Lets Talk Trash Abigail Dahlberg info@ @thegreenerword

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Lets Talk Trash Abigail Dahlberg info@printtranslations.com @thegreenerword Slide 2 The waste industry is a growth industry. Three main drivers: Environmental concerns High (primary) commodity prices Increased regulation Slide 3 Lets talk words Waste Trash Garbage Rubbish Refuse Junk Litter Slide 4 Lets talk words Secondary raw materials Recycled raw materials Recycled resources Recyclables Alternative resources Recycled commodities Slide 5 Lets talk concepts What is waste? Basel Convention: Wastes are materials () for which the initial user has no further use and of which he/she wants to dispose. Wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. Slide 6 When does a product become waste? European Union: The EU Waste Framework Directive defines waste as an object the holder discards, intends to discard or is required to discard. Slide 7 When does a waste become a product? Moving from a linear to a circular economy Linear economy: Take, make and dump Circular economy: Slide 8 End-of-waste criteria (Abfallendeverfahren) End-of-waste criteria specify when certain waste ceases to be waste and obtains a status of a product (or a secondary raw material). EoW criteria already in place for iron, steel and aluminium scrap. In the pipeline: copper scrap metal, recovered paper, glass cullet, plastics and biodegradable waste / compost, aggregates and RDF. http://eippcb.jrc.es/reference/ Slide 9 One example: Aluminium scrap Scrap shall be graded according to a customer specification, a standard or an industry standard The aluminium scrap shall have been segregated at the source or while collecting and shall have been kept separate; or the input wastes shall have been treated to separate the aluminium scrap from the non-metal and undesired metal components All mechanical treatment (like cutting, shearing, shredding or granulating; sorting, separation, cleaning, de-polluting, emptying) needed to prepare the material for direct input into final use shall have been completed. Slide 10 One example: EoW criteria for aluminium scrap A limit on metal yield, metal content or the content of foreign materials (e.g. metals other than aluminium and aluminium alloys or non-metallic materials such as earth, dust, insulation and glass) Scrap must be free of visible oil, oily emulsion, grease or lubricants Scrap must have been checked for radioactivity Slide 11 Disposal vs. recovery... Waste management activities are classed as recovery or disposal, as defined in the 2008 Waste Framework Directive. Disposal (Beseitigung) is defined as any waste management operation serving or carrying out the final treatment and disposal of waste. It covers the following main operations: Incineration without energy recovery (on land; at sea) Landfill Slide 12 Recovery (Verwertung) is any operation in which waste serves a useful purpose by replacing materials which would otherwise have been used to fulfil a particular function. Recovery mainly refers to the following operations: - material recovery, i.e. recycling; - energy recovery, i.e. re-use as a fuel; - biological recovery, e.g. composting; - re-use. Slide 13 When to sort: at the source or at a plant? Separating materials at the source (e.g. Germany) results in less contamination of recyclables than mixed or commingled systems (US: single stream, single sort or single throw) Commingled - materials are mixed together in a lorry which compacts the materials. Recyclables are separated later, usually at a materials recycling or recovery facility (MRF) Slide 14 When to sort: at the source or at a plant? Advantages of commingled: Less sorting may mean more recyclables are placed at the kerb and more residents may participate in recycling; Reduced collection costs because single-compartment trucks are cheaper to buy and operate, collection routes can be serviced more efficiently; Drawbacks: High initial costs, high processing costs, possible lower quality due to contamination Slide 15 The waste hierarchy Slide 16 Lets talk technologies Slide 17 Paper recycling 1.Paper arrives at paper mill (after sorting). 2.Paper enters a pulper, which contains water and chemicals. The pulper chops paper into small pieces. The mixture is then heated, breaking it down into fibres and ultimately pulp. 3.Pulp is screened to remove small contaminants, e.g. plastic and glue, then cleaned, de-inked, bleached and mixed with water. This pulp can then be used to make new paper. 4.The same fibres can be recycled about seven times, but they become shorter each time and are eventually strained out by the screen. Slide 18 Paper recycling Each ton (2,000 pounds) of recycled paper can save 17 trees, 380 gallons of oil, three cubic yards of landfill space, 4,000 kilowatts of energy, and 7,000 gallons of water. Terminology note: Industry does not like the term waste paper. The preferred term is recovered paper, even if the material in question is post- consumer paper. Slide 19 Scrap metal recycling (aluminium and steel) 1.Metal recycling plant performs quality inspections for sorting purity and sometimes radiation. 