Lessons & Perspectives Dr. George Norton Agricultural and Applied Economics Virginia Tech Copyright 2006

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  • Lessons & PerspectivesDr. George NortonAgricultural and Applied EconomicsVirginia TechCopyright 2006

  • Objectives Today:Finish discussion of food aidSummarize how components in course are linked Consider prospects and challenges for the future

  • The hunger problem and the solution process.Poor healthPoor nutritionLow literacyEnvironmentaldegradationHungerLow- and mal-distributed incomeRapid population growthShort term food crisesPolitical upheavalNatural disastersNeed for long-term developmentLow productivity traditional agricultureFood aid and other development assistanceLand reformCreditMarketingprices infrastructurecommunicationsResearch, extension educationNew technologies availableAdoption of new technologiesMore productive agriculture generating food, capital, and laborIncome and employment up; hunger, population growth, and environmental degradation downTradeDevelopment of nonagricultural sectorTrade policyIndustrial and macroeconomic policy

  • Seven Pro-poor Action AreasInvesting in human resources Education, health careImproving access to productive resources and remunerative employmentImproving markets, infrastructure, and institutionsExpanding appropriate research, knowledge, and technology

  • Pro-poor actions continuedImproving natural resource management- including secure water and land rightsGood governancePro-poor national and international trade and macroeconomic policies

  • Prospects for the futureDepend on region, stage of development, past investments in research, infrastructure, education, debt situationDepend on restructuring of international institutions such as IMF, trade agreements

  • Global Food Security Challenges Declining investments in research and infrastructureWater scarcityClimate changeMalaria and HIV/AIDSNeed to transition to new energy sourcesContinued conflicts especially in Africa

  • There are no panaceas. Agricultural development requires a series of technical and institutional changes, with international linkages, facilitated by improved information flows.

  • ConclusionWomen and their children in GhanaBangladesh familyMan with granddaughter in Ecuador