Lexical and post-lexical tones in Akan

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  • Lexical and post-lexical tones

    in Akan

    Dissertation

    zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades

    Doctor philosophiae

    (Dr.phil.)

    an der Humanwissenschaftlichen Fakultt

    der Universitt Potsdam

    eingereicht von

    Susanne Genzel

    Februar 2013

  • Published online at the Institutional Repository of the University of Potsdam: URN urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus4-77969 http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus4-77969

  • In memory of my aunt, Sabine Genzel.

  • i

    Acknowledgements First of all, I would like to express my very great appreciation to my supervisors, Caroline

    Fry and Frank Kgler. I am especially grateful to Frank. He hired me as a student assistant in

    summer 2003 and let me take part in many interesting empirical investigations. Later on, in

    November 2007, he employed me in the project D5 on Tonal structure and information

    structure: Phonetics & Phonology, which is part of the wonderful collaborative research

    centre on information structure (SFB 632), financed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

    (DFG). Akan is one of the languages we are investigating in our project. Frank did a great job

    as supervisor. He was very interested and encouraging and always had time for me to discuss

    new ideas. Caroline was my Prof. in linguistics when I studied at University of Potsdam. Her

    seminar Intonation im typologischen Vergleich, held in winter 2004/2005, impressed me

    and made me curious for intonation/prosody and typology. Carolines comments were very

    helpful and improved the thesis immensely. Discussing with her was really inspiring.

    My special thanks are extended to all participants and informants. Mo boaa me paa.

    Medaase! Especially, I would like to mention Afua Blay, Reginald Duah, Benjamin Bamfo

    and Monica Apenten, who made me feel at home in Ghana and were always willing to share

    their native speaker intuitions with me. Without you, I could not have written the thesis.

    Further, I would like to thank Akua Appiah-Akuramaa who was my Berlin informant.

    Further, I am very grateful to Dr. K. Dovlo who very kindly welcomed me to the University

    of Ghana (Legon), arranged my first talk in front of a native speaker audience and provided

    me with everything I needed. I also wish to acknowledge the help provided by Prof. Dr. K.

    Saah and Nana Ama Agyeman. Additionally, I would like to thank Dr. C. Marfo, working at

    the University of Kumasi (KNUST), for discussing phrasing related and other Akan specific

    issues with me and for drawing my attention to the conference of the Linguistics Association

    of Ghana in Winneba (2012).

    I have talked to many people during the thesis writing process. First of all, I would like to

    mention Sabine Zerbian. Since she had her office very close to mine, I went there very often

    to ask tone language related questions. She always had time for me and also read an early

    version and provided very helpful comments. Further, I am grateful to Ruben van de Vijver

    who also gave very useful advices and made me laugh. I would also like to mention Anja

    Arnhold, Sandra Beyermann, Laura Downing, Ines Fiedler, Anja Gollrad, Markus Greif, Mira

    Grubic, Robin Hrnig, Shinishiro Ishihara, Sara Myrberg, Annie Rialland, Bernadett

    Smolibocki and Thomas Westkott.

  • ii

    Finally, I wish to thank my family, Mama, Oma, Onkelchen, Marie und Hannah for their

    unconditional love and support. Further, I am grateful to all my friends for their patience, for

    calling me, writing me, cooking for me, giving massages and providing plenty of other sorts

    of support. Last but not least, I want to thank Himanshu, for keeping the household running,

    for his irrepressible high spirits, patience, support and goodies.

  • iii

    List of abbreviations and symbols ATR advanced tongue root BT breathy termination C consonant COMP1 complementizer CP complementizer phrase db decibel DD downdrift DEF definite difference/drop DIM diminutive DET determiner DP determiner phrase DS downstep F focus F formant F0 fundamental frequency fin final FM focus marker h high register tone H high tone HAB habitual Hz Hertz IMP imperative InflP inflectional phrase Int intensity Intrel relative intensity IP/ intonation phrase l low register tone L low tone LPC linear predictive coding M mid tone max maximal ms millisecond mora NEG negative NOM nominal NP nominal phrase NSF non-subject focus OPT optative PL plural pMCMC p-value calculated from MONTE CARLO sampling by Markov chain pP/ phonological phrase PART particle foot PoD position of the pitch drop PRF perfective PRO pronoun

    1 The abbreviations in small capitals basically follow the convention of the Leipzig Glossing Rules (Bickel, Comrie & Haspelmath, 2004).

  • iv

    PROG progressive Psg subglottal air pressure PST past pw/ prosodic word r baseline value R2 coefficient of determination RTR retracted tongue root syllable s downdrift quotient sec second SF subject focus SG singular st semitone SPEC specific SVO subject, verb, object T tone T terminal T* pitch accent T! downstepped tone T floating tone T% boundary tone TBU tone bearing unit TM topic marker TW target word U utterance V verb V vowel VP verbal phrase x beat X0 lexical word XP maximal projection female male local lowering local raising global raising

  • Contents Acknowledgements....i List of abbreviations and symbols iii About the book ........................................................................................................................... 1 1. Chapter General and theoretical background ..................................................................... 7

    1.1 General introduction to Akan ...................................................................................... 81.2 Phonological representation of tone .......................................................................... 121.3 Tone terracing ............................................................................................................ 171.4 Prosodic structure ...................................................................................................... 25

    1.4.1 The prosodic organization of constituents ......................................................... 251.4.2 Prosodic constituents and their phonetic properties ........................................... 26

    1.5 Tonal and non-tonal intonation .................................................................................. 401.5.1 What is intonation? ............................................................................................. 401.5.2 Sentence type ...................................................................................................... 421.5.3 Focus .................................................................................................................. 45

    1.6 Universal intonational meaning ................................................................................. 511.6.1 The Production code ........................................................................................... 511.6.2 The Frequency code ........................................................................................... 531.6.3 The Effort code ................................................................................................... 54

    1.7 Phonetic implementation ........................................................................................... 551.8 Tonal variations in connected speech ........................................................................ 581.9 Summary of the main research questions .................................................................. 60

    2. Chapter Material and methods ......................................................................................... 62

    2.1 The participants ......................................................................................................... 622.2 The corpus ................................................................................................................. 632.3 Recording procedure .................................................................................................. 702.4 Data pre-processing and statistical analysis .............................................................. 71

    3. Chapter The influence of adjacent tones in connected speech ......................................... 73

    3.1 L raising ..................................................................................................................... 733.2 H raising .................................................................................................................... 81

    4. Chapter Downtrends ......................................................................................................... 92

    4.1 Types of downstep ..................................................................................................... 934.2 Downstep in initial position ..................................................................................... 1004.3 Declination and downstep ....................................................................................... 107

    4.3.1 Declination ....................................................................................................... 1074.3.2 The implementation of declination .......