Let's All Go to the Movies

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Hugo Munsterberg

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Let's Al Go to te Moves: Two Thubs Up for Hugo Misterberg's Te Photoplay (1916) ... is it merely the law of psychcal contrast which maes me tn that there is one Wng not less important than the center of our in. erests, namely, the center of ou negiect?" . -Hugo Minsterberg, "The Problem of Beaut" (1908 Presidental Address to the APA) Intoduction In the ff editon of Film Teo and Criticism: Introductor Readings, published in.1999, there is a brief selecton fom Hugo Minsterberg's Te Film: A PJcholgical Study, a work frst published in 19161 and reissued in 1970. We thi fnd. te colleague ofWllam Jaes, Josiah Royce, and George Santayana2 in te copny. pfsuch -fm :trst as Sergei Eisenstein, Ade Bazin, Christian Metz,$iegfed.Iacauer, Rhd Bahes, Staney Cavell, and quite a few oters. The focus of the selecton in. Film Teor and Crticism is the contast between theatre and cinema; in fact it opens the part of tis anthology devoted to "Film -Naratve and the OtherAt.''3 Minsterberg's purose in developing ts contast is clearly identfed: by te editors of these Intoductor Readings: the Harvard psychologist and philosopher ''atempted in 1916 to delineate the features of the slnt 'hotoply' by contrastng it wth the theater" (1999, 395; emphasis aded).- Cinematc presentaton5 is, at least potentally, not the mechanical reprqducton ofa_ theate performance: it is truy the creatve presentation (rather than simply the reresentaton) of a sequence of actons and events in an artstc medium not reducible to any one of the more established ar (or to any combinaton of tese ari: s). It is a mode of narraton unlike any other, one ideally suited to exhibitng various asp_ects of lived temporalit and also the consciousness of living through a sequence of scenes whose meaning is, for the most pa, "e,er not yet" (to use James' expression).6 The more cinema becomes a puely visa mode of narraton, the more this ar will (in Miinsterberg's judgment, at least) realize ii:unique character. Apart fom ths contention; it seems evdent that movng pictures are ideally Tranractions of the Charles S. Peirce Societ Fall. 2000. Vol. XXVI. No. 4 adaptable to an artstc presentaton of what has a just claim to be considered the most crcial feature of our lived experience? If it is te, as Minsterberg's more famous colleague8 famously asserted, that "life is in te tansitons as much as in the terms connected"-perhaps more emphatcaly there than anywhere elsehow better to convey a sense of these transitons than wth the daatc play of cinematic images? (James 1912 [1971), 46).9 If we are interested in trritons, can we overlook flm? The alleged inadequacies of language10 in ts and oter respects are perhaps better compensated by tlls unique medium than by any other (James; Gavin 1992, 69; 81-82; 171-72; see, however, Clapieto 1995)_11 A another of hs colleagues at Harard, Josiah Royce, 12 would insist in other contexts, contrast is the mother of clearness (1901, 262)_13 Misterberg was ting to become clea about the art of flm14 by contrasting it wit other ar, including of course the one to which it seems so closely akin (theatre). To conceive cinema standing to theatre the way te gramophone stands to te concert was, for him, to misconceive the distnctive features of this narratve art (1916, 38). Hence, the selecton in Film Teory and Criticism concludes with Munsterberg stressing that: "The photoplay shows us a signifcant confict of human actions in movng pictes which, feed fom the physical forms of space;, me, and causality, are adjusted to the fee play of our menta experiences ad which reach complete isolation fom the practical world tough the perfect unity of plot and pictorial appearance" (1916, 190; italics omitted). Wereas teatre is largely bound