

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    ~ ~22LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE OF 19n

    v.elopment and economic progress, and other relevant totJOns sha)J be taken Into Account. 118ide'l.(b) \Vhen conditions and developments in the loclJ ment unit concerned have eignllleantt;y cha.nted e q ~ o v e ~ ,th e establi$hment of th e seat ot government,. lUI B&hg l!flt fo .

    may. after public hearing an d by a vote of t w o - t h i r d s < ~ ~aJl it s members, transer th e .Same to 8 Bite b e t ~ r IIUik Of .its needs: Provided, however, That no eucb transfer aba!1 ]made outside territorial boundaries ot the local fO\>e"' :ment unit concerned. rn. i

    The old 8ite, together with the improvements thereon I'll ibe disposed of by sale or lease or converted to .BUch oth;r Ias th e sanggunian concerned may deem beneficia] to the IOQI ;government.unit concerned an d it s inhabitants. 1 (e ) Local government offices and facilities .elu.U not be ;transferred, relocated, or converted to other uses unleaa Jlublir /hearings ar e fi.rst conducted fo r th e purpose and the c o n c u ~ . :renee of the majority of aU the members of eanggunbu :concerned is obtained.

    ANNOTATIONSGovernment seat in case of creationor merger of local government tJnits -

    Note that in ( ) above, there ar e futs to ~ considered In lhtselection of th e Hat of Government of the created (new) or aur.viving unit while in (b) above, th e tunsfer of lhe seat selected;,.( shalf be md ~ f t e r certain supervening circumstances hcf t 1 k e ~ ~place, requiring public heuing an d 2 / l vote of sangguni.art mombmThe s u ~ r a g r a p h of (b ) above concerns djsposal of the old siltan d it s i m p r o v e ~ n t s ft Js th . unggunian that decides the mM -ne r of disposal.

    The third paragraph concerns disposal of offices and fcllities,regardless of whether ttHtre is creation or m r ~ r of units, mort particululy of course h ~ r e there wa s e r ~ r or conversion of un lti.

    What will happen to officials of n abolished local unit or onemerged with another with the latter as surviving vnit? Theor ordiniilnce concerned may provide lo r such vntvality. T ~ ;no vested right to public office n d the .term oF local ofFic19,1three years as provided for in Section 8. Articl X of the 1

    JJ.A.SIC PRINCIPLES 23. vll0'1 lt avb].ct to f ~ a i conMqvnees of 5.

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    y24LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE OF 1991

    (S ) other public place or building owned b .mc1a1 government. . . . . , . Y the Pro \>. (b ) Th e sanggunians of highly ~ r b a n i z e d ~ i t i e s . Ponent cities whose charters prohibit their voters f d_of col!!. :for 1 1 rotn v t' prov1nc1a e ectlVe offici als, hereinafter referred t . 0 'd d . . o tn th I.? e as 1n ependent compOnent . cities, nay, in c . 4

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    )

    28 LOCAL' GOVERNMENT CODE OI' 1991( 3} lncidentill powers; and(4) Powers essential to promote th 1 .. gener;a w e l f ~ r e .. No. 3 above is supported by th e legal principle thlaw grants a power, 'i t includes grant of h dd ' . illt when 1'd f sue a 1t1onat poprOYI or measures to make th e originally g ted wer toor meanirtgful. Thus, as an example th poriln power e f f e e t i ~ e .... we r to sell p

    includes power to sign documents to effectuilte th e sa. ropertytransfer t 1tl e to property. But in the above h nd to....._ d " f ' t ff ' . . case, t e law u ...tmr wor s or 1 s e rcrent an d effective governa , b ....,,f d . . nee, o vrovlre errmg to a mlntstratron of p ~ b l i c affairs. . " 't

    Ordinances designed to protect hf!alth peace mo l hld h ' , ra s, etc avebeen uphe as au t orbed by the generl welfare clause 1 b . n one casethe ordrnanc:e emg questroned as unconstitutionlllf provides ..1shlllll be prohibited fo r any operator of an y barber shop to dh b f n uctt e usrness o massagrn g customers or other persons in any d'f ' d be . 1"cent room Ot' rooms o sat ba r r shop, or in any room or roowithin the same building where th e barber shop is located as l o ~ ;as the operator of th e barber shop an d the rooms where musaginis condudi!d is the um e person." Upholding th e nlidity of afor!said ordinance, the Supreme ~ o u r t said: ''The grant of police powerto a municipality (o r city) is given liber1l ~ o n s t r u c : t i o n by the courts.Thrs Court has been most liberal in sustaining ordinance-s based onth e genenf welfare clause. As fa r back u U.S. vs . Safaveria (39 Phil .102), a 19J8 decision, this Court through Justice Malcolm madeclear th e significance-an d scope of such a clause, which 'delegates Inltatutory form th e police power to a municipal ity. As above stated,this clause ha s been given wide application by municipa.1 authoritiesan d has in it s relation to th e particular circumstances of th e case beenlibeulfy construed by the courts. Such, it is well to recall, is th11progressive view of Philippine jurisprudence.' - As it was then, soit has continued to be. There is no showing, therefore, of the unconstitutionality of such ordinance." (Tomas Velasco, et af. vs. Hon .Antonio J. Villegas, et al ., t -24153, Feb . 14, 1983)

    I t was held in Vicente de Ia Cru1, et at . vs. Hon. Edgardo L.P ~ r a s , et al . ( L-42571 -72 , July 25 , 1983), that a municipal corporation cannot, by ordinance, prohibit th e operation of night c l u ~ s ; itcan, however, regulate th e seme. Said th e Supreme Court: It lsclur that in th e guise of police regulation, there was in this instance a clear invasion of personal or property .rights, personal inth e cue of individuals desirous of patronizing those night clubsproperty in terms of th e investments made an d salaries to be earne

    I

    BASIC PRINCIPLES 29h rein employed. x x x Reference is made by respondents .

    by 1, : .rate Hotel an d Motel Operators Association , Inc. vsto E ~ a t a of Manila {20 SCRA 849) (where the Supreme CourtCitY d ay:r validity of a local o r d i n ~ n c e