2.Smelter heats scrap metal in furnace until it melts. Different metals go to different smelters because each metal has a different melting point (e.g. aluminium melts at 1,200 degrees F, steel at 2,800 degrees F). 3.Extremely hot liquid metal is poured into moulds and turns into ingots when cooled. 4.Ingots sold to producers and remelted to make into different products 5.Popular uses for recycled metals: aluminium cans, filing cabinets, storage racks, canned foods, even cars. Slide 20 Glass bottle recycling 1.Glass is taken to glass recycling plant. 2.Glass is sorted by colour and washed to remove any impurities (e.g. corks, labels). 3.Modern sorting technology use three sensors: Infrared to sort ceramics, minerals, porcelain and metals Line scan camera to separate mixed glass into different colours X-ray fluorescence to separate heat resistant and leaded glass 4.Glass is crushed and melted then moulded into new products. Slide 21 Glass bottle recycling Glass bottles and jars are almost infinitely recyclable without any loss in purity or quality. Recycling just one glass bottle saves enough energy to light a 100-watt light bulb for four hours, power a computer for 30 minutes. Popular uses for recycled glass: bottles, jars, insulation products, aggregate in construction products. Glass NEVER breaks down in a landfill. Making glass from recycled material cuts related water pollution by 50%. Slide 22 Composting 1.Feedstock arrives at composting plant where large impurities are removed by hand and then shredders reduce its size. Drum screens then classify material before magnets and air-classifiers remove metals and plastics. 2.Compost is placed in drums, tunnels or boxes, or placed in windrows for intensive decomposition phase. Most decomposition by mass typically takes place during the first two to three weeks at temperatures of up to 70 degrees Celsius. This phase must be enclosed to reduce emissions. 3.The resulting product (fresh compost) can then undergo maturation to produce mature compost. Slide 23 Waste-to-energy systems Physical: RDF (waste is compressed into pellets) Biological: Anaerobic digestion (from combustion of biogas generated from digestion of biodegradable waste) Landfill (from combustion of landfill gas produced as biowaste decomposes) Thermal: Combustion Pyrolysis and gasification Plasma arc gasification Slide 24 Combustion Waste-to-energy, energy-from- waste, resource recovery facility (US) Toxic smokestacks, trash burners Slide 25 Cleaning up their act All new WtE plants in industrialised countries must meet strict emission standards, including those on nitrogen oxides (NO), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), heavy metals and dioxins. Modern incineration plants are vastly different from the old types, some of which neither recovered energy nor materials. Slide 26 Slide 27 Pyrolysis Waste is heated in an oxygen-free or low-oxygen environment to produce a gas, oils and ash. Gas is scrubbed to remove particulates, hydrocarbons and soluble matter Scrubbed gas is used to generate electricity and sometimes heat using a steam turbine or gas engine Gasification Ash, tar and volatile gas from pyrolysis are converted into a combustible gas (syngas) by a reaction with steam. Slide 28 MBT: The way forward? Mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) facilities combine sorting techniques with composting or anaerobic digestion. MBT plants can process mixed household waste, commercial waste and industrial waste, and help to divert residual waste away from landfills Slide 29 Landfill Waste is unloaded at tipping face, compacted by bulldozers then covered by layers of soil daily. Modern landfills typically must contain a liner to prevent release of leachate and protect groundwater. Slide 30 Country comparison Cte d'Ivoire USA Germany Slide 31 Cte d'Ivoire Slide 32 No national statistics available Agence National de Salubrit Urbain estimates that Abidjan generated 893,330 tonnes of waste in 2009. IMF estimates current waste collection rate at 46.1%. Rapid urbanisation, lack of access for waste collection vehicles. Waste is dumped openly or taken to a landfill 6 miles outside the capital. Reported water, soil and air pollution in the surroundings. Informal waste pickers extract recyclables from the landfill at a huge risk to their own health. Slide 33 Trafigura scandal In 2006, Probo Koala ship allegedly offloaded 500 tonnes of hazardous waste in Abidjan. A local contractor then dumped this waste at 12 locations in and around the city. Trafigura claimed that this waste came from washing out Probo Koalas tanks. A Dutch inquiry found that it was over 500 tonnes of fuel, caustic soda and hydrogen sulphide. Trafigura had allegedly chosen not