to the forms of time, space, and causality, cinema in its feedom fom these forms can become an objectifcaton of subjectivit, a sequence of vsual images bodying forth the strea of human consciousness. The techniques of. ts medium can, perhaps must, be correlated with the functons of the percepton of depth and movement, attenton, memor, imagination, suggestion, and emotion;15 in turn, these fnctions are in cinema put into the serice of a narraton of events as consciously experienced. To tae two obvious examples, the dose-up embodies the dramatic heightening of attenton so characteristic of our conscious experience, whereas te fash-back (or what Minsterbcrg himself calls te "cutback") embodies the jagged image of an unbeckoned recollecton, te disqueting usuraton of present consciousness by involuntar memor. The complex ways in whichdistinguishable psychological fnctions are woven together-to form the subtle textures of our everday experience can also, in principle, be;.boded forth by tis unique artistc medium. Also two of te most salient 'eatres of lived time, the varing rhythms of temporal succession and the damatc jUtapoc sition of simultaneous occurences, lend themselves especially well to presentation in this medium.16 Such arc some of the conclusions for which Minsterberg argued in his very early contribution to flm theory. It is truly astonshing, on te basis of a short but intense immersion in the world of film (Margaret Munsterberg 1922, 281-282), how keenly alive Minstcrberg is to these possibilites inc herem in the newly emerging art of photoplay or moving pictures. In a sense, what Minsterberg argues in Te Photoplay is secondar to the fact that he focused O(. the phenomenon of flm at all. One might contend that he was prescient, excpt that ths contenton would ordnariy imply that what he saw witout te aid of any-intellectual tadton others eventually cae to see. Today tere i, wtout queson, an etablished interdsciplinar feld of flm sts Daughter, the silent flm Wt nncttc bccfm80 th8topened Mtnsterberg's "eyes to the dstinctve char8cter 8nOQCDIc CUcphCtCp8y" (M8rg8ret MtnsterDerg 1922, 281 . hCcnnyV8m8I8tc tBVctIyAndrsOJ; Douglas .1993 "Aerca .Lss in Cvell's Emerson." Ts,tnr of the Charles S. Peirce Sciet, VOmcX, number 1: 69-89. Adrw, J. Dudey . 1976 Te Major Film Teories: An Intoduction. London: Oxford Universit rc. Acrdt;Hana 1968[1954] Anheim, Rudolph BetJeen Par and Future: Eiht Eercises in Political Tought. N: Ving. . . 1957 Film as Ar. Berkeley, CA: Universit of Californa Press. Bazin, Ade 1967 Berga, Ronald 1999 Bloom, Alan 1987 Bourdicu, Pierre Wat Is Cinemal Selected and taslated by Hugh Gry fom te frst two volumes of Q'esce que l cinema. Berkeley, C Unversit 'of Calornia Press. Sergei Eiensein: A Lf in Cnfict. Woodtoc, N: Oeriook Press. Te Clsing of the American Mind. N: Simon & Schuster. 1999 O Teleision, tslated by Prscila Parkhust Fergson. New Press. Braudy, Leo and Mashall Cohen 1999 Film Theor and Criticim: Introductory Readings. N: Oxord. Urversit Press. Cavina, ltao 1993 Cavell, Staley 1980 1984 1996 "A Cinema-Gor's Autobiogrphy" i The Road to San GioBnni, tanslated by Tim Paks. N: Pateon Books. The Worl Vieed: Refctions o the Otolg of Film (Enlarged Edi-ton). Cambrdge: Harard University Press. Puruits of Happines T Holywood Cmedy of Remmage. Cbridge: Harad University Pres. Contesting Tears: Te Holywood Meldrama of the Unknown Woman. Chicago: Universit of Chicago Press. Cohen, Monis Rphael 1919 "Basebal as a Natona Rligon." Te Dial, volue 67 (JUy 26, 1919): 57. Reprnted in The Faith of a Liberal: Selcted Esays (N: Henr Holt & Co., 194): 334-336. Al references in ts paper are to te reprint of this essay in Te Faith of a Liberl. Colapieto, Vincent 1995 "The Vinue of Vageness ad the Vagaries of Precsion: .ReInterpretng James and Re-Orentng Phosophy/' Metaphilsoph, volue 26, nuber 3 (Juy): 300-312. Cook, David A. 1981 A Hisor ofNBrative Film. N: W. W. Norton & Co. de Lurets, Teresa 1984 Alice Doesn't: Feminism, Semiotic, Cinem. Bloomngton, IN: Indiaa Unversity Press. Dewey, John 1917 1931 1934 "The Need for a Recovery of Phlosophy." Creative Intelience:psays in the Pragmatic Attitude (N: Hen Holt): 3-69. Rprted i Rchard ]. Bernstein (ed.), On Eerience, Nature, and Feedom (Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrl, 1960): 19-69; aso in Te Midl Work of fohn Dewe (Cabondae & Edwadsile, IL SIU Press), volume 10: 448. "Context ad Thought." lter Work of John Dlve, volliiie 6: 321. Cited as LW 6. Ar as Eperience. Al references in this paper ae to voilic lO,ofTe Lter Work of John Dewey (Cabondae and 'Edwadl e, IL: SIU :Pres, 1987). Cited as LW iO. 1935 "Liberaliim and Scial Acion. Al references ae to the critcally edited verion of tis text fund in Te lte Wrtngs of Joh Dewe, volume ll (Carbndae & Edwadsle, IL: SIU Press, 1987). Cited a LW 11. 1942 "Wila, Jae as Empiricist" in In CommemotRtiun of Wiliam James, 184-194 (N: Columbia Unversity Press, 1942): 48-57. All refer,ence are to the reprnt of this paper i T lter Work of John Deey, volume 15 (Cabondale and Edwadsville, IL: SIU Press, 1989): 9-17 Emrsor, Rph Waldo ' 1841" "A" in Esays: Firrt Series. i84 "The Pot" !n Esays: Second Sres. Feyrabend, Paw ' 1975 GaVin, Wilam .1992 Graham, Gordon . 199i Graam, Jore "lt's Make More Moves. " Te Ol of Minera: Philsophers on Philsoph; edted by Charle J. Bontempo ad S. Jack Odell (N: McGrw-Hll): 20i-210 Rprinted in Knorrldge, Science, and Rel tivim: Philrphical Paper, volume 3 (Cabridge, U Ca,bridge Universit Press, 1999): 192-199. Wiliam ]1me and the Reinratement of the Vague. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Philsoph of the Arts: An Intoduction to Aehetcs. N: Roudcdge. 197 Interew oh "Ail Thigs Considered" (Natonal Public Rdio) conducted by Jack Lyden. Transcript provded by NPR 35. Harard Alumni Bultin 1950 "Minsterberg Was Panted Out." Harard Alumni Bulltin (Febra 18, 1950): 384-385. !eaney, Seam!S . 1995 James Wil am . 1890 1899 1908 l9li Jatesin,' Frederic :1971 CreditngPoet: Te NobelLectur. N: Fara Stauss Giroux. 1e Prncils of Pscholg. N:. Henr Holt & Co. Al references are to te ctc ed'on of The Principls of Pscholg (Cambridge, M, &Lndon; Engad: Haad Unversit Press, 1981). "On a Ciin Blindess in Hua Beings. " Tal to Teachers on Pscholg; and to Students on &nne of Lif's Ideal. N: Henr Holt. Reprinted in On Some of Life's Ideal (N: Henr Holt, 1912) "The Socal Value of te College Bred. " McClure1I Magazine, 30: 419-422. Addess at.Rdctife College (November 7, 1907) to the Asociaton of Amercan Alumae. Reprinted in Memories and Studies (N & London: Longmas, Green & Co.). Reprnted in The Moral quivalnt of War and Other Essays, edited by Joh K. Roth (N: Harer&Row, 1971): 17-24. Esrays i11 Radical Empiricim. N: Longmans, Green. Marxism and For: Twentieth-Cntury Dialectcal Teories of Litera. ture. Prnce tor( NJ: Prnceton University Press. Kuic, Brce 1977 Te Rise of American Philsoph: Cambridge, Masac/et, 1860-1930. New Have and Lndon: Yae Univerit Press. Lger, Susanne K 1953 Feeling and Fonn: A Teory of Ar. N: Charles Scrbner's Sons. 1967-82 Mind: An Esay on Htman Feelng, volue 1 (1967), 2 (1912), k3 (1982). Batmore, M: Johns Hopkins Universit Press. Lindsay, Vachel 1916 1917 Met, Chrstia 1971 1974 1977 Te Ar of the Moing Pictre. N: Liveright. "Photoplay Progres" (Review of Hugo Misterberg's Te Photoply: A Prcholgical Study). Te Ne Republic (Febrar 17): 76-77. -. . Essais sur I sinifcation au cinima. Editons Kckiec. A references in this paper ae to Film Lnguage: A Smiotic of the Cnema (N: Oxford Unversit Press, 1974), te taslaton of Esais into English by Michael Taylor. Lnguage and Cinema, translated by Donna Jea Umiker-Sebcok. The Hague: Mouton. L Signicant imaginaire. Unon Genere D':ditons. A references in this paper arc to Te Imaginar Sinier: Prchoanalyis and the Cin-ema (Bloomington, IN: Indiaa Unversit Pre5, 1982), the tnslaton of L Sinifcant imaginaire into Engsh by Celia Britton, .An wl WLla, Ben Brewster, and Afed Guzzct. ' ' . Miller. John Willam 1981 Te Philsoph of Histor. N: W. W. Norton & Co. Milsterberg, Hugo 1898 "Psychology and A" in Atlantic Monthly (November): 22-32. 1904 Te Prncipls of Art: A Philsophcal, Aesthtical and Priotgical Dis1909 cusion of Ar Education. N: The Prag Eductional C. "The Problem of Beauty" in Philsophical Rwiew (March), XII: 121-146. 1915 "Wy We Go to the Movies" in Cosmopolitan (December 15): 22-32. 1916 The Photoply: A Prcholgical Study. N: D. Apleton. Te Film: A Prcholgical Study is a unatered and unabrdged republicaton of the 1916 work. Misterberg, Magaret 1922 Hugo Munserberg,: His Lie and Work. N: D. Apleton .. Peirce, C. S. 1982 Writings of Charles S. Peirce: A Chonolgical Edition, edted by a H. Fisch, eta. Bloomington, IN: Indiana Universit Pres. Cited a WI. Perr, Rph Baton 1935 The Thought and Charactr of Wiliam Jamer, to volues. Boton: Litde, Brown, & Compay. Pea, Jr., EdwardS. 1992 "The Origin ad Development of Peirce's Concept of Self-Contol." Transactions of the Charls S. Peirce Sciet, volume XI, number 4 (Fal): 667-690. Ryce, Josiah ' 1901 . i9r3 Said, Edward 1991 Te Worl tmd the IndiJidua Second Seres. N: The Macmillan Compay . Te Problm of Chrianit, to volwe. N: Macmilla. "The Politic. ofKnowledge." !rtn.n 11:1 (Swer). Reprited in Faling into Teory: Conficting Views o Reading Literature, edited by Davd H.Rcher (Boston: Bedford Books, 1994): 193-203. Al references ae to ts reprnted version. Schler, Fredch .1795 [1965] O the Aeshetic Education of Man in a Seres of Ltters, taslated by,Regnald Snell. N: Frederc Ungar Publishig Co. Silvehn;, Kja . 1983 Updike,John 1996 Wollen, Peter 1972 NOT The Subject of Semiotic. N: Oxord University Press. In the Beaut of the Lilies. N: Fawcet Colwbine. Sins and Meaning in the Cinema. Bloomington, IN: Indiana Universit Press. l. Thoug Braudy ad Cohen, the editors of Film Teor and Criticim, cite Misterberg'swork a Te Fim: APscholgicl Study, the ttle of the 1916 edition wa 'e Phttply: A Pscholgical Study. In Te Rise of American Philsoph, Bruce Kulick ote in 1977 th.at Misterberg's book had a shorter lifespa tha most of his other works bt tete'wa, "happily, a new editon which I have used: Te Film: A Pscholgical Study (Ne Dover Publctons; 1970)" (213). Shory afer Te Photply ws reissued under ts ti:e, Oonad Fredencson was awaded a Ph.D. fom the Universit oflowa for his dssertaton on "The Aesthetc of Isolation in Film Theory: Hugo Minsterberg" (1973). The brefselecton included by Brudy ad Cohen in their Introductor Readingr c be found on pp. 401-407; it is chapter 9 of Te Photoply. The tii:le ( . The 'Means of te Photoplay") used by these edtors is, in fact, the ttle used by the autor hmself. It is remarkable jut how suggestve, intelgble, and in may respects contempora is ts selecton fom Tt Photoly. 2. See the photographs of Santayana, Minsterberg, Royce, ad James placed on te se page to intoduce Part 3 of Brce Kuc's The Rise of American Philsoph, "Te Golden Age at Haard (II)" (1977, 231). However odd it mgt soud to us today, what this collage of photographs indicates is that, in prevous decades, it was not unusua to speak of tese four fgres in the sae breath. 3. This certnly beft Minsterberg's orientton. A ]. Dudey Andew notes', aer hsIntoducton" to Photoplay, "Minsterberg never agan mentons ay kind of cinema excep.t naratve cinema: For hm, cinema is indeed mere gadget without naratvt. Ony when te gadgeo worked on the naratve capacity of the mnd did the photoplay come into being and, through it, the atstic wonders of flm we all recog-nz" '(1976;16). . 4. "At frst, stage plays and musica routnes were flmed as if trough the eyes of a rigd font-row theatre-goer, but fom yea to yea the cera had gw in cuning and fexibiit, fnding its vocabular of cut, dissolve, dose up tacking ad dolly shot. Eyes had never before seen in this maner; imposibite of conecton ad dsjuncton formed a magc, glitterng sequence that lef real tme and it thee rgd dmensions behind" (Updike 1996, 106). 5. Given Mlnsterberg's own crtque of mimesis, found i Chapter VII ("The Purpose of A") of T Photoply as wl as in his other wtngs on aethetcs, it seems more appropriate to refer to artstc presenttion tha reresentaton. , 6. This is one of the aspect of Misterberg's book that Vachel Lndsay highlights in his revew of that work. The poet-ctc suggets here that Minsterbcrg in efect wote (posthumously!) "the gde-book to the newest photoplay experment" -Grifth's "Intolerance." "People have spoken of Grfth's 'sheer sensatonalism' in his plot in which he shows four perods of rme conversig wt one aother. But juping back ad forth over barers of tme is the most accepted ting i te photoplay. hudlerace" (1917, 76). 7. The connecton bereen Minsterberg aud.]affes, on the one hand, and Royce, on the other, is not in the lease forced, for he (lie hs to more fmous colleagues) insisted that philosophical refecton is rooted in immediate experence and, moreover, such refecton must contnualy return to the discloses of suc experience. He afrmed that phosophy "sts ... not fom ay scientc resuts, as one of its fnctons is to fnd out what rght and value belong to science. It star fom te immediate experience of life, ad fom here it must sttle, or at least understnd, the meaning ad value of ever possible functon of life" (1904, 5). . 8. Though a shon paper written specifcally for the 2000 annual meetng of SM, I want to embed my dscussion of Misterberg's vews on creta in a. densely scdirented histor (at once, persona, textua, and instttona, though the emphais wlfl on the textual and to a slighty less extent the personal). A a way of accomplishg ts goal, I will annotate my dscussion with extensive and, in some isccs, lengthy footnotes. In the labyrintne network of (a it were) sbterea an otton, it' is impossible for me to resist citng in a footote a footnote on footnotng! Thus, see Frederc Jameson's 1971,9, n. 2; cf. 52. Wle such a citaton might seem to exceed te point of diminishing returns (returns of information and insight on the investment of time and energ), my hope is that te tc hstor in which I embedmy recover mission wl deepen the reader's appreciaton and undertanding of Hugo MisterbCrg's groudbreking work in fm teor; Also, since his wrtngs arc both largely uriknown and ofen dfcut to obtan, I have quoted extensively in the footnotes to substtate ad il ustte r interretations and critques. For insights into ad detls of Minsterberg's relatonship to James, see Perr 1935, II, chapter L ("James and Minsterberg") ad :aso Margaret. Mlnsterberg 1922. James brougt Minsterberg to Haad to tech psychlog, to relieve hmself of this responsibilit! Despite James's misgivigs (upon leang ofMisterberg's intenton, James wote that if te book to b dedicated to him is in lne WtlMisterberg's other work in psychology, ten he woud b at odds with may of it key claims: "Ad how will that comport wth the dedcaton1 Can I then critcize it openy, if the devi tempts me to do so? Ad if I do, won't you feel as if you had thrown a good dedcaton away1" [Perry 1935, II, 148])-despite James's msgivings ad qute strenuous protetMiinsterberg did in fact dedicate Grndzuge der Prchlgie (1900) to Wila James. 9. In his discussion of the technques of cinema (e.g., te close-up, te cut-back in the setice ofmemor, ad the cut-ofin the setice of suggeston), Munsterberg ofers inigt into not only experenta tasitons but as the Jaesia noton of tose e:erentaly-layered mment wherein much at once is going on. So-too does fm itdofer-a telng exaple of the Jaesia noton of pue experence, wherein experenta dat; in teir Preenttonal imeacy, ae neither subjectve nor objectve but acquire thei srrs a eiter or both depending on how they are taken up in the subsequent stea of imedate experence. 10, These aleged inadequacies can however ony be identifed if a ines-capable ambigit is noted ad tereby neutalized. For ts purose, one canot do better tan mae explicit te dstctons ipled in Dewey's obseratons in "Context and Thought" (1931), ones made in reference to "the contovers about te relaton of thought-to language": "lf langage is idented wit speec [i.e., with lngstc sigs, i.e., verbally aiculated symbols ad. their graphc repreematonsJ, there is undoubtedly thought .wtout speech. But if 'lagage' is used to sigif all knds of sigs ad symbols, ten asuedy tere is no thougt witout langage; whe sigs and smbols depend for teir meang upon the contexta situaton in which they appear and ae used" (LW 6: 4; cf. Lnger;Colapietro). . . 11. The menton of ]ames in conecton wt a cuta phenomenon such as popta fi lm invites recolecton ofan anecdote told by Mors Rphael Cohen. Cohen opens "Baebal a a Natonal Rligon" by notng that: "In the world's histor baseball is a new game: hence new to song ad stor ad ucelebrted in the fne ar of paintng, scuptre, ad muic" (1946 [1919]; 334). He goes on to note that: "When my revered fena ad teacher Willia James wtcte a.essayon ''A Mora Equvlent for Wa," I suggested to hm tat baseball aeady;embodied al te mora vaue of wa, so f as wa had ay ioral. value. He listened Smpathetcaly, ad was amused, but he did not te me serously enoug. Algreat men have their limitatons [ad indeed blindnesses] and WLliam Jaes's were dueto the fact that he lived in Cbrdge, a cit which, in spite of the fct tat it has a popuaton c100,000 souls (includng te professors), is not represented in ay baseball legue that ca be detected without a microsope" (335-6)! Sec James's own "On a Cenn Blindess in Hwa Beings." Ae not te blindnesses of paents most visible to teir chldren, thos of teachers most visible to their stdent, especially ones who in tme have themselves become faous?! In a diferent connecton, Dewey does not appea to be at al blnd to te releince of basbal or atleat athletcs. "In order to undertnd the estetic in its ultmate .and approved forms, one must beg with it in the raw; in the events and scenes that ho! te atentve eyeand ea of ma; aousing his interet and afording him enjoymentas he looks and listens: te sigti that hold te crowd -the fre-engine rshing by; the rachine excavatng enoriousJoles in the ear; the huma-fy cmbig the steepleside; ti: mer. perched high in air on girders, throwng ad ctching red-hot bolt. Te souries of ar in hman tpe'ienae ''ilbe lared by him who sees how the tense grace of the bat-'lyer infect the 'onloking cod; wh notes-the deliht of th housewi in tending her plants, etc.'' (LW 10: 10-11; emphasis added). .12. Minsterberg appeas to have been personally and (of couse) philoso phcallydoser to Royce than to James. See Margaret Misterberg 1922. Like Royce, he ws President of bot te American Psychologica Asociaton and the Aerca Phlosophcal Asociaton; :lso like hm, he was an indeftgable defender of the idealist perspectve.: 13. Minsterbetg's teatment of cinema vis-a-vis teatre is an exemplifca-ton of what Royce exhibits i Te Problm of Chisanit a the logc of compariso1 (II, 169f.; 194f.; 264f. Another compelling exhibiton of this logc is foud hi Misterberg's caefl y delineatng contst between the scholarly ad the artstc attde (1916, 1461.). 14. I take it to be signfcant that, in the lat sentence of the frt capter of Te Photoply ("The Outer Development of the Moving Pctures"), Minsterberg stesses that ths outer development, "ts technical proges and this temendous incease of the mechanica devices for producton [of ciematc imager], have their te meanig in te iner growth which led fom nfe episodes to the height of temendous acton, fom tvial routine to a new ad most promsing ar (1916, 20; emphais added). In chapter two, he discsses this iner development. This chapter itself concludes by posing the psychologcal and aestetc questons (respectvely, "What are the psychologq factors ipvolved when we watch the happening on the screen?" and "What charcteriz the independence of an at, what consttte the conditons uder which the ,works f a sda a stnd[?]" [1916, 39]) to whch te book is principally devoted. , 15. Part I of Te Photoply ("The Psychology of te Photoplay") is made up of fou chapters, coverng just these topic: Chapter 3, "Dept and Movement"; Chapter 4, "Attenton"; Chapter 5, "Memory ad Imagnaton"; and Chapter 6, "Emotons." 16. Photography is, accordng to Andre Bazin, "a feeble techique in the sense that its instantneit compels it to capture tme only piecemal. The cnema [i contast] makes a molding of the object a it exist in tme and, fherore, makes a im-print of the duraton of the object" (1967, 96). . 17 Of course Staey Cavell is a notble excepton in this regd. At te 1997 annual meeting of SA he in fact presented a paper dealing with (among other topics) cinematc representaton ("Has-Beens and Comebacks: Quetons of Prase in Shakespeare and Astaire"; Albuquerque, NM; Mach 7, 1997). Bt. t may inSA:consider him an "outsider" because of training in the analyc tdton . of contemporar Aglo-Aerican philosophy. He is, in their judgent, a Emersonia come lately! This is, in my judgment, lagely unfair. An infored, balanced, and appropriate te on Cavell's relatonshp to Aerica philosophy can be foud in Douglas R Aderson 1993. Anderson is at once appreciatve of Cavell's concern to recover Emerson a1 a phiw1ophe and critcal of Cavell's tendency to t t w respectbility for Emerson by exclusively highlghtng the afnites between ths Amercan tscendentst ad such contempora European phosophers as Wittgenstein ad Hidegger. A importnt a these afrites are, the ones between Emerson on the one side and Jame and Dewey on te other are, at least, equally imporant. But even countng Cavell as someone who in some measure and maner truly represents Americ phosophy makes my point: he is te excepton who proves the rule. He is a American phlosopher (it would b uair,, not simply ungracious, to deny him ts status) who is concered with the philosophy of fm; hs eforts in tis regad make hm somewhat exceptonal. 18. Ths judgment does not imply te inapplcabity of hs theor of a. to these ty contempora ar forms. In fact, the inherent dve of Deweyan aesthetc would appear to be inclusive of these "popular" or "low" ar. This neglect trs out to be al the more remakable since Dewey met Sergei Eisenstein when the latter was on a sojour, frst, to Europe and then t'tc United States ad Mexco (Bergan 1999). Aso, by the tme of Dewey's death i 1952, cinema of couse had evolved far beyond what Mtnsterberg witneSes at te tme of hi death in 1916, 19. Given her ow atempt to connect cnema and deas, it is ironic that Lger; who w in so may respect such a caefl scholar, mised a saent feare of fm theor .In its inaugural phase: "Inumerble esys of ths period ( 1912-25) loudly dferentate cinema fom teate. Most suggest that because cnema in it inc w economcaly oblged to record theatca perormace, it had never looked beyond the theate fnr it ow essence. The avt-gde of the tentes stssed to qualites of music, pot, ad abve al deam inherent in the fm experence. Delluc ted to sum up his concepton of the new at i one mystc word, photogenie, that special quality avalable to cinema alone whc ca tfor the world ad ma in a singe gesture. Cinema is photograp,y,. to be slire, but photogphy which ha. been rased to a rhythmic unity and which>in tn,haHhe'power torais.e_and uplif ou. dreas" (Ahdew, 12). 20.-- That Andrew incudes Miinstcrberg is of course itself signifcat, even if whRt hc says is les tan accuae (e.g., his cla. that Minsterbrg fils to appreciate that fm is a colabortve a), :21. Tis remak cre theauthort of one who devoted two volumes to te ver topics to which Mlstcrberg devoted the to main pats of The Photoply (Par I being concerned with "Te Psychology of the Photoplay" ad Pat II wth "The Aestetics of the Photoplay"); for Jea Mtt is the author of Ethetique et pscholgic du cinema (Pas: Editons Unversitaes, 1963 & 1965) as well as Dictionnaire du cinem (Paris: Louse, 1963), Hitoire du cinima (Pars: Editons Universitaires) in three volue ( 1967; 19.69, & 1971 }, ad other importnt works in ths feld. 22. An atcle in the Harard Alumni Bulltin ( "Misterberg Wa Pated Out") -quotes at lengt fom a letter by Ms, Ir B. J oral em on, the daughter the artst. !The tesis of this ade.is that-Minsterbcrg coud not have been painted out of ts porat pecause .be was never paited in! 3, Of course .this is, in a diferent conecton, te queston to which this paper is devoted .. 24. There is obviously a abiguit in te obsolete ter photoply, for it mght .be :te-play or dama prented cnematcal y or it might mea te play of moving images: Of course, it might be used inclusively, thus comprehendng both of these senses. tis incusive sense seeis closest to Misterberg's chacterstic usage; also te noton of the play of images nicely suggest the play ofsignifers, a associaton wory of explorng ad exloitng at aoter tme. 25. My hope is to Wte a monogaph on the theories of fm ariculated by, at least, Misterbetg ad Lindsay, wit special atenton paid to how their views square or conflict wth the genera positons of Dewey ad Lger. 26. Mtnsterberg died in the same yea as his book on cinema wa pub-lished, so he had litte or no opportUnit to take into account the paralel refectons by this Aercan poet. But his poet dd te note of the philosopher and psychologst who also took Wth the utost serousness the newly emergng a of sient flms. Lidsay's Photoplay Progres" was a revew of Mlsterberg's book publshed Te New Republic (Februar.l7, 1917}, pp. 76-77 27. The 'hotoply i:k dvided into three: ut. Ater a Introducton made up of two. chapters ("The Outer Development of te Moving Pkrres" ad "The Iner Development of the Movng Picres"), Misterberg deotes Part I to "The Psychology of te Photoplay" and Pa II .to "The Aestetc of the Photoplay." Hs theor of aestetc is deeply indebted to Kt's positon. 28. I do not mea to imply too shar a contast beteen Lindsay and Minsterbcrg. For Undsay te gret pans to exhibit te dstncve fearre of fm, just as Minsterberg makes an explicit efor to accord fm te status of ar. The tte page of the 1992 edton of Linday's book beas ths annoucement. imedatly under te te: "Intended, first of all, for the new a musus springng up alover te cout. But te book is for ou universites and insttutons of lernng. It conts a appeal to ou whole critcal and literary world, ad to our creators of sculpre, archtectue, paintng,. and the Aercan cites they ae buidng. Being te 1922 reissue of the book first issued i 1915, and begnning wt an aple dscouse on the great new prospect of i92i." B1t Mtsterberg's book is a less embattled one: he is not -a Lindsay mafestly is-so much fghting against the rther deep prejudces of a cult elite whch tends to be dismissive of fm, as he is tryig to get at what is unque about this for of a. 29. Miisterberg cae to cinema quite late in his life. In fact, hs book on Te Photply w published in the yea of hs death, while hs acle {"Wy We Go to te Movies") was published in Csopolittn one yea ad one day before hs death. His immersion in te pleaures of this medum can, apparently, be dated fom hs encounter wt a mermaid (Magaet MUsterberg 1922, 281)! He "had not been a 'movie' paton; indeed, he had looked upon moton pictures, wt the exceptqn -of tavel pictres like Ramy's Hunt, as rather in a cass wt vaudeville, whc he never approache. Or a )ourncy, however, he saw Annette Kelleran's mermad pranksin 'Neptune's Daughter/ .ad dls